Abstract:
This paper
considers the asymptotic dynamics of steady states to the Lotka-Volterra
competition diffusion systems with random perturbations by two-parameter white
noise on the whole real line. By the fundamental solution of heat equation, we
get the asymptotic fluctuating behaviors near the stable states respectively.
That is, near the steady state (u,v)=(0,1), the mean value Eu(x,t) is shifted above the equilibrium u=0 and Ev(x,t) is shifted below the equilibrium v=1. However, near the steady state (u,v)=(1,0), the mean
value Eu(x,t) is shifted below the
equilibrium u =1 and Eu(x,t)=0.

Abstract:
We study the random dynamical system generated by a stochastic reaction-diffusion equation with additive noise on the whole space and prove the existence of an -random attractor for such a random dynamical system. The nonlinearity is supposed to satisfy the growth of arbitrary order ( ). The -asymptotic compactness of the random dynamical system is obtained by using an extended version of the tail estimate method introduced by Wang (1999) and the cut-off technique. 1. Introduction In this paper, we consider the asymptotic behavior of solutions to the following stochastic reaction-diffusion equation (SRDE) with additive noise in the entire space : with the initial condition where is a positive constant, is a given function in , for each , for some ,？？ are independent two-sided real-valued Wiener processes on a probability space which will be specified below, and is a nonlinear function satisfying the following conditions (see, e.g., [1, 2]). For all and , where and are positive constants, , , and . As we know, the asymptotic behavior of a random dynamical system (RDS) is characterized by random attractors, which were first introduced by Crauel and Flandoli [3] and Schmalfuss [4] and then developed in [1, 2, 5–12] and among others. Recently, the existence of random attractors of the RDS associated with problem (1)-(2) was studied by many authors. For example, in [1, 2] the authors proved the existence of -random attractor and -random attractor, respectively, in the case of additive noise. Wang and Zhou obtained -random attractor in [12] and Li et al. proved the existence of -random attractor in bounded domains in [10] in the case of multiplicative noise. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of random attractors for the so-called quasicontinuous RDS was established in [9], and in the most recent papers [13, 14], the author employed this result to prove the existence of random attractors for some reaction-diffusion equations with additive noise and multiplicative noise on , respectively, when the domain is bounded. In this paper, we study the existence of -random attractor with additive noise for the same problem in the entire space . For our problem, there are two difficulties when we consider the existence of -random attractor. The first is the lack of compactness of Sobolev embeddings when the domain is unbounded. It is worth mentioning that in deterministic case differential equations of this type were extensively studied in both autonomous and nonautonomous cases and in both bounded domains and unbounded domains [15–29]. In the case

Abstract:
As an index of functional divergence, expression divergence between duplicate gene copies has been observed and correlated with protein coding sequence divergence and bias in gene functional classes. However, the changes in the cis-regulatory region of the duplicate genes which is thought to have important role in expression divergence, has not been explored on the genome-wide scale. We analyzed functional genomics data for a large number of duplicated gene pairs formed by ancient polyploidy events in Arabidopsis thaliana. The divergence in cis-regulatory regions between two copies is positively correlated with the magnitude difference of expression. Moreover, we find that highly expressed duplicate gene pairs have a more diverged cis-regulatory region than weakly expressed gene pairs. We also show that the correlation between expression functional constraint and protein functional constraint is different in old and young duplicate pairs. Our results suggest that cis-regulatory sequence divergence contributes to the expression divergence of duplicate genes formed by genome-wide duplication. Cis-regulatory region diverges faster in highly expressed duplicate pairs. The diversify selection strengths that act on cis-regulatory region and protein coding region are negatively correlated in young duplicate pairs under expression constraint.

Abstract:
IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF) can alleviate the collision and hidden station problem, but it doesn’t differentiate traffic categories (TC). Therefore, it can’t provide sufficient QoS support for different traffic categories. Recently, a new contention-based enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) scheme was proposed which provides a probabilistic QoS support. In this paper, an adaptive EDCA scheme with QoS guarantee for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is proposed. In this scheme, the EDCA scheme and the token bucket algorithm (TBA) are combined to adjust the contention window (CW). Our scheme provides the traffic differentiation.

Abstract:
Here we present a computational study focused on identification of the novel PCW genes in Arabidopsis based on the co-expression analyses of transcriptomic data collected under 351 conditions, using a bi-clustering technique. Our analysis identified 217 highly co-expressed gene clusters (modules) under some experimental conditions, each containing at least one gene annotated as PCW related according to the Purdue Cell Wall Gene Families database. These co-expression modules cover 349 known/annotated PCW genes and 2,438 new candidates. For each candidate gene, we annotated the specific PCW synthesis stages in which it is involved and predicted the detailed function. In addition, for the co-expressed genes in each module, we predicted and analyzed their cis regulatory motifs in the promoters using our motif discovery pipeline, providing strong evidence that the genes in each co-expression module are transcriptionally co-regulated. From the all co-expression modules, we infer that 108 modules are related to four major PCW synthesis components, using three complementary methods.We believe our approach and data presented here will be useful for further identification and characterization of PCW genes. All the predicted PCW genes, co-expression modules, motifs and their annotations are available at a web-based database: http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/publications/materials/shanwang/CWRPdb/index.html webcite.Plant cell walls (PCWs) are mainly composed of polysaccharides and lignins, forming the major component of plant biomass. Knowing which genes are involved in the formation and remodeling of PCWs is of great importance as they play many critical roles during plant growth, including regulation of cell differentiation, intercellular adhesion and communication, control of water movement, and defense against invasions by pests and pathogens [1-4], not to mention that it is the focal point of cellulosic biofuel studies. It is estimated that genes involved in the PCW synthesis, remo

