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Search Results: 1 - 7 of 7 matches for " Yemataw Wondie "
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Immune restoration disease and changes in CD4+ T-cell count in HIV- infected patients during highly active antiretroviral therapy at Zewditu memorial hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Kahsay Huruy, Afework Kassu, Andargachew Mulu, Yemataw Wondie
AIDS Research and Therapy , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1742-6405-7-46
Abstract: A retrospective study of all HIV- infected patients starting HAART between September 1, 2005 and August 31, 2006 at Zewditu memorial hospital HIV clinic, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was conducted. All laboratory and clinical data were extracted from computerized clinic records and patient charts.A total of 1166 HIV- infected patients with mean ± SD age of 36 ± 9.3 years were on HAART. IRD was identified in 170 (14.6%) patients. OIs diagnosed in the IRD patients were tuberculosis (66.5%, 113/170), toxoplasmosis (12.9%, 22/170), herpes zoster rash (12.9%, 22/170), Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (4.1%, 7/170), and cryptococcosis (3.5%, 6/170). Of the 170 patients with IRD, 124 (72.9%) patients developed IRD within the first 3 months of HAART initiation. Low baseline CD4+ T-cell count (odds ratio [OR], 3.16, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.19-4.58) and baseline extra pulmonary tuberculosis (OR, 7.7, 95% CI, 3.36-17.65) were associated with development of IRD. Twenty nine (17.1%) of the IRD patients needed to use systemic anti-inflammatory treatment where as 19(11.2%) patients required hospitalization associated to the IRD occurrence. There was a total of 8 (4.7%) deaths attributable to IRD.The proportion and risk factors of IRD and the pattern of OIs mirrored reports from other countries. Close monitoring of patients during the first three months of HAART initiation is important to minimize clinical deterioration related to IRD.Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) improves the immune function and decreases morbidity, mortality and opportunistic infections (OIs) in HIV-infected patients [1,2]. However, the introduction of HAART presents new clinical problems, including adverse drug effects, and the event of diseases that are as the result of the restoration of the immune response. When clinical deterioration occurs during immune recovery and is associated with the host inflammatory response to pathogens, the clinical presentation has been described as immune restorat
Intestinal parasitosis and shigellosis among diarrheal patients in Gondar teaching hospital, northwest Ethiopia
Kahsay Huruy, Afework Kassu, Andargachew Mulu, Netsanet Worku, Teshome Fetene, Simon Gebretsadik, Fantahun Biadglegne, Yeshambel Belyhun, Abebe Muche, Aschalew Gelaw, Belay Anagaw, Sisay Yifru, Yemataw Wondie, Assegedech Bekele, Moges Tiruneh, Dieter Reissig, Feleke Moges
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-472
Abstract: A cross-sectional study involving 384 consecutive diarrheal patients who visited Gondar teaching hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia from October 2006 to March 2007 was conducted. Stool specimens were collected and examined for intestinal parasites and enteropathogenic bacteria following standard parasitological and microbiological procedures.Intestinal parasites were diagnosed in 36.5% of the patients. The most frequently encountered protozoan parasite was Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (7.3%) followed by Giardia lamblia (5.0%), Cryptosporidium parvum (1.8%) and Isospora belli (1.3%). The dominant helminthic parasite identified was Ascaris lumbricoides (5.5%) followed by Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma mansoni (3.1% each), hookworm infection (1.8%), and Hymenolepis species (1.3%). Multiple infections of intestinal parasites were also observed in 6.3% of the patients. Among the enteropathogenic bacteria Shigella and Salmonella species were isolated from 15.6% and 1.6%, respectively, of the patients. Escherichia coli O57:H7 was not found in any of the stool samples tested. Eighty eight percent and 83.3% of the Shigella and Salmonella isolates were resistant to one or more commonly used antibiotics, respectively.Intestinal parasitosis was higher in patients who live in rural area, in patients who were washing their hands after visiting toilet either irregularly with soap and without soap or not at all, in patients who used well and spring water for household consumption, and in patients who had nausea (P < 0.05). Statistically significant associations were also observed between Shigella infections and patients who were using well and spring water for household consumption, and patients who had dysentery and mucoid stool (P < 0.05).The high prevalence of intestinal parasites and Shigella species in diarrheic patients calls for institution of appropriate public health intervention measures to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases. The rational use
Community Mobilization and Awareness Creation for the Management of Enset Xanthomonas Wilt (EXW): The Case of Gerino Enset Tekil Kebele Administration, Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia  [PDF]
Zerihun Yemataw, Awole Zeberga, Sadik Muzemil, Fikre Handoro, Mikias Yeshitla
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.713165
