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Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria from Treated and Untreated Hospital Wastewater at Ayder Referral Hospital, Mekelle, North Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tsegahun Asfaw, Letemichael Negash, Amlsha Kahsay, Yemane Weldu
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2017.712067
Abstract: The widespread emergence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens has become one of the most serious challenges in Ethiopia. This study determined the prevalence and drug resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens isolated from treated and untreated wastewater released from Ayder Referral Hospital in Northern Ethiopia. A cross sectional study design was conducted from September-December, 2015 in wastewater released from Ayder referral hospital. A total of 40 composite samples were aseptically collected, transported and processed for enumeration of indicator organisms, bacteriological identification and susceptibility testing following standard procedure. Data obtained were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Mean heterotrophic plate count, total coliform count, fecal coliform count and E. coli count were found to be 1.6 × 106 CFU/mL, 2.2 × 106 CFU/100 mL, 2.0 × 105 CFU/100 mL and 1.1 × 104 CFU/100 mL from treated wastewater respectively. Among the total samples 134 bacterial isolates were detected and [84 (62.7%)] were from untreated wastewater and [50 (37.3%)] were from treated wastewater. The most frequently isolated bacteria from untreated wastewater samples was Klebsiella spp [14 (16.7%)] followed by S. aureus [13 (15.5%)] and P. aeruginosa [12 (14.3%)], similarly in treated wastewater samples Klebsiella spp [10 (20%)], P. aeruginosa [8 (16%)] and S. aureus [8 (16%)] were frequently detected. The overall multi-drug resistance (MDR) in this study was [79/134 (79.1%)]. MDR from untreated wastewater sample was [64/84 (76.2%)] while from treated wastewater sample was [42/50 (84%)] and shows significant difference with (COR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.15 - 3.29, P: 0.001). It is concluded that treated hospital wastewater contains large numbers of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Therefore, there should be continuous monitoring and evaluation of the effluent quality of the ponds and chlorination of the final effluent should be developed.
Peer Pressure Is the Prime Driver of Risky Sexual Behaviors among School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Amsale Cherie, Yemane Berhane
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.23021
Abstract: Background: Understanding ecological factors that influence risky sexual behavior of adolescents is vital in designing and implementing sexual risk reduction interventions in specific contexts. Interventions undertaken without understanding the critical factors may not produce the desired results. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with adolescent risky sexual behavior among school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done among randomly selected school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data were collected by an anonymous self administered questionnaire. Risky sexual behavior was assessed by asking question about sexual activity, consistent condom use and faithfulness to a single partner. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors related to sexual behavior using the ecological framework. Result: Overall 377(10.6%) of the 723 sexually active students were involved in risky sexual practices. Risky sexual behavior was significantly and very strongly associated with perception of peers' involvement in sexual intercourse [AOR = 11.68 (95% CI: 8.76 - 15.58)]. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that peer pressure is the most important factor associated with risky sexual behavior among school adolescents in Addis Ababa. Interventions aimed at reducing sexual behavior among school adolescents should target adolescents as a group rather than individually.
Oral Health of Young Adolescents in Addis Ababa—A Community-Based Study  [PDF]
Hanna Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.48073

Introduction: Deteriorating oral health is an emerging public health concern in developing countries, yet little attention has been given to oral health in most sub-Saharan countries. The extents of caries, periodontal diseases and the associated risk factors have not been widely studied at the community level. Purpose: To assess the type and magnitude of oral health diseases as well as associated risk factors among young adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 658 children aged 10 - 14 years in Addis Ababa. Households for the study were selected through a multistage cluster sampling procedure. Data collection was carried out in December 2011 through interview and oral examination which was carried out by dental health professionals. Prevalence and 95% confidence interval was calculated. Factors associated with oral health conditions were identified using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 47.4% (95% CI: 43.6% - 51.2%). Age, sweets intake, tooth cleaning, poor oral hygiene and being from a poor household were significantly associated with having dental caries. The prevalence of periodontal disease was 35.4% (95% CI: 31.7% - 39.0%) and it was associated with: having a mother with low education level, and poor oral hygiene. The prevalence of bad mouth odor was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.8% - 5.9%), and oral trauma 2.1% (95% CI: 1% - 3.2%). Conclusion: The prevalence of both periodontal disease and dental caries is alarmingly high. The findings indicate the need for large scale public education program to motivate regular dental check up, and proper oral hygiene practices. The study also indicates the need to strengthen oral health services using affordable and accessible outlets.

Development Projects to Improve Maternal and Child Health: Assessing the Impact
Yemane Berhane
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030192
Editorial: Ending Domestic Violence against Women in Ethiopia
Yemane Berhane
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2004,
Farmers' Evaluation of Upland Rice Varieties in Fogera District, South Gondar, Ethiopia
Yemane Asmelash
Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development , 2012,
Abstract: The study was conducted in Fogera district, South Gondar zone, Amhar National Regional State. Three Kebeles among the 15 Kebeles of upland rice growers of the district were selected purposively and a total of 60 selected households were interviewed to generate primary data. Preference ranking technique was employed to identify farmers’ improved upland rice varieties evaluation criteria. The result of the preference ranking shows that market demand, grain yield, taste, drought resistance, and early maturity are the five most important traits required to adopt improved upland rice variety in the study area. Therefore, attempts to promote transformation in agriculture through improved upland rice variety could be successful if these evaluation criteria are taken in consideration.
Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns of Urine and Biofilms in Patients with Indwelling Urinary Catheter in Denden Hospital, Asmara, Eritrea  [PDF]
Lia Alem, Salih Mohammed, Mohammed Elfatih Humida, Berzelin Adugna, Feven G. Medhin, Temesgen Weldu
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2019.92010
Abstract: The intricate infections leading to long-term morbidity of catheterized patients are due to the presence of a covering and blocking the lumen of urinary catheters by biofilms which have increased ability of resistance to host immune system and antibiotic treatment. The biofilm mode of growth is a basic survival strategy implemented by bacteria in a wide range of settings such as environmental, industrial and clinical aquatic settings. Bacterial growth on the inner surface of the catheter with biofilm formation is frequent and may occur within days of catheter placement. This study investigated the formation of biofilm inside catheter lumen of patients from Denden hospital, Asmara, Eritrea. And also, it assessed the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of biofilm isolates and compared it with urine isolates. Resistance to antibiotics was observed in biofilm isolates more than urine isolates. E. coli was the most frequently isolated organism in both biofilm and urine samples.
Prevalence of diarrhea and associated risk factors among children under-five years of age in Eastern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study  [PDF]
Bezatu Mengistie, Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.37060
Abstract: Diarrhea remains a major cause of mortality in children under 5 years of age in Sub-Saharan countries in Africa. Risk factors for diarrhea vary by context and have important implications for developing appropriate strategies to reduce the burden of the disease. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of diarrhea and associated risk factors among children un-der 5 years of age in Kersa district, located in Eastern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 1456 randomly selected households with at least one child under 5 years of age. A questionnaire and an observational check list were used for col-lecting information on socio-economic charac-teristics, environmental hygiene and behavioral practices, and occurrence of diarrhea among children under 5 years of age. Logistic regres-sion was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio of 95% confidence interval. The two-week prevalence of diarrhea among children under 5 years of age was 22.5% (95% CI: 20.3-24.6). Improper refuse disposal practices (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.20-4.03), lack of hand washing facilities (OR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.29-2.86), living in rural area (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.12-3.31), the presence of two or more siblings in a household (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.33-2.28), and age of the child (OR= 2.25, 95% CI; 1.5-3.36) were the major risk factors for diarrhea. This study demonstrated that diarrhea morbidity was relatively high among children under 5 years of age residing in Eastern Ethiopia. Efforts to reduce childhood diarrhea should focus on improving household sanitation, personal hygiene, and child birth spacing.
The Level of Academic and Environmental Stress among College Students: A Case in the College of Education  [PDF]
Dawit Yikealo, Bereket Yemane, Ikali Karvinen
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.611004
Abstract: Stress that can arise from various academic and environmental aspects is very common among college students. Uncontrollable stress lowers academic, social, environmental, psychological and physical adjustment. In this research, the level of academic and environmental stress among College of Education (CoE) in EIT was intensively discovered. It was explored in relation to the students’ cumulative GPA and gender. The major academic and environmental factors that contribute to more stress among the college students was of a great interest in the study. Moreover, investigating the stress management strategies practiced by the college students was among the main concerns. To obtain a reliable data, a total of 107 students of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th year of the College of Education were randomly and conveniently selected to fill the self-developed questionnaire and in the focus group discussion. The data were analysed with the help of descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The data computation process was assisted by a Software Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study findings reveal that majority of the College of Education students experience a moderate level of academic and environmental stress. Gender and Cumulative GPA of the students were also found not to have statistically significant difference. However, CGPA was merely found to have a slight statistically significant relationship with the level of environmental stress. Majority of the students expressed as they practice various positive stress management strategies. The study is expected to contribute a lot in assessing the level of stress and identifying the most stressful academic and environmental factors.
Children who were vaccinated, breast fed and from low parity mothers live longer: A community based case-control study in Jimma, Ethiopia
Belaineh Girma, Yemane Berhane
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-197
Abstract: The study was conducted in the town of Jimma, Ethiopia, using a case control study design. Cases were identified through enumeration of all children and deaths prior to interview of the study subjects. Controls were under five children of the same age (+/-2 months) residing in the nearest household. Data was entered into EPI -info 6.4 software and analyzed using SPSS.Seventy four cases and 222 controls were included in the study. The study found that children who never breast fed [OR = 13.74, 95%CI (3.34, 56.42]] and children with mothers having more than five children [OR = 3.34, 95%CI (1.27, 8.76)] were more likely to die than their counterparts. Vaccination reduced the risk of death [OR=.26, 95%CI (0.10, 0.67) significantly. Pneumonia was the most common immediate cause of death [29.7% (95% CI (19.66, 41.48)] followed by acute diarrhea and malaria each contributing for 23% [95%CI (13.99, 34.21)] of deaths.Immunization, breastfeeding and low parity mothers were independently found to be protective from childhood death. Strengthening the child survival initiatives, namely universal child immunization, family planning and breast feeding -- is strongly recommended.The estimate for global child deaths in 2000 was 10·8 million. About 41% of child deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa Worldwide, half deaths in children younger than five years occur in only six countries and 90% in 42 [1].Substantial reductions in child mortality occurred in low-income and middle-income countries in the late 20th century [1]. Rates of decline in global child mortality peaked in about 1980. In 1990-2001, the number of child deaths fell by 1·1% every year compared with 2·5% per year during 1960-90. Decrease in rate of decline has occurred in high-rate regions [1].The conceptual framework for study of determinants of child survival includes proximate and distal (socioeconomic) determinants. This approach to the study of child survival is based on several premises [2]. Many studies have shown t
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