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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 245 matches for " Yak (Bos grennies) "
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Yang G., Zhou H., Hu J., Luo Y. and Hickford J.G.H.
International Journal of Genetics , 2012,
Abstract: Calpastatin (CAST) is a specific inhibitor of calpain (calcium-dependent cysteine protease). This study investigated the potential for variation in yak (Bos grennies) CAST. PCR-SSCP analysis of exon 6 of yak CAST revealed three unique patterns (named A-C). Sequencing of the amplicons revealed two nucleotide substitutions. One substitution (c.398G/C) would nominally change the amino acid sequence (p.S133T) of yak calpastatin. The variant sequence A which carried c.398C was the most common in the yaks tested (95.1%). This is the first report that found yak CAST is variable, and as in pigs, sheep and cattle, this variation may affect animal production traits.
Maternal Phylogeny of a Newly-Found Yak Population in China
Tserang Donko Mipam,Yongli Wen,Changxiu Fu,Shanrong Li,Hongwen Zhao,Yi Ai,Lu Li,Lei Zhang,Deqiang Zou
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms130911455
Abstract: The Jinchuan yak is a new yak population identified in Sichuan, China. This population has a special anatomical characteristic: an additional pair of ribs compared with other yak breeds. The genetic structure of this population is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the maternal phylogeny of this special yak population using the mitochondrial DNA variation. A total of 23 Jinchuan yaks were sequenced for a 823-bp fragment of D-loop control region and three individuals were sequenced for the whole mtDNA genome with a length of 16,371-bp. To compare with the data from other yaks, we extracted sequence data from Genebank, including D-loop of 398 yaks (from 12 breeds) and 55 wild yaks, and whole mitochondrial genomes of 53 yaks (from 12 breeds) and 21 wild yaks. A total of 127 haplotypes were defined, based on the D-loop data. Thirteen haplotypes were defined from 23 mtDNA D-loop sequences of Jinchuan yaks, six of which were shared only by Jinchuan, and one was shared by Jinchuan and wild yaks. The Jinquan yaks were found to carry clades A and B from lineage I and clade C of lineage II, respectively. It was also suggested that the Jinchuan population has no distinct different phylogenetic relationship in maternal inheritance with other breeds of yak. The highly haplotype diversity of the Pali breed, Jinchuan population, Maiwa breed and Jiulong breed suggested that the yak was first domesticated from wild yaks in the middle Himalayan region and the northern Hengduan Mountains. The special anatomic characteristic that we found in the Jinchuan population needs further studies based on nuclear data.
Habitat selection of feral yak in winter and spring in the Helan Mountains, China

ZHAO Chongnan,SU Yun,LIU Zhensheng,YAO Zhicheng,ZHANG Mingming,LI Zhigang,

生态学报 , 2012,
Abstract: The yak (Bos grunniens), sometimes called "the boat of the plateau", is an endemic species of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, famous for its resistance to cold and importance as a form of transport. The total number of adults may be close to 10,000 because the total population was estimated to be around 15,000 in 1995. Nevertheless, the species was listed as "Vulnerable" in the World Conservation Union's Red List of Threatened Animals because it is inferred that it has declined by over 30% over the last 30 years. Poaching, including commercial poaching for meat, has been the most serious threat to wild yaks. The species was listed on CITES Appendix I. Wild yaks have been protected in China since 1962, and are currently listed as a Class I protected animal, which means that they are fully protected by government law. In China, wild yaks are found in a number of large nature reserves, including the Arjin Shan, Chang Tang, Kekexili, Sanjiangyuan, and Yanchiwan Nature Reserves, although none of these reserves provide complete protection from habitat loss or occasional poaching. The yak population in the Helan Mountains is a reintroduced population from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and is only distributed in the Halawu Valleys and the surrounding areas, in the Helan Mountain Reserve in Inner Mongolia. Because their habitat selection had not been previously studied, we conducted surveys from December 2009 to January 2010 and from April to May 2010 to study yak habitat selection in winter and spring. Twenty line transects were established along seven valleys. We identified a total number of 103 