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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 50521 matches for " Yasutomi Y "
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Single systemic administration of Ag85B of mycobacteria DNA inhibits allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma
Karamatsu K, Matsuo K, Inada H, Tsujimura Y, Shiogama Y, Matsubara A, Kawano M, Yasutomi Y
Journal of Asthma and Allergy , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JAA.S37667
Abstract: gle systemic administration of Ag85B of mycobacteria DNA inhibits allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma Original Research (950) Total Article Views Authors: Karamatsu K, Matsuo K, Inada H, Tsujimura Y, Shiogama Y, Matsubara A, Kawano M, Yasutomi Y Published Date December 2012 Volume 2012:5 Pages 71 - 79 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JAA.S37667 Received: 03 September 2012 Accepted: 10 October 2012 Published: 03 December 2012 Katsuo Karamatsu,1,2 Kazuhiro Matsuo,3 Hiroyasu Inada,4 Yusuke Tsujimura,1 Yumiko Shiogama,1,2 Akihiro Matsubara,1,2 Mitsuo Kawano,5 Yasuhiro Yasutomi1,2 1Laboratory of Immunoregulation and Vaccine Research, Tsukuba Primate Research Center, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Tsukuba, 2Division of Immunoregulation, Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, 3Department of Research and Development, Japan BCG Laboratory, Tokyo, 4Department of Pathology, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, 5Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Japan Abstract: The immune responses of T-helper (Th) and T-regulatory cells are thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation observed in asthma. The correction of immune response by these cells should be considered in the prevention and treatment of asthma. Native antigen 85B (Ag85B) of mycobacteria, which cross-reacts among mycobacteria species, may play an important biological role in host–pathogen interaction since it elicits various immune responses by activation of Th cells. The current study investigated the antiallergic inflammatory effects of DNA administration of Ag85B from Mycobacterium kansasii in a mouse model of asthma. Immunization of BALB/c mice with alum-adsorbed ovalbumin followed by aspiration with aerosolized ovalbumin resulted in the development of allergic airway inflammation. Administration of Ag85B DNA before the aerosolized ovalbumin challenge protected the mice from subsequent induction of allergic airway inflammation. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage immunoglobulin E levels, extent of eosinophil infiltration, and levels of Th2-type cytokines in Ag85B DNA-administered mice were significantly lower than those in control plasmid-immunized mice, and levels of Th1- and T-regulatory-type cytokines were enhanced by Ag85B administration. The results of this study provide evidence for the potential utility of Ag85B DNA inoculation as a novel approach for the treatment of asthma.
Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin as a Vaccine Vector for Global Infectious Disease Control
Kazuhiro Matsuo,Yasuhiro Yasutomi
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/574591
Abstract: Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only available vaccine for tuberculosis (TB). Although this vaccine is effective in controlling infantile TB, BCG-induced protective effects against pulmonary diseases in adults have not been clearly demonstrated. Recombinant BCG (rBCG) technology has been extensively applied to obtain more potent immunogenicity of this vaccine, and several candidate TB vaccines have currently reached human clinical trials. On the other hand, recent progress in the improvement of the BCG vector, such as the codon optimization strategy and combination with viral vector boost, allows us to utilize this bacterium in HIV vaccine development. In this paper, we review recent progress in rBCG-based vaccine studies that may have implications in the development of novel vaccines for controlling global infectious diseases in the near future. 1. Introduction Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only licensed vaccine that has substantially helped controlling tuberculosis (TB) for more than 80 years. This vaccine affords ~80% protection against TB meningitis and miliary TB in infants and young children [1]. However, the BCG-induced protective effects against pulmonary diseases over all ages are variable; the escalation of the worldwide TB epidemic is evidence that the vaccine does not work well to prevent pulmonary TB [2]. Recently, studies on the advanced molecular biology and genomics of mycobacteria have revealed that the BCG genome has various mutations and deletions compared with the original virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis [3]. Interestingly, there are substantial differences in the genomic DNA even among BCG substrains [4, 5] that can cause biological differences in the population of BCG vaccines. Since a host-vector system in mycobacteria was developed in 1987 [6], recombinant BCG (rBCG) technology has been extensively applied in the development of vaccines against a variety of infectious diseases, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections in addition to TB [7, 8]. BCG is attractive as a vaccine vector because of its extensive safety record in humans, heat stability, low production cost, induction of long-lasting type 1 helper T cell (Th1) immunity, CD8+ T-cell triggering, adjuvant activity, usability in newborns and its mucosal immune induction by oral administration. Taking the current situation of serious epidemics of emerging and reemerging diseases mainly in developing African and Asian countries into account, a new global vaccine should be affordable in
Mass Extinction in a Simple Mathematical Biological Model
Kei Tokita,Ayumu Yasutomi
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: Introducing the effect of extinction into the so-called replicator equations in mathematical biology, we construct a general model of ecosystems. The present model shows mass extinction by its own extinction dynamics when the system initially has a large number of species ( diversity). The extinction dynamics shows several significant features such as a power law in basin size distribution, induction time, etc. The present theory can be a mathematical foundation of the species-area effect in the paleontologic theory for mass extinction.
