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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 67 matches for " Yemane Ashebir "
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Children Who Received PCV-10 Vaccine from a Two-Dose Vial without Preservative Are Not More Likely to Develop Injection Site Abscess Compared with Those Who Received Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib) Vaccine: A Longitudinal Multi-Site Study
Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku, Meaza Demissie, Neghist Tesfaye, Nega Asefa, Worku Aniemaw, Berhe Weldearegawi, Yigzaw Kebede, Tigist Shiferaw, Amare Worku, Lemessa Olijira, Behailu Merdekios, Yemane Ashebir, Takele Tadesse, Yadeta Dessie, Solomon Meseret, Gestane Ayele
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097376
Abstract: Background The single dose pneumonia ten-valent vaccine has been widely used and is highly efficacious against selected strains Streptococcus pneumonia. A two-dose vial without preservative is being introduced in developing countries to reduce the cost of the vaccine. In routine settings improper immunization practice could result in microbial contamination leading to adverse events following immunization. Objective To monitor adverse events following immunization recommended for routine administration during infancy by comparing the rate of injection-site abscess between children who received PCV-10 vaccine and children who received the Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib) vaccine. Methods A longitudinal population-based multi-site observational study was conducted between September 2011 and October 2012. The study was conducted in four existing Health and Demographic Surveillance sites run by public universities of Abraminch, Haramaya, Gondar and Mekelle. Adverse events following Immunization were monitored by trained data collectors. Children were identified at the time of vaccination and followed at home at 48 hour and 7 day following immunization. Incidence of abscess and relative risk with the corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated to examine the risk difference in the comparison groups. Results A total of 55, 268 PCV and 37, 480 Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib) vaccinations were observed. A total of 19 adverse events following immunization, 10 abscesses and 9 deaths, were observed during the one year study period. The risk of developing abscess was not statistically different between children who received PCV-10 vaccine and those received Pentavalent (RR = 2.7, 95% CI 0.576–12.770), and between children who received the first aliquot of PCV and those received the second aliquot of PCV (RR = 1.72, 95% CI 0.485–6.091). Conclusion No significant increase in the risk of injection site abscess was observed between the injection sites of PCV-10 vaccine from a two-dose vial without preservative and pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib) vaccine in the first 7 days following vaccination.
Peer Pressure Is the Prime Driver of Risky Sexual Behaviors among School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Amsale Cherie, Yemane Berhane
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.23021
Abstract: Background: Understanding ecological factors that influence risky sexual behavior of adolescents is vital in designing and implementing sexual risk reduction interventions in specific contexts. Interventions undertaken without understanding the critical factors may not produce the desired results. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with adolescent risky sexual behavior among school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done among randomly selected school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data were collected by an anonymous self administered questionnaire. Risky sexual behavior was assessed by asking question about sexual activity, consistent condom use and faithfulness to a single partner. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors related to sexual behavior using the ecological framework. Result: Overall 377(10.6%) of the 723 sexually active students were involved in risky sexual practices. Risky sexual behavior was significantly and very strongly associated with perception of peers' involvement in sexual intercourse [AOR = 11.68 (95% CI: 8.76 - 15.58)]. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that peer pressure is the most important factor associated with risky sexual behavior among school adolescents in Addis Ababa. Interventions aimed at reducing sexual behavior among school adolescents should target adolescents as a group rather than individually.
