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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18200 matches for " Yayin Fang "
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Investigation of Chiral Molecular Micelles by NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulation  [PDF]
Kevin F. Morris, Eugene J. Billiot, Fereshteh H. Billiot, Kenny B. Lipkowitz, William M. Southerland, Yayin Fang
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2012.24032
Abstract: NMR spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation analyses of the chiral molecular micelles poly-(Sodium Undecyl-(L,L)-Leucine-Valine) (poly-SULV) and poly-(Sodium Undecyl-(L,L)-Valine-Leucine) (poly-(SUVL)) are reported. Both molecular micelles are used as chiral selectors in electrokinetic chromatography and each consists of covalently linked surfactant chains with chiral dipeptide headgroups. To provide experimental support for the structures from MD simulations, NOESY spectra were used to identify protons in close spatial proximity. Results from the NOESY analyses were then compared to radial distribution functions from MD simulations. In addition, the hydrodynamic radii of both molecular micelles were calculated from NMR-derived diffusion coefficients. Corresponding radii from the MD simulations were found to be in agreement with these experimental results. NMR diffusion experiments were also used to measure association constants for polar and non-polar binaphthyl analytes binding to both molecular micelles. Poly (SUVL) was found to bind the non-polar analyte enantiomers more strongly, while the more polar analyte enantiomers interacted more strongly with poly(SULV). MD simulations in turn showed that poly(SULV) had a more open structure that gave greater access for water molecules to the dipeptide headgroup region.
A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of Two Dipeptide Based Molecular Micelles: Effect of Amino Acid Order  [PDF]
Kevin F. Morris, Eugene J. Billiot, Fereshteh H. Billiot, Kenny B. Lipkowitz, William M. Southerland, Yayin Fang
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2013.31004
Abstract:

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to compare the structures of the chiral molecular micelles (MM) poly-(sodium undecyl-(L,L)-leucine-valine) (poly(SULV)) and poly-(sodium undecyl-(L,L)-valine-leucine) (poly (SUVL)). Both MM contained polymerized surfactant monomers terminated by chiral dipeptide headgroups. The study was undertaken to investigate why poly(SULV) is generally a better chiral selector compared to poly(SUVL) in electrokinetic chromatography separations. When comparing poly(SULV) to poly(SUVL), poly(SULV) had the more conformational flexible dipeptide headgroup and hydrogen bond analyses revealed that the poly(SULV) headgroup conformation allowed a larger number of intramolecular hydrogen bonds to form between monomer chains. In addition, a larger number of water molecules surrounded the chiral centers of the poly(SULV) molecular micelle. Poly(SULV) was also found to have a larger solvent accessible surface area (SASA) than poly(SUVL) and fluctuations in the poly(SULV) SASA during the MD simulation allowed dynamic monomer chain motions expected to be important in chiral recognition to be identified. Finally, approximately 50% of the Na+ counterions were found in the first three solvation shells surrounding both MM, with the remainder located in the bulk. Overall the MD simulations point to both greater headgroup flexibility and solvent and analyte access to the chiral centers of the dipeptide headgroup as factors contributing to the enhanced chiral selectivity observed with poly(SULV).