used plots in winter and 129 in spring. To provide comparison plots for the analysis of habitat selections, we surveyed 188 randomly placed plots in winter and 207 randomly placed plots in spring by systematically placing transects in areas with no obvious evidence of yak use. Data on 18 topographic and biological variables were collected in each plot. In winter, yaks preferred montane coniferous forest, lower altitude (<2000 m), habitat dominated by Ulmus glaucescens, more gentle slopes (<10°), sites closer to the foot of the mountain, areas distant from water resource (>1200 m), moderate distance from human disturbance (2000-4000 m) and abundant hiding cover (>70%). In spring, yak preferred subalpine shrubland and meadow, higher altitude (>3000 m), lower tree density (<1 tree/100 m2), lower tree height (<3 m), greater distances from trees (>3 m), higher shrub density (>40 trees/100 m2), short distance to shrub (<1 m) and higher vegetation coverage (>70%). Habitat selection of the yak showed significant differences in vegetation type, landform feature, dominant tree species, shrub type, position on mountain (e.g. top or base), slope direction, distance from human disturbance and distance from water resource between winter and spring. Results of principal components analysis indicated that the first principal component axis accounted for 21.10% of the total variance in habi
Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of SPAG11 gene in yak (Bos grunniens)

- , 2016,
Abstract: 【目的】克隆牦牛(Bos grunniens)精子相关抗原11(Sperm-Associated Antigen 11,SPAG11)基因,并了解其分子结构特征,为进一步研究牦牛SPAG11生物学功能奠定基础。【方法】从牦牛睾丸中提取总RNA,RT-PCR扩增并克隆SPAG11C、SPAG11D和SPAG11E基因,测序后进行生物信息学分析。【结果】克隆出牦牛SPAG11基因3个亚型:SPAG11C、SPAG11D和SPAG11E,序列大小分别是351,408和261 bp,分别编码117,129和80个氨基酸,其中SPAG11D和SPAG11E序列包含1个完整开放阅读框(ORF),SPAG11C序列包含部分ORF。牦牛SPAG11C、SPAG11D和SPAG11E核苷酸序列与黄牛(Bos taurus)相应序列相似性最高,而与黄牛β-防御素1相似性较低(<50%)。3个蛋白亚型均具有β-防御素家族基本特性,生物信息学分析显示其均含有磷酸化位点。【结论】成功克隆牦牛SPAG11C、SPAG11D和SPAG11E基因,明确了其编码蛋白的分子结构特征。
【Objective】This study aimed to clone Sperm-Associated Antigen 11 (SAPG11) gene of yak (Bos grunniens) and explore its characteristics of molecular structure for further study on its biological function.【Method】 The SPAG11C,SPAG11D and SPAG11E genes from yak were amplified and tested by RT-PCR technology before being cloned into pMD-19-T Simple Vector for sequence and analyzed by bioinformatics tools.【Result】Three subtypes of the SPAG11 gene of yak were cloned (namely,SPAG11C,SPAG11D and SPAG11E) with lengths of 351 bp,408 bp and 261 bp and numbers of encoded amino acids of 117,129 and 80,respectively.SPAG11D and SPAG11E sequences contained a complete opening reading frame (ORF),while SPAG11C sequence contained partial ORF.Phylogenetic analysis showed that SPAG11C,SPAG11D and SPAG11E genes of yak had the highest similarity with Bos taurus(>99%) but a lower similarity with the beta-defensin-1 gene of Bos taurus(<50%).All of them had the basic characteristics of beta-defensin family and contained phosphorylation sites.【Conclusion】SAPG11C,SPAG11D and SPAG11E genes of yak were successfully cloned,and their molecular structure characteristics were defined
Science of Camel and Yak Milks: Human Nutrition and Health Perspectives  [PDF]
Akbar Nikkhah
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.26092
Abstract: Camels and yaks milks are rich in numerous bioactive substances that function beyond their nutritive value. Milk Camel milk is more similar to goat milk and contains less short-chain fatty acids than cow, sheep and buffalo milks, and about 3 times greater vitamin-C than cow milk. One kg of camel milk meets 100% of daily human requirements for calcium and phosphorus, 57.6% for potassium, 40% for iron, copper, zinc and magnesium, and 24% for sodium. Camel milk helps treat liver problems, lowers bilirubin output, lightens vitamin inadequacy and nutrient deficiency, and boosts immunity. Camel milk reduces allergies caused by cow dairy products. Camel milk has low milk fat made mainly from polyunsaturated fatty acids. It lacks ß-lactoglobulin and is rich in immunoglobulins, compatible with human milk. Yak milk has 16.9 - 17.7% solids, 4.9 - 5.3% protein, 5.5 - 7.2% fat, 4.5 - 5.0% lactose, and 0.8 - 0.9% minerals. Yak milk fat is richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids, protein, casein and fat than cow milk. Yak milk casein is used to produce antihypertensive peptides with capacities for producing value-added functional foods and proteins. Continual system-atic education of milk science especially for non-cow species will be an obligation for health implications to be optimally perceived by human populations worldwide.