Oral Health of Young Adolescents in Addis Ababa—A Community-Based Study  [PDF]
Hanna Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.48073
Abstract:

Introduction: Deteriorating oral health is an emerging public health concern in developing countries, yet little attention has been given to oral health in most sub-Saharan countries. The extents of caries, periodontal diseases and the associated risk factors have not been widely studied at the community level. Purpose: To assess the type and magnitude of oral health diseases as well as associated risk factors among young adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 658 children aged 10 - 14 years in Addis Ababa. Households for the study were selected through a multistage cluster sampling procedure. Data collection was carried out in December 2011 through interview and oral examination which was carried out by dental health professionals. Prevalence and 95% confidence interval was calculated. Factors associated with oral health conditions were identified using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 47.4% (95% CI: 43.6% - 51.2%). Age, sweets intake, tooth cleaning, poor oral hygiene and being from a poor household were significantly associated with having dental caries. The prevalence of periodontal disease was 35.4% (95% CI: 31.7% - 39.0%) and it was associated with: having a mother with low education level, and poor oral hygiene. The prevalence of bad mouth odor was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.8% - 5.9%), and oral trauma 2.1% (95% CI: 1% - 3.2%). Conclusion: The prevalence of both periodontal disease and dental caries is alarmingly high. The findings indicate the need for large scale public education program to motivate regular dental check up, and proper oral hygiene practices. The study also indicates the need to strengthen oral health services using affordable and accessible outlets.

Development Projects to Improve Maternal and Child Health: Assessing the Impact
Yemane Berhane
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030192
Abstract:
Editorial: Ending Domestic Violence against Women in Ethiopia
Yemane Berhane
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2004,
Abstract:
Farmers' Evaluation of Upland Rice Varieties in Fogera District, South Gondar, Ethiopia
Yemane Asmelash
Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development , 2012,
Abstract: The study was conducted in Fogera district, South Gondar zone, Amhar National Regional State. Three Kebeles among the 15 Kebeles of upland rice growers of the district were selected purposively and a total of 60 selected households were interviewed to generate primary data. Preference ranking technique was employed to identify farmers’ improved upland rice varieties evaluation criteria. The result of the preference ranking shows that market demand, grain yield, taste, drought resistance, and early maturity are the five most important traits required to adopt improved upland rice variety in the study area. Therefore, attempts to promote transformation in agriculture through improved upland rice variety could be successful if these evaluation criteria are taken in consideration.
Prevalence of diarrhea and associated risk factors among children under-five years of age in Eastern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study  [PDF]
Bezatu Mengistie, Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.37060
Abstract: Diarrhea remains a major cause of mortality in children under 5 years of age in Sub-Saharan countries in Africa. Risk factors for diarrhea vary by context and have important implications for developing appropriate strategies to reduce the burden of the disease. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of diarrhea and associated risk factors among children un-der 5 years of age in Kersa district, located in Eastern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 1456 randomly selected households with at least one child under 5 years of age. A questionnaire and an observational check list were used for col-lecting information on socio-economic charac-teristics, environmental hygiene and behavioral practices, and occurrence of diarrhea among children under 5 years of age. Logistic regres-sion was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio of 95% confidence interval. The two-week prevalence of diarrhea among children under 5 years of age was 22.5% (95% CI: 20.3-24.6). Improper refuse disposal practices (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.20-4.03), lack of hand washing facilities (OR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.29-2.86), living in rural area (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.12-3.31), the presence of two or more siblings in a household (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.33-2.28), and age of the child (OR= 2.25, 95% CI; 1.5-3.36) were the major risk factors for diarrhea. This study demonstrated that diarrhea morbidity was relatively high among children under 5 years of age residing in Eastern Ethiopia. Efforts to reduce childhood diarrhea should focus on improving household sanitation, personal hygiene, and child birth spacing.
The Level of Academic and Environmental Stress among College Students: A Case in the College of Education  [PDF]
Dawit Yikealo, Bereket Yemane, Ikali Karvinen
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.611004
Abstract: Stress that can arise from various academic and environmental aspects is very common among college students. Uncontrollable stress lowers academic, social, environmental, psychological and physical adjustment. In this research, the level of academic and environmental stress among College of Education (CoE) in EIT was intensively discovered. It was explored in relation to the students’ cumulative GPA and gender. The major academic and environmental factors that contribute to more stress among the college students was of a great interest in the study. Moreover, investigating the stress management strategies practiced by the college students was among the main concerns. To obtain a reliable data, a total of 107 students of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th year of the College of Education were randomly and conveniently selected to fill the self-developed questionnaire and in the focus group discussion. The data were analysed with the help of descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The data computation process was assisted by a Software Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study findings reveal that majority of the College of Education students experience a moderate level of academic and environmental stress. Gender and Cumulative GPA of the students were also found not to have statistically significant difference. However, CGPA was merely found to have a slight statistically significant relationship with the level of environmental stress. Majority of the students expressed as they practice various positive stress management strategies. The study is expected to contribute a lot in assessing the level of stress and identifying the most stressful academic and environmental factors.