A Study on the Risk of Small and Medium Enterprises Financial Outsourcing in China  [PDF]
Fang Fang
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.410001
Abstract: The domestic enterprises began to face fiercer competition, which under the rapid development in the global economy today and the market increasingly competitive. During the government work report of 2015, Prime Minister Li Keqiang first proposed that encouraging people to start their own business and to make innovations, so that can be a new engine of economic development under the China’s New Normal. The leader of the economic reform is the micro, small and medium enterprises. In addition to the support of policy from the government for SMEs in financing, the SMEs should try to reduce the cost of capital by business management. The SMEs also need to create unique core competitiveness, in order to gain a foothold in the ever-changing global market. Outsourcing as one of the important means to reduce operating costs, has been adopted by more and more enterprises. As an auxiliary function of enterprise, financial outsourcing is beneficial to reduce the management cost and improve the efficiency of management. It can also help SMEs focus on the core competitiveness of ascension. When SMEs enjoy the benefits of such financial outsourcing, they are also associated with the risk of outsourcing. If the enterprise does not have a clear understanding and effective management with the outsourcing risk, it will lead to the enterprise cannot reach the purpose of outsourcing, also called the failure of outsourcing activities. Therefore, while the SMEs choose financial outsourcing, they must have the analysis and evaluation system of outsourcing risk. In this paper, based on the above analysis of the background, we study the risk of SMEs financial outsourcing. And after introducing the content and the status quo of financial outsourcing, we discuss the financial risk when the enterprise using financial outsourcing, and classify the risk, then measure the risk response, which in order to offer the decision-making basis for the successful implementation of financial outsourcing activities.
A Study of Financial Risks of Listed Manufacturing Companies in China  [PDF]
Fang Fang
Journal of Financial Risk Management (JFRM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2016.54022
Abstract:
Financial risk is an objective phenomenon in economic activities. It has received extensive attention in theoretical and practical fields. For each company and operators in the market economy, the financial risk is an objective existence. The manufacturing industry as a pillar industry of China’s economic development, occupies a large proportion in China’s listed company. However because of the characteristics of its own manufacturing and the increasingly fierce market competition, some manufacturing listed companies went to bankruptcy because of financial risk crisis, so the research on manufacturing listed company financial risk has a very far-reaching significance. With the development of society, the financial risk is becoming more and more complex. This theory will combine research results and empirical analysis, define the concept of financial risk in manufacturing enterprises, use listed Chinese manufacturing companies as the research object, to analyze the cause of financial risk on the basis of reasoning analysis. This article aims to put forward measures to deal with financial risks, according to the Chinese manufacturing industry development situation, using both internal price control mechanism construction and financial risk management mechanism to protect the interests of stakeholders.
Application of a Dynamic Identity Authentication Model Based on an Improved Keystroke Rhythm Algorithm  [PDF]
Wenchuan YANG, Fang FANG
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2009.28082
Abstract: Keystroke rhythm identification, which extracts biometric characteristics through keyboards without addi-tional expensive devices, is a kind of biometric identification technology. The paper proposes a dynamic identity authentication model based on the improved keystroke rhythm algorithm in Rick Joyce model and implement this model in a mobile phone system. The experimental results show that comparing with the original model, the false alarm rate (FAR) of the improved model decreases a lot in the mobile phone system, and its growth of imposter pass rate (IPR) is slower than the Rick Joyce model’s. The improved model is more suitable for small memory systems, and it has better performance in security and dynamic adaptation. This improved model has good application value.
Warrant Price Range Adjustment Based on Investor Sentiment  [PDF]
Xianming Fang
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2010.34055
Abstract: The warrant price fluctuated in a range based on the arbitrage-free hypothesis. However, in the actual transaction, the warrant price will deviate the price range because of the investor sentiment, sometimes the deviation is too far that the actual price breaks the lower limit based on the arbitrage-free hypothesis, which make the market some arbitrage opportunities. The buyers’ strength and the sellers’ strength are the concentrated expression of the investor sentiment. According to the buyers’ strength and the sellers’ strength, a warrant price modification factor has been built with investor sentiment by function transformation. The new function adjusts the theoretical price range and identifies the arbitrage opportunities of the warrant market. The empirical test on Baotou Steel warrants shows that, after the adjustment, only a few the actual price deviates from the adjustment price range and the correction is better. So, when the warrant price trend is analyzed, the impact of the investor sentiment should be taken into account.
On Over-Relaxed Proximal Point Algorithms for Generalized Nonlinear Operator Equation with (A,η,m)-Monotonicity Framework  [PDF]
Fang Li
International Journal of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application (IJMNTA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijmnta.2012.13009
Abstract: In this paper, a new class of over-relaxed proximal point algorithms for solving nonlinear operator equations with (A,η,m)-monotonicity framework in Hilbert spaces is introduced and studied. Further, by using the generalized resolvent operator technique associated with the (A,η,m)-monotone operators, the approximation solvability of the operator equation problems and the convergence of iterative sequences generated by the algorithm are discussed. Our results improve and generalize the corresponding results in the literature.
Ben-Naim’s “Pitfall”: Don Quixote’s Windmill  [PDF]
Yi Fang
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2013.31002
Abstract:

Ben-Naim in three articles dismissed and answered the Levinthals paradox. He announces there are pitfalls caused by the misinterpretation of thermodynamic hypothesis. He claims no existence of Gibbs free energy formula where the variable is a protein’s conformation X . His Gibbs energy functional is G(T, P, N, P(R)), where the variable is probability distributions P (R) of the conformations. His “minimum distribution Peq is wrong. By carefully establishing thermodynamic systems, we demonstrate how to apply quantum statistics to derive Gibbs free energy formula G(X). The formula of the folding force \"\" is given.

Conceptual Metaphor and Vocabulary Teaching in the EFL Context  [PDF]
Xin Fang
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.42030
Abstract: Metaphor, as a matter of thought, a way of cognition, is pervasive in our everyday life and language. As human beings’ important cognitive way, metaphor also serves as one of the important ways for language to develop, including vocabulary. Traditionally, most students memorize vocabulary mechanically with unpleasant results. They don’t realize most words come from metaphorical way, and metaphor is an important process of word meanings expanding and evolution. This paper will give a brief discussion about conceptual metaphor theory and analyze how to apply this theory into vocabulary teaching in the EFL context, in order to help learners to learn vocabulary thoroughly, systematically, and efficiently.
Empirical Study on Overreaction and Underreaction in Chinese Stock Market Based on ANAR-TGARCH Model  [PDF]
Yong Fang
Journal of Financial Risk Management (JFRM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2013.24012
Abstract: An ANAR-TGARCH model is adopted in this paper. By using a first-order asymmetric autoregressive mean equation, we conduct a series of robust tests on overreaction and underreaction in the Chinese stock market by taking the abnormal value, run length, time scale, size, industry, style, and market cycle into account. We then comprehensively compare the intensities of the first-order autocorrelation by using Wald coefficients tests. Results could provide strong empirical support for generating stock market investment strategies.
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