Abstract:
Nanometallic devices based on amorphous insulator-metal thin films are developed to provide a novel non-volatile resistance-switching random-access memory (RRAM). In these devices, data recording is controlled by a bipolar voltage, which tunes electron localization length, thus resistivity, through electron trapping/detrapping. The low-resistance state is a metallic state while the high-resistance state is an insulating state, as established by conductivity studies from 2K to 300K. The material is exemplified by a Si3N4 thin film with randomly dispersed Pt or Cr. It has been extended to other materials, spanning a large library of oxide and nitride insulator films, dispersed with transition and main-group metal atoms. Nanometallic RRAMs have superior properties that set them apart from other RRAMs. The critical switching voltage is independent of the film thickness/device area/temperature/switching speed. Trapped electrons are relaxed by electron-phonon interaction, adding stability which enables long-term memory retention. As electron-phonon interaction is mechanically altered, trapped electron can be destabilized, and sub-picosecond switching has been demonstrated using an electromagnetically generated stress pulse. AC impedance spectroscopy confirms the resistance state is spatially uniform, providing a capacitance that linearly scales with area and inversely scales with thickness. The spatial uniformity is also manifested in outstanding uniformity of switching properties. Device degradation, due to moisture, electrode oxidation and dielectrophoresis, is minimal when dense thin films are used or when a hermetic seal is provided. The potential for low power operation, multi-bit storage and complementary stacking have been demonstrated in various RRAM configurations.

Abstract:
In the case of bipartite two qubits systems, we derive the analytical expression of bound of Bell operator for any given pure state. Our result not only manifest some properties of Bell inequality, for example which may be violated by any pure entangled state and only be maximally violated for a maximally entangled state, but also give the explicit values of maximal violation for any pure state. Finally we point out that for two qubits systems there is no mixed state which can produce maximal violation of Bell inequality.

Abstract:
We give a analytic quantitative relation between Hardy's non-locality and Bell operator. We find that Hardy's non-locality is a sufficient condition for violation of Bell inequality, the upper bound of Hardy's non-locality allowed by information causality just correspond to Tsirelson bound of Bell inequality, and the upper bound of Hardy's non-locality allowed by the principle of no-signaling just correspond to the algebraic maximum of Bell operator. Then we study the Cabello's argument of Hardy's non-locality (a generalization of Hardy's argument) and find a similar relation between it and violation of Bell inequality. Finally, we give a simple derivation of the bound of Hardy's non-locality under the constraint of information causality with the aid of above derived relation between Hardy's non-locality and Bell operator, this bound is the main result of a recent work of Ahanj \emph{et al.} [Phys. Rev. A {\bf81}, 032103(2010)].

Abstract:
Recent developments show that Multiply Sectioned Bayesian Networks (MSBNs) can be used for diagnosis of natural systems as well as for model-based diagnosis of artificial systems. They can be applied to single-agent oriented reasoning systems as well as multi-agent distributed probabilistic reasoning systems. Belief propagation between a pair of subnets plays a central role in maintenance of global consistency in a MSBN. This paper studies the operation UpdateBelief, presented originally with MSBNs, for inter-subnet propagation. We analyze how the operation achieves its intended functionality, which provides hints as for how its efficiency can be improved. We then define two new versions of UpdateBelief that reduce the computation time for inter-subnet propagation. One of them is optimal in the sense that the minimum amount of computation for coordinating multi-linkage belief propagation is required. The optimization problem is solved through the solution of a graph-theoretic problem: the minimum weight open tour in a tree.

Abstract:
Batagelj and Zaversnik proposed a linear algorithm for the well-known $k$-core decomposition problem. However, when $k$-cores are desired for a given $k$, we find that a simple linear algorithm requiring no sorting works for mining $k$-cores. In addition, this algorithm can be extended to mine $(k_1, k_2,\ldots, k_p)$-cores from $p$-partite graphs in linear time, and this mining approach can be efficiently implemented in a distributed computing environment with a lower message complexity bound in comparison with the best known method of distributed $k$-core decomposition.

Abstract:
Using ERA-40 reanalysis daily data for the period 1958--2002, this study investigated the effect of transient eddy (TE) on the interannual meridional displacement of summer East Asian subtropical jet (EASJ) by conducting a detailed dynamical diagnosis. The summer EASJ axis features a significant interannual coherent meridional displacement. Associated with such a meridional displacement, the TE vorticity forcing anomalies are characterized by a meridional dipole pattern asymmetric about the climatological EASJ axis. The TE vorticity forcing anomalies yield barotropic zonal wind tendencies with a phase meridionally leading the zonal wind anomalies, suggesting that they act to reinforce further meridional displacement of the EASJ and favor a positive feedback in the TE and time-mean flow interaction. However, The TE thermal forcing anomalies induce baroclinic zonal wind tendencies that reduce the vertical shear of zonal wind and atmospheric baroclinicity and eventually suppress the TE activity, favoring a negative feedback in the TE and time-mean flow interaction. Although the two types of TE forcing tend to have opposite feedback roles, the TE vorticity forcing appears to be dominant in the TE effect on the time-mean flow.

Abstract:
We give an analytic quantitative relation between Hardy's non-locality and Bell operator. We find that Hardy's non-locality is a sufficient condition for the violation of Bell inequality, the upper bound of Hardy's non-locality allowed by information causality just corresponds to Tsirelson bound of Bell inequality and the upper bound of Hardy's non-locality allowed by the principle of no-signaling just corresponds to the algebraic maximum of Bell operator. Then we study the Cabello's argument of Hardy's non-locality (a generalization of Hardy's argument) and find a similar relation between it and violation of Bell inequality. Finally, we give a simple derivation of the bound of Hardy's non-locality under the constraint of information causality with the aid of the above derived relation between Hardy's non-locality and Bell operator.

Abstract:
In this paper, we present a dislocation-density-based three-dimensional continuum model, where the dislocation substructures are represented by pairs of dislocation density potential functions (DDPFs), denoted by $\phi$ and $\psi$. The slip plane distribution is characterized by the contour surfaces of $\psi$, while the distribution of dislocation curves on each slip plane is identified by the contour curves of $\phi$ which represents the plastic slip on the slip plane. By using DDPFs, we can explicitly write down an evolution equation system, which is shown consistent with the underlying discrete dislocation dynamics. The system includes i) A constitutive stress rule, which describes how the total stress field is determined in the presence of dislocation networks and applied loads; ii) A plastic flow rule, which describes how dislocation ensembles evolve. The proposed continuum model is validated through comparisons with discrete dislocation dynamics simulation results and experimental data. As an application of the proposed model, the "smaller-being-stronger" size effect observed in single-crystal micro-pillars is studied. A scaling law for the pillar flow stress $\sigma_{\text{flow}}$ against its (non-dimensionalized) size $D$ is derived to be $\sigma_{\text{flow}}\sim\log(D)/D$.