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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 61 matches for " Yared Wondimhun "
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Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy of HIV infected and non-infected women in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia
Andargachew Mulu, Afework Kassu, Kahsay Huruy, Birhanemeskel Tegene, Gashaw Yitayaw, Masayo Nakamori, Nguyen Van Nhien, Assegedech Bekele, Yared Wondimhun, Shigeru Yamamoto, Fusao Ota
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-569
Abstract: In this cross-sectional study, blood samples were collected from 423 pregnant women and from 55 healthy volunteers who visited the University of Gondar Hospital. Serum concentration of vitamin A was measured by high performance liquid chromatography.After controlling for total serum protein, albumin and demographic variables, the mean ± SD serum vitamin A in HIV seropositive pregnant women (0.96 ± 0.42 μmol/L) was significantly lower than that in pregnant women without HIV infection (1.10 ± 0.45 μmol/L, P < 0.05). Likewise, the level of serum vitamin A in HIV seropositive non-pregnant women (0.74 ± 0.39) was significantly lower than that in HIV negative non-pregnant women (1.18 ± 0.59 μmol/L, P < 0.004). VAD (serum retinol < 0.7 μmol/L) was observed in 18.4% and 17.7% of HIV infected and uninfected pregnant women, respectively. Forty six percent of non-pregnant women with HIV infection had VAD while only 28% controls were deficient for vitamin A (P = 0.002).The present study shows that VAD is a major public health problem among pregnant women in the tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia. Considering the possible implications of VAD during pregnancy, we recommend multivitamin (which has a lower level of vitamin A) supplementation in the care and management of pregnant women with or without HIV infection.Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is known to be a significant public health problem around the world and it is particularly serious among women of reproductive age in South-East Asia and Africa [1-4]. It has now become evident that VAD in women has negative consequences on their health status as well as on their infants [3,4]. The link between VAD morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases [5] and non-infectious diseases [6-8] has been known for several years.VAD in pregnant women is associated with night blindness, severe anaemia, wasting, malnutrition, and reproductive and infectious morbidity [9], and increased risk of mortality 1-2 years following delivery [4].
Patterns of maternity care service utilization in Southern Ethiopia: Evidence from a community and family survey
Yared Mekonnen
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2003,
Abstract: Background: Despite the fact that maternal health care utilization is essential for improvement of maternal and child health, little is known about the level and patterns of use of the service in Ethiopia. Objective: This study examined the levels and patterns of maternity care service use in the five densely populated zones of the Southern Region of Ethiopia. Data and Method: The study utilized data collected in a Community and Family Survey (CFS), which was conducted between early May and early June 1997. The CFS was cross-sectional by design and for this particular study a total of 1401 women who had at least one live birth in the six years preceding the survey were included. Result: The study revealed that only 26.1 % and 3.3% of the women received antenatal and delivery care services, respectively. The probability of a woman having an antenatal care for her most recent birth was 0.280, but this was significantly higher if she had received a check-up for her previous birth (0.787). On the other hand, the probability of having received delivery care for the most recent birth given that the woman had attended for her immediately preceding birth was only 0.468. The study also revealed that the use of both antenatal and delivery care services for subsequent pregnancies is less apparent among those women with more than one under-five children and those residing in the rural parts of the study area. Conclusion: To improve coverage of maternity care services in the study area health planners need to focus not only on those women who never utilize the services but also those who are not consistent in their use. [Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2003;17(1):27-33]
Missed opportunity of tetanus toxoid immunization among pregnant women in Southern Ethiopia
Yared Mekonnen
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2000,
Abstract: This study attempted to assess the presence of missed opportunity for tetanus toxoid immunization using a Community and Family Survey (CFS) data collected in the five densely populated zones of the SNNPR. The study established the existence of a true missed opportunity for tetanus toxoid immunization among antenatal clients after examining the data for possible sources of biases. A bivariate and multivariate analysis using logistic regression model suggested the absence of both recall and life long protection biases in the data. Accordingly, 11.6% of the women represented a true missed opportunity for tetanus toxoid immunization in the study area. The level of missed opportunity was found to be about 13% in the rural area as compared to only 4% in the urban parts of the study area. Missed opportunity was also high among those women who initiated antenatal visit in their third trimester of pregnancy and those women who had only one visit in the whole course of pregnancy. In the light of the findings, in-depth operational studies are recommended to better understand the reasons behind missed opportunity for tetanus immunization in the study area. (Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 2000, 14(2): 143-148)