Assessment scale for behaviour in bulfighting cattle (EBL 10): Reliability and validity
Almenara-Barrios,J.; García González-Gordon,R.;
Archivos de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.4321/S0004-05922011000200006
Abstract: our intention is to objectively assess the behavior patterns related to bravery in bullfighting cattle by means of a scale devised for this purpose. reliability and validity studies have been carried out. this instrument will allow researchers to analyse inherited behaviour characters, permitting breeders to select in a more objective and systematic way. the evaluation scale of bravery in fighting bovines, ebl 10, has been constructed. a glossary has also been developed with the distinguishing definitions of the ten dimensions dealt with, as well as a set of objective indicators for each dimension. a feasibility and validity study of the scale has been undertaken, assessing a sample made up of 380 bulls' behavior during a bullfight. previously, a reliability study was carried out by two evaluators in a sample of 116 cows during a practical bravery test, (tienta). the scale (ebl 10) is a valid and reliable tool for standard behavior assessment related to bravery in fighting bovines and may be useful for both researchers and breeders alike.
Pema Gyamtsho
Journal of Bhutan Studies , 2000,
Abstract: It is widely accepted that an understanding of theenvironmental and socio-economic conditions of an area is aprerequisite for the identification and formulation ofappropriate research and development strategies. It isimportant to know 'why people do what they do' especially intraditional societies which have remained relativelyunchanged by the forces of modern technologicaladvancement. The general belief that traditional pastoralpractices need to be improved has largely shaped pasturedevelopment policy throughout the world (Sanford, 1983).According to Miller (1995), agricultural policies in theHimalayan countries have generally ignored the role oflivestock in development, and failed to appreciate the efficacyof traditional pastoral systems. Ives and Messerli (1989) dweltat great length on the need to develop policies andprogrammes that are sensitively attuned to, and supportive ofthe local people who are the prime actors at the interface ofman-nature relationship. The need to conduct systematicresearch before introducing innovation in the name ofprogress is further stressed by Goldstein et al. (1990).Sustainable innovations for economic enhancement of thepeople or ecological improvement of the environment in whichthey live can only be introduced if there is a high degree ofrelevance to prevailing local cultural and production practicesand traditions.In the high altitude areas of Bhutan at elevations higher than3000 m above sea level, yak production has been andcontinues to be the main source of livelihood for peopleinhabiting this rugged landscape who are known as Brokpas in central and eastern Bhutan, Jops in Western Bhutan,Lakhaps in West-Central region and Dakpas in the remotegewogs of Merak and Sakteng under Trashigang Dzongkhag.All these names, in one way or other means 'pastoralists' andunderscores the dependence of the people on the pastures(known as Tsadrok and Tsabrok in Eastern and CentralBhutan or Tsamjo in western Bhutan) and the mountains(La). Yak rearing is practiced throughout the northern belt ofthe country extending from Haa in the west to Trashigang inthe east and the production systems vary considerably fromplace to place. Nevertheless, there is no denying that yak isthe lifeline of all these communities and is aptly referred to asthe 'camel of the snows'. It is a multi-purpose animalproviding milk, meat, draught and manure. It also adds to theaesthetic value of the Himalayas. Without it, one cannotimagine how humans could survive in this beautiful buthostile region.This paper describes the yak rearing and production systemprevailing