Children who were vaccinated, breast fed and from low parity mothers live longer: A community based case-control study in Jimma, Ethiopia
Belaineh Girma, Yemane Berhane
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-197
Abstract: The study was conducted in the town of Jimma, Ethiopia, using a case control study design. Cases were identified through enumeration of all children and deaths prior to interview of the study subjects. Controls were under five children of the same age (+/-2 months) residing in the nearest household. Data was entered into EPI -info 6.4 software and analyzed using SPSS.Seventy four cases and 222 controls were included in the study. The study found that children who never breast fed [OR = 13.74, 95%CI (3.34, 56.42]] and children with mothers having more than five children [OR = 3.34, 95%CI (1.27, 8.76)] were more likely to die than their counterparts. Vaccination reduced the risk of death [OR=.26, 95%CI (0.10, 0.67) significantly. Pneumonia was the most common immediate cause of death [29.7% (95% CI (19.66, 41.48)] followed by acute diarrhea and malaria each contributing for 23% [95%CI (13.99, 34.21)] of deaths.Immunization, breastfeeding and low parity mothers were independently found to be protective from childhood death. Strengthening the child survival initiatives, namely universal child immunization, family planning and breast feeding -- is strongly recommended.The estimate for global child deaths in 2000 was 10·8 million. About 41% of child deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa Worldwide, half deaths in children younger than five years occur in only six countries and 90% in 42 [1].Substantial reductions in child mortality occurred in low-income and middle-income countries in the late 20th century [1]. Rates of decline in global child mortality peaked in about 1980. In 1990-2001, the number of child deaths fell by 1·1% every year compared with 2·5% per year during 1960-90. Decrease in rate of decline has occurred in high-rate regions [1].The conceptual framework for study of determinants of child survival includes proximate and distal (socioeconomic) determinants. This approach to the study of child survival is based on several premises [2]. Many studies have shown t
The goitre rate, its association with reproductive failure, and the knowledge of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) among women in Ethiopia: Cross-section community based study
Cherinet Abuye, Yemane Berhane
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-316
Abstract: A cross-section community based study was conducted during February to May 2005 in 10998 women in child bearing age of 15 to 49 years. To assess the state of iodine deficiency in Ethiopia, a multistage "Proportional to Population Size" (PPS) sampling methods was used, and WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommended method for goitre classification.Total goitre prevalence (weighted) was 35.8% (95% CI 34.5–37.1), 24.3% palpable and 11.5% visible goitre. This demonstrates that more than 6 million women were affected by goitre.Goitre prevalence in four regional states namely Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP), Oromia, Bebshandul-Gumuz and Tigray was greater than 30%, an indication of severe iodine deficiency. In the rest of the regions except Gambella, the IDD situation was mild to moderate. According to WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD this is a lucid indication that IDD is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Women with goitre experience more pregnancy failure (X2 = 16.5, p < 0.001; OR = 1.26, 1.12 < OR < 1.41) than non goitrous women. Similarly reproductive failure in high goitre endemic areas was significantly higher (X2 = 67.52; p < 0.001) than in low. More than 90% of child bearing age women didn't know the cause of iodine deficiency and the importance of iodated salt.Ethiopia is at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The findings presented in this report emphasis on a sustainable iodine intervention program targeted at population particularly reproductive age women. Nutrition education along with Universal Salt Iodization program and iodized oil capsule distribution in some peripheries where iodine deficiency is severe is urgently required.According to the WHO, Iodine Deficiency Disorders are among the major public health problems of the world, particularly of pregnant and young women in many developing countries [1]. Low level of thyroid hormones in the body due to lack of adequate iodine in foods and drinks is responsible for iodine deficiency disorders. Iodine deficien
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