Abstract:
We consider a higher-order three-point boundary value problem on time scales.A new existence result is first obtained by using a fixed point theorem due to Krasnoselskii andZabreiko. Later, under certain growth conditions imposed on the nonlinearity, several sufficientconditions for the existence of a nonnegative and nontrivial solution are obtained by usingLeray-Schauder nonlinear alternative. Our conditions imposed on nonlinearity are all very easyto verify; as an application, some examples to demonstrate our results are given.

Abstract:
We study the existence of positive solutions for a class of -point boundary value problems on time scales. Our approach is based on the monotone iterative technique and the cone expansion and compression fixed point theorem of norm type. Without the assumption of the existence of lower and upper solutions, we do not only obtain the existence of positive solutions of the problem, but also establish the iterative schemes for approximating the solutions.

Abstract:
Cross-cultural competence is composed of three components, i.e. the sensitivity to cultural differences, tolerance towards cultural differences and flexibility in dealing with problems of cultural differences, which are from low to high in stratification. TEFL should improve the learners’ cognitive competence and their competence in solving problems concerning cross-cultural differences.

Abstract:
The existence of six solutions for nonlinear operator equations is obtained by using the topological degree and fixed point index theory. These six solutions are all nonzero. Two of them are positive, the other two are negative, and the fifth and sixth ones are both sign-changing solutions. Furthermore, the theoretical results are applied to elliptic partial differential equations. 1. Introduction In recent years, motivated by some ecological problems, much attention has been attached to the existence of sign-changing solutions for nonlinear partial differential equations (see [1–4] and the references therein). We note that the proofs of main results in [1–4] depend upon critical point theory. However, some concrete nonlinear problems have no variational structures [5]. To overcome this difficulty, in [6], Zhang studied the existence of sign-changing solution for nonlinear operator equations by using the cone theory and combining uniformly positive condition. Xu [7] studied multiple sign-changing solutions to the following -point boundary value problems: where , , . We list some assumptions as follows.(A1)Suppose that the sequence of positive solutions to the equation ？is ;(A2) , is a continuous function, , and for all ;(A3)let and . There exist positive integers and such that (A4)there exists such that for all with . Theorem 1 (see [7]). Suppose that conditions are satisfied. Then the problem (1) has at least two sign-changing solutions. Moreover, the problem (1) also has at least two positive solutions and two negative solutions. Based on [7], many authors studied the sign-changing solutions of differential and difference equations. For example, Yang [8] considered the existence of multiple sign-changing solutions for the problem (1). Compared with Theorem 1, Yang employed the following assumption which is different from .(A′4)There exists such that Pang et al. [9] investigated multiple sign-changing solutions of fourth-order differential equation boundary value problems. Moreover, Wei and Pang [10] established the existence theorem of multiple sign-changing solutions for fourth-order boundary value problems. Y. Li and F. Li [11] studied two sign-changing solutions of a class of second-order integral boundary value problems by computing the eigenvalues and the algebraic multiplicities of the corresponding linear problems. He et al. [12] discussed the existence of sign-changing solutions for a class of discrete boundary value problems, and a concrete example was also given. Very recently, Yang [13] investigated the following discrete fourth Neumann

Abstract:
A high-resolution fossil pollen record from the sedimentary cores of Balikun Lake, northwestern China, combined with modern surface pollen data, is used to reconstruct the history of vegetation and climatic change since 16.7 cal. ka BP. Fossil pollen assemblages and lithology indicate that the study area was dominated by desert. The desert had extremely arid climate and lower effective moisture during 16.7–7.9 cal. ka BP, especially from 16.7 to 8.9 cal. ka BP when the lake maybe dried up. During 8.9–7.9 cal. ka BP, the environment gradually recovered in this area. It was then followed by the optimum period from 7.9 to 4.3 cal. Ka BP, when the effective moisture obviously increased. It was characterized by the typical desert-steppe/steppe vegetation and was accompanied with several patch-birch woodlands around the lake. After that, a short but extremely arid climatic event occurred during 4.3 3.8 cal. ka BP, and the vegetation quickly changed from desert-steppe/steppe to desert. It was a relatively optimum period from 3.8 to 0.53 cal. ka BP showing typical desert-steppe/meadow-steppe landscape. Since 0.53 cal. ka BP, the climate has shown signs of deteriorating again. Furthermore, regional comparison shows that the characteristics of climatic and environmental evolution in this area were clearly different from East Asia monsoonal area during the last 16.7 cal. ka BP. It was characterized by the arid climate during the late-glacial and early Holocene, and relatively wet during the mid-late Holocene.