Abstract: Enset bacterial wilt (EXW) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum is the major constraint in enset-based farming system. The opportunity to provide integrated EXW management options has opened a new vista and is enhanced by well-informed communities who are aware of the management approach available to them. We hypothesized that differential success in EXW control is mainly due to approach used in the EXW control. It is the responsibility of the research institute to adequately inform these communities via a combination of community mobilization and awareness creation. This paper therefore assessed the importance of stake holders’ mobilization and awareness creation for the promotion of technologies for EXW control in Ethiopia among 2010-2012. Individual interviews and direct on-farm participatory monitoring and observation with 60 farm households, key informant interviews, relevant secondary data, literature and inter-personal data were collected from unpublished progress report from National Enset Research Project, elderly people and senior experts. Results showed that about 25.6% of farmers’ field was infected by the disease in 2007 and the level reached 54.5% in 2010. End line assessment has shown that the disease prevalence declined to 10 percent in 2013. Disease incidence has shown that the intensity was highest in 2010; that is on average more than 17 enset were infected by the disease and shown significant decline in 2013 to about 1 infected enset on the infected fields. The intervention brought about promising step-ups in controlling the devastation by EXW. This intervention demonstrated that the disease impact can be minimized to a significant level if community mobilization and awareness creation with other local formal and informal institutions go hand in hand to out scale the experience to a wider range of enset farming communities.
Seasonality in Abundance, Biomass and Production of the Phytoplankton of Welala and Shesher Wetlands, Lake Tana Sub-Basin (Ethiopia)  [PDF]
Tarekgne Wondmagegne, Ayalew Wondie, Minwyelet Mingist, Jacobus V ijverberg
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.410103
Abstract: The species composition and production of the phytoplankton community of the Shesher and Welala floodplain Wetlands, on the eastern side of Lake Tana, were studied during four seasons from July 2009 to May 2010. We investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of phytoplankton, densities, biomass, in relation to physico-chemical conditions. Gross and net primary production was studied at one site in each Wetland. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, Secchi-disc depth, nitrate, phosphate and silicate concentrations showed significant temporal variation (p < 0.05), whereas none of these parameters showed significant spatial variation (p > 0.05). Thirty six phytoplankton genera/species, belonging to 7 higher taxa were identified. The Chlorophyta dominated the phytoplankton community and contributed 42% - 53 % of the total observed phytoplankton numbers. Average phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a content) over four seasons ranged from 9 - 121 μg.l-1 in Shesher and from 27 - 206 μg.l-1 in Welala, whereas the average gross primary production over three seasons was 10.5 in Shesher and 7.7 mg.O2l-1d-1 in Welala. The peak concentration of chlorophyll a was observed in the pre-rainy season, which coincided with a bloom of Microcystis spp. Both Shesher and Welala Wetlands are very productive and have a good water quality but they are threatened by low water inputs since in the summer of 2009 the construction of a dam by local people and facilitated by local officials prevented overflow from Ribb River into the Wetlands. We conclude that the good water quality, the relative high water temperature and high primary productivity make the two Wetlands suitable for culture based fisheries and/or aquaculture, but a wise water resource management is crucially important.
Spatial and Temporal Land Cover Changes in the Simen Mountains National Park, a World Heritage Site in Northwestern Ethiopia
Menale Wondie,Werner Schneider,Assefa M. Melesse,Demel Teketay
Remote Sensing , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/rs3040752
Abstract: The trend of land cover (LC) and land cover change (LCC), both in time and space, was investigated at the Simen Mountains National Park (SMNP), a World Heritage Site located in northern Ethiopia, between 1984 and 2003 using Geographical Information System (GIS) and remote sensing (RS). The objective of the study was to generate spatially and temporally quantified information on land cover dynamics, providing the basis for policy/decision makers and resource managers to facilitate biodiversity conservation, including wild animals. Two satellite images (Landsat TM of 1984 and Landsat ETM+ of 2003) were acquired and supervised classification was used to categorize LC types. Ground Control Points were obtained in field condition for georeferencing and accuracy assessment. The results showed an increase in the areas of pure forest (Erica species dominated) and shrubland but a decrease in the area of agricultural land over the 20 years. The overall accuracy and the Kappa value of classification results were 88 and 85%, respectively. The spatial setting of the LC classes was heterogeneous and resulted from the biophysical nature of SMNP and anthropogenic activities. Further studies are suggested to evaluate the existing LC and LCC in connection with wildlife habitat, conservation and management of SMNP.