Geographic distribution of haplotype diversity at the bovine casein locus
Oliver C Jann, Eveline M Ibeagha-Awemu, Ceyhan ?zbeyaz, Pilar Zaragoza, John L Williams, Paolo Ajmone-Marsan, Johannes A Lenstra, Katy Moazami-Goudarzi, Georg Erhardt
Genetics Selection Evolution , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-36-2-243
Abstract: (To access the full article, please see PDF)
Effect of a feed supplementation during the mid-lactating period on body condition, milk yield, metabolic profile and pregnancy rate of grazing dual-purpose cows in the Mexican humid tropic
Montiel,F; Galina,C S; Lamothe,C; Casta?eda,O;
Archivos de medicina veterinaria , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0301-732X2007000300003
Abstract: forty-eight grazing mid-lactating anoestrous dual-purpose cows were used to determine the effect of feed supplementation (fs) on body condition score (bcs), milk yield, metabolic profile and pregnancy rate in the dry (ds, n= 24) and rainy (rs, n= 24) seasons in mexico. half of the cows received fs with 19% crude protein from days 0 to 45. on days 0 and 45 bcs was assessed in all cows, and blood samples were collected to determine the serum concentrations of some metabolites. milk yield was individually recorded from days-7 to 45 (day 0 = start of the fs period). on day 10 all cows were induced to oestrous with norgestomet and then artificially inseminated. bcs, serum albumin concentration and pregnancy rate were higher (p < 0.05) in ds. milk yield and serum inorganic phosphorus concentration were not affected (p > 0.05) by fs or season of the year. serum total protein was higher (p < 0.05) on day 0 in cows receiving fs in ds. serum urea was lower (p < 0.05) on day 45 in cows without fs in ds, but was higher on day 45 in cows with and without fs in rs (p < 0.05). serum copper and zinc were higher (p < 0.05) in rs, and serum zinc was also higher (p < 0.05) on day 45 in cows with and without fs in ds. in conclusion, fs affected serum concentrations of total protein, urea and zinc, whereas season of the year affected bcs, serum concentrations of albumin, copper and zinc and pregnancy rate
Eficiência bionutricional de animais da ra?a Nelore, F1s Valdostana-Nelore e de mesti?os de ra?as européias adaptadas
Euclides Filho, K.;Figueiredo, G.R.;Euclides, V.P.B.;Vaz, E.C.;Trovo, J.B.;Razook, A.G.;Figueiredo, L.A.;Silva, L.O.C.;Rocco, V.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352004000500016
Abstract: five genetic groups were evaluated by bio-nutritional efficiency (index obtained from the first canonical function in a bivariate analysis encompassing weight gain and dry matter intake): six nellore (n), five 1/2romosinuano-1/2caracu (rsc), four 1/2senepol-1/2caracu (sec), four 1/2belmont red-1/2 caracu (brc) and seven 1/2valdostana-1/2nellore (van). no differences were observed among the caracu crosses for bio-nutritional efficiency, which averaged 519.8. nellore showed the smallest performance (425.07), while the vasdostana-nellore f1's averaged 499.30. similar trend was observed for daily weight gain. the crossbred animals involving european adapted breeds (rsc, sec, brc) showed an average gain of 1.69kg/day, while the f1's valdostana-nelore and the nellore gains were, respectively, 1.57kg/day and 1.29kg/day. no difference for dry matter (dm) intake among genetic groups which averaged 7.76kg dm intake/day was observed. as far as feed conversion is concerned, no difference among genetic groups, which averaged 4.87kg of dm intake/kg of weight gain, was observed.
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