Vitamin B6 status of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in northwestern Ethiopia
Yared Wondmikun
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2005,
Abstract:
Update on taxane development: new analogs and new formulations
Yared JA, Tkaczuk KH
Drug Design, Development and Therapy , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S28997
Abstract: ate on taxane development: new analogs and new formulations Review (2299) Total Article Views Authors: Yared JA, Tkaczuk KH Published Date December 2012 Volume 2012:6 Pages 371 - 384 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S28997 Received: 21 July 2012 Accepted: 06 September 2012 Published: 11 December 2012 Jean A Yared, Katherine HR Tkaczuk University of Maryland School of Medicine, Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: The taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel) represent an important class of antineoplastic agents that interfere with microtubule function leading to altered mitosis and cellular death. Paclitaxel (Taxol ) was originally extracted from a yew tree (Taxus spp., Taxaceae) a small slow-growing evergreen, coniferous tree. Due to the initial scarcity of paclitaxel, docetaxel (Taxotere ) a semisynthetic analog of paclitaxel produced from the needles of European yew tree, Taxus baccata was developed. Docetaxel differs from paclitaxel in two positions in its chemical structure and this small alteration makes it more water soluble. Today, paclitaxel and docetaxel are widely prescribed antineoplastic agents for a broad range of malignancies including lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, Kaposi’s sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, bladder cancer, and other carcinomas. Although very active clinically, paclitaxel and docetaxel have several clinical problems including poor drug solubility, serious dose-limiting toxicities such as myelosuppression, peripheral sensory neuropathy, allergic reactions, and eventual development of drug resistance. A number of these side effects have been associated with the solvents used for dilution of these antineoplastic agents: Cremophor EL for paclitaxel and polysorbate 80 for docetaxel. In addition, reports have linked these solvents to the alterations in paclitaxel and docetaxel pharmacokinetic profiles. In this review, we provide preclinical and clinical data on several novel taxanes formulations and analogs which are currently US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved or in clinical development in various solid tumor malignancies. Of the new taxanes nab-paclitaxel and cabazitaxel have enjoyed clinical success and are FDA-approved; while many of the other compounds described in this review are unlikely to be further developed for clinical use in daily practice. Furthermore, the successful clinical emergence of novel nontaxane microtubule-targeting chemotherapy agents such as epothilones and eribulin is liable to further restrict the development of novel taxanes.
Update on taxane development: new analogs and new formulations
Yared JA,Tkaczuk KH
Drug Design, Development and Therapy , 2012,
Abstract: Jean A Yared, Katherine HR TkaczukUniversity of Maryland School of Medicine, Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: The taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel) represent an important class of antineoplastic agents that interfere with microtubule function leading to altered mitosis and cellular death. Paclitaxel (Taxol ) was originally extracted from a yew tree (Taxus spp., Taxaceae) a small slow-growing evergreen, coniferous tree. Due to the initial scarcity of paclitaxel, docetaxel (Taxotere ) a semisynthetic analog of paclitaxel produced from the needles of European yew tree, Taxus baccata was developed. Docetaxel differs from paclitaxel in two positions in its chemical structure and this small alteration makes it more water soluble. Today, paclitaxel and docetaxel are widely prescribed antineoplastic agents for a broad range of malignancies including lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, Kaposi’s sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, bladder cancer, and other carcinomas. Although very active clinically, paclitaxel and docetaxel have several clinical problems including poor drug solubility, serious dose-limiting toxicities such as myelosuppression, peripheral sensory neuropathy, allergic reactions, and eventual development of drug resistance. A number of these side effects have been associated with the solvents used for dilution of these antineoplastic agents: Cremophor EL for paclitaxel and polysorbate 80 for docetaxel. In addition, reports have linked these solvents to the alterations in paclitaxel and docetaxel pharmacokinetic profiles. In this review, we provide preclinical and clinical data on several novel taxanes formulations and analogs which are currently US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved or in clinical development in various solid tumor malignancies. Of the new taxanes nab-paclitaxel and cabazitaxel have enjoyed clinical success and are FDA-approved; while many of the other compounds described in this review are unlikely to be further developed for clinical use in daily practice. Furthermore, the successful clinical emergence of novel nontaxane microtubule-targeting chemotherapy agents such as epothilones and eribulin is liable to further restrict the development of novel taxanes.Keywords: taxane(s), novel taxanes, taxane analogs, new taxane formulations, new antimicrotubule agents