Trachoma and Relative Poverty: A Case-Control Study
Esmael Habtamu?,Tariku Wondie,Sintayehu Aweke?,Zerihun Tadesse?,Mulat Zerihun?,Zebideru Zewdie?,Kelly Callahan?,Paul M. Emerson?,Hannah Kuper?,Robin L. Bailey
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004228
Abstract: Background Trachoma is widely considered a disease of poverty. Although there are many epidemiological studies linking trachoma to factors normally associated with poverty, formal quantitative data linking trachoma to household economic poverty within endemic communities is very limited. Methodology/Principal Findings Two hundred people with trachomatous trichiasis were recruited through community-based screening in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. These were individually matched by age and gender to 200 controls without trichiasis, selected randomly from the same sub-village as the case. Household economic poverty was measured through (a) A broad set of asset-based wealth indicators and relative household economic poverty determined by principal component analysis (PCA, (b) Self-rated wealth, and (c) Peer-rated wealth. Activity participation data were collected using a modified ‘Stylised Activity List’ developed for the World Bank’s Living Standards Measurement Survey. Trichiasis cases were more likely to belong to poorer households by all measures: asset-based analysis (OR = 2.79; 95%CI: 2.06–3.78; p<0.0001), self-rated wealth (OR, 4.41, 95%CI, 2.75–7.07; p<0.0001) and peer-rated wealth (OR, 8.22, 95% CI, 4.59–14.72; p<0.0001). Cases had less access to latrines (57% v 76.5%, p = <0.0001) and higher person-to-room density (4.0 v 3.31; P = 0.0204) than the controls. Compared to controls, cases were significantly less likely to participate in economically productive activities regardless of visual impairment and other health problems, more likely to report difficulty in performing activities and more likely to receive assistance in performing productive activities. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrated a strong association between trachomatous trichiasis and relative poverty, suggesting a bidirectional causative relationship possibly may exist between poverty and trachoma. Implementation of the full SAFE strategy in the context of general improvements might lead to a virtuous cycle of improving health and wealth. Trachoma is a good proxy of inequality within communities and it could be used to target and evaluate interventions for health and poverty alleviation.
The Impact of Trachomatous Trichiasis on Quality of Life: A Case Control Study
Esmael Habtamu?,Tariku Wondie,Sintayehu Aweke?,Zerihun Tadesse?,Mulat Zerihun?,Zebideru Zewudie?,Wondimu Gebeyehu?,Kelly Callahan?,Paul M. Emerson?,Hannah Kuper
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004254
Abstract: Background Trachomatous trichiasis is thought to have a profound effect on quality of life (QoL), however, there is little research in this area. We measured vision and health-related QoL in a case-control study in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 1000 adult trichiasis cases and 200 trichiasis-free controls, matched to every fifth trichiasis case on age (+/- two years), sex and location. Vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were measured using the WHO/PBD-VF20 and WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Comparisons were made using linear regression adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic status. Trichiasis cases had substantially lower VRQoL than controls on all subscales (overall eyesight, visual symptom, general functioning and psychosocial, p<0.0001), even in the sub-group with normal vision (p<0.0001). Lower VRQoL scores in cases were associated with longer trichiasis duration, central corneal opacity, visual impairment and poor contrast sensitivity. Trichiasis cases had lower HRQoL in all domains (Physical-health, Psychological, Social, Environment, p<0.0001), lower overall QoL (mean, 34.5 v 64.6; p<0.0001) and overall health satisfaction (mean, 38.2 v 71.7; p<0.0001). This association persisted in a sub-group analysis of cases and controls with normal vision. Not having a marriage partner (p<0.0001), visual impairment (p = 0.0068), daily labouring (p<0.0001), presence of other health problems (p = 0.0018) and low self-rated wealth (p<0.0001) were independently associated with lower overall QoL scores in cases. Among cases, trichiasis caused 596 (59%) to feel embarrassed, 913 (91.3%) to worry they may lose their remaining eyesight and 681 (68.1%) to have sleep disturbance. Conclusions/Significance Trachomatous trichiasis substantially reduces vision and health related QoL and is disabling, even without visual impairment. Prompt trichiasis intervention is needed both to prevent vision loss and to alleviate physical and psychological suffering, social exclusion and improve overall well-being. Implementation of the full SAFE strategy is needed to prevent the development of trachomatous trichiasis.
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