Emergence of a complex and stable network in a model ecosystem with extinction and mutation
Kei Tokita,Ayumu Yasutomi
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: We propose a minimal model of the dynamics of diversity -- replicator equations with extinction, invasion and mutation. We numerically study the behavior of this simple model and show that it displays completely different behavior from the conventional replicator equation and the generalized Lotka-Volterra equation. We reach several significant conclusions as follows: (1) a complex ecosystem can emerge when mutants with respect to species-specific interaction are introduced; (2) such an ecosystem possesses strong resistance to invasion; (3) a typical fixation process of mutants is realized through the rapid growth of a group of mutualistic mutants with higher fitness than majority species; (4) a hierarchical taxonomic structure (like family-genus-species) emerges; and (5) the relative abundance of species exhibits a typical pattern widely observed in nature. Several implications of these results are discussed in connection with the relationship of the present model to the generalized Lotka-Volterra equation.
Realization of finite-state mixing Markov chain as a random walk subject to a synchronizing road coloring
Kouji Yano,Kenji Yasutomi
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: A mixing Markov chain is proved to be realized as a random walk in a directed graph subject to a synchronizing road coloring. The result ensures existence of appropriate random mappings in Propp--Wilson's coupling from the past. The proof is based on the road coloring theorem. A necessary and sufficient condition for approximate preservation of entropies is also given.
Random walk in a finite directed graph subject to a synchronizing road coloring
Kouji Yano,Kenji Yasutomi
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: A constructive proof is given to the fact that any ergodic Markov chain can be realized as a random walk subject to a synchronizing road coloring. Redundancy (ratio of extra entropy) in such a realization is also studied.
Asymptotic behavior of prices of path dependent options
Yuji Hishida,Kenji Yasutomi
Quantitative Finance , 2009,
Abstract: In this paper, we give a numerical method for pricing long maturity, path dependent options by using the Markov property for each underlying asset. This enables us to approximate a path dependent option by using some kinds of plain vanillas. We give some examples whose underlying assets behave as some popular Levy processes. Moreover, we give some payoffs and functions used to approximate them.
Multiple Timescale Dynamics in Economic Production Networks
A. Ponzi,A. Yasutomi,K. Kaneko
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: We describe a new complex system model of an evolving production economy. This model is the simplest we can envisage which incorporates the new observation that the rate of an economic production process depends only on the minimum of its supplies of inputs. We describe how this condition gives rise to a new type of complex multiple timescale dynamical evolution through a novel type of bifurcation we call a `trapping bifurcation', which is also shown to be one cause of non-equilibrium economic behaviour. Such dynamics is an example of meta-level coupling which may also arise in other fields such as the organization of a living cell as a network of molecular machines.
Preoperative Evaluation of Posthepatectomy Liver Failure Using MRI-Based Liver Function Indices in Child-Pugh Class A Patient  [PDF]
Shigeru Matsushima, Yozo Sato, Hidekazu Yamaura, Mina Kato, Yui Onoda, Shinichi Murata, Yasuhiro Shimizu, Yasutomi Kinosada, Hideyuki Nishiofuku, Yoshitaka Inaba
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2016.62022
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) using gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a measure of relative liver enhancement (RLE) on hepatobiliary phase images, thereby facilitating safe liver resection. Methods: Twenty patients in Child-Pugh class A underwent tumor excision surgery and indocyanine green (ICG) clearance of future remnant liver (FRL) (ICG-Krem) values were >0.05. PHLF was evaluated using the grading system of the International Study Group of Liver Surgery (ISGLS). The RLE value was defined as the signal gain percentage between the precontrast and hepatocellular images. In the whole liver and FRL, theRLE value measured the tumor-free liver parenchyma in RLE images. We examined the correlation between indocyanine green clearance (ICG-K) and MRI-based liver function in the whole liver. Preoperative PHLF evaluation was predicted using remnant hepatocellular uptake index (rHUI), remnant RLE (rRLE), coefficient variation of Rrle [Cv(rRLE)], and ICG-Krem corrected by heterogeneous liver function(HLF-ICG-Krem). Results: HLF-ICG-Krem and rRLE values correlated with INRs after postoperative day five (r = -0.55 and 0.46, p = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). Furthermore, HLF-ICG-Krem values ≤0.05 detected two patients with higher INRs after postoperative day five. On the other hand, neither rHUI nor Cv(rRLE) was correlated with INRs after postoperative day five (r = 0.28, and -0.03, respectively; p >0.05 for both). HLF-ICG-Krem was significantly lower with PHLF than without PHLF (p = 0.005). Conclusion: HLF-ICG-Krem is useful for evaluating PHLF more correctly.
Weight and volume reduction of organic sludges and enhanced recovery of biomass resources using sonophotocatalysis
Naohito Hayashi,Satoshi Koike,Ryosuke Yasutomi,Eiki Kasai
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: The efficiency of sonophotocatalysis, a pretreatment process involving ultrasonic irradiation and photocatalysis, in decreasing the emission amount of sewage sludge and enhancing the recovery of valuable materials, was investigated experimentally. The results indicated a 50% reduction in the sewage sludge emission after sonophotocatalysis was carried out for 2 h. In addition, the recovery ratio of methane gas by anaerobic digestion and dissolved phosphorus were 1.7 and 2.5 times more than those of methane and phosphorus in the recovery process without pretreatment, respectively.
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