Hepatitis B Virus Co-Infection: Yet Another Reason for Early Initiation of Treatment in HIV Infected Individuals  [PDF]
Yared Hailaye, Muluken Dessalegn, Solomon Gebre-Selassie
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2013.34040
Abstract:

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection with HIV is becoming a major challenge due to shared routes of transmission. The burden is apparent in regions with widespread use of antiretroviral treatment, which led to the enhanced emergence of liver-related diseases and mortality. Though there are conflicting results about the effect of chronic HBV infection on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (CD4+ cell count and HIV viral load, HIV RNA copies/ml), HAART is known to cause immune mediated HBV specific liver damage after it reconstitutes cell-mediated immunity. The relationship of different HAART regimes with immune recovery is an area of research interest. Objective: It is in order to determine the changes in immune recovery during HBV infection in the setting of HAART among HIV positive individuals attending care and treatment services. Methods: Two cohorts of co-infected patients were analyzed from data of one to seven months retrospectively. The first group (n = 380) was antiretroviral drug naive and the second cohort (n = 380) was on HAART for the entire period. The study was conducted in one referral hospital and six health centers. Data were gathered from 760 patients using their intake form, their follow-up form and their medical records supplemented by data from a structured questionnaire. HBV infection was determined by using HBsAg rapid and confirmatory tests and CD4 cells were enumerated

Prevalence of Catha edulis (Khat) Chewing and Its Associated Factors among Ataye Secondary School Students in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Awoke Lakew, Behailu Tariku, Nigussie Deyessa, Yared Reta
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2014.410027
Abstract: The life time and current prevalence of khat chewing are 15.36% (95% CI; 11.7, 19.8) and 13.25% (95% CI; 11.0, 18.1) respectively. Multivariable logistic regression model revealed that male students [Adjusted OR = 2.15 (95% CI; 1.02, 4.56)], presence of chewer friends [Adjusted OR = 3.14 (95% CI; 1.53, 6.41)], having chewer family [Adjusted OR = 2.68 (95% CI; 1.13, 6.37)] and place of residency [Adjusted OR = 1.89 (95% CI; 1.0, 3.79)] were associated risk factors for khat chewing. Khat chewing is prevalent among students who are male, urban residents and students who have chewer friends and family. Therefore, to reduce the prevalence, social, economic and health effect of khat chewing, Minister of Education in collaboration with Ministry of Health has to work to incorporate life skill training in high school students’ curricula.
Ocular manisestations of HIV/AIDS patients in Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
Yared Assefa, AG Yohannes, A Melesi
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2006,
Abstract:
Agroecological comparison of levels and correlates of nutritional status of women
Tsegaye Demissie, Yared Mekonen, Jemal Haider
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2003,
Abstract: Background: Observation and focus group discussions during the first round survey indicated that women in the lowlands areas are more malnourished compared to the women in the highlands. Additional analysis was needed to verify the observation. Objectives: To compare the levels and determinants of nutritional status of women living in lowland and highland areas in Limu wereda of Hadiya Zone, southern Region. Methods: Information on potential factors influencing nutritional status were gathered in two rounds from 450 mothers in three randomly selected peasant associations. Results: Women living in the lowlands are more malnourished compared to women living in the highlands (31.0% in the lowlands and 19.1% in the highlands; Odds ratio=1.62; 95% CI 1.1-2.4). Household size, agricultural production, age and parity were found to be similar among the two groups of women. However, religion, ethnicity, livestock holding (more in the lowland), land ownership (greater in the lowlands), education (more literate in the highlands) and types of illness (more malaria in the lowlands) were found to be significantly different among the two groups of women. The logistic regression analysis indicated that only agricultural production, sickness and education were associated with maternal malnutrition in the studied area. Conclusion: Creating mechanisms and opportunities to increase agricultural production (in both low land and high land) and women's education as well as providing better access to health care, particularly, in the low lands are recommended to improve the situation. Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2003;17(3):189-196
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