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OALib Journal期刊

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Antimicrobial Activities of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae) Fruit Extracts on Six Standard Microorganisms and Their Clinical Counterpart  [PDF]
Y.-G. Afanyibo, K. Anani, K. Esseh, Y. Sadji, K. Idoh, K. Koudouvo, A. Agbonon, Y. Améyapoh, K. Tozo, M. Gbeassor
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104951
Abstract:
Syzygium aromaticum is used in combination with other plants as an al-coholic infusion by traditional practitioners to treat infections. It has been selected for evaluation for its antimicrobial properties to justify its use in traditional pharmacopoeia. The fruits were used as plant material while the microbial germs consisted of six reference strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Candida albicans ATCC 35659 and their clinical counterparts. The extracts were obtained by aqueous decoction, hydroethanolic and ethanolic macerations. The phytochemical screening was performed by chemical staining tests. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the well diffusion method and the MIC and MBC or MFC were determined using the 96-well microplate dilution method. The results showed that 66.67% of the strains tested were sensitive to the aqueous extract with inhibition diameters ranging from 15 to 21 mm and MIC and MCB or MFC between 0.0976 - 0.3906 mg/mL and 0.1953 - 07812 mg/mL respectively, thus determining bacteriostatic activity. 100% of the germs tested were sensitive to hydroethanolic and ethanolic extracts. The inhibition diameters range from 12 - 28 mm for hydroethanolic extract with MIC and MBC or MFC ranging from 0.0488 - 0.3906 mm and 0.0488 - 0.7812 mm respectively. The ethanolic extract gave inhibition diameters of 12 - 26 mm; MIC and MBC or MFC ranging from 0.0976 - 0.7812 mm. Hydroethanolic extract gave three (3) bactericidal/fungicidal activities compared to four (4) as for ethanolic extract. These results prove the use of S. aromaticum among traditional recipes for treating infections in the pharmacopoeia but further studies remain important to produce traditionally improved drugs.
Relationship between Distinct African Cholera Epidemics Revealed via MLVA Haplotyping of 337 Vibrio cholerae Isolates
Sandra Moore?,Berthe Miwanda?,Adodo Yao Sadji,Hélène Thefenne?,Fakhri Jeddi?,Stanislas Rebaudet?,Hilde de Boeck?,Bawimodom Bidjada?,Jean-Jacques Depina?,Didier Bompangue
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003817
Abstract: Background Since cholera appeared in Africa during the 1970s, cases have been reported on the continent every year. In Sub-Saharan Africa, cholera outbreaks primarily cluster at certain hotspots including the African Great Lakes Region and West Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we applied MLVA (Multi-Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis) typing of 337 Vibrio cholerae isolates from recent cholera epidemics in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Zambia, Guinea and Togo. We aimed to assess the relationship between outbreaks. Applying this method, we identified 89 unique MLVA haplotypes across our isolate collection. MLVA typing revealed the short-term divergence and microevolution of these Vibrio cholerae populations to provide insight into the dynamics of cholera outbreaks in each country. Our analyses also revealed strong geographical clustering. Isolates from the African Great Lakes Region (DRC and Zambia) formed a closely related group, while West African isolates (Togo and Guinea) constituted a separate cluster. At a country-level scale our analyses revealed several distinct MLVA groups, most notably DRC 2011/2012, DRC 2009, Zambia 2012 and Guinea 2012. We also found that certain MLVA types collected in the DRC persisted in the country for several years, occasionally giving rise to expansive epidemics. Finally, we found that the six environmental isolates in our panel were unrelated to the epidemic isolates. Conclusions/Significance To effectively combat the disease, it is critical to understand the mechanisms of cholera emergence and diffusion in a region-specific manner. Overall, these findings demonstrate the relationship between distinct epidemics in West Africa and the African Great Lakes Region. This study also highlights the importance of monitoring and analyzing Vibrio cholerae isolates.
A New Paradigm for Metallic Alloys in Materials Science  [PDF]
Y. Ustinovshikov
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2015.57025
Abstract: In the article, taking into account the phase transition “ordering-phase separation” discovered in alloys, new concepts about the diffusion phase transformations in alloys are formulated: chemical interaction between dissimilar atoms exists always in all alloys and at any temperature of heating; alloys offer a surprising and not previously known property of changing the sign of the chemical interaction between dissimilar atoms at a change of the temperature or composition of alloys; diffusion processes occurring in alloys at different temperatures depend on the sign and the absolute magnitude of the energy of the chemical interaction between dissimilar atoms. All these three concepts are analyzed in detail, by the example of Ni-based and Co-based binary alloys using experimental results obtained by transmission electron microscopy. It is shown, on these ideas, how to carry out heat treatment of alloys more rationally, what principles should underpinned in the base of the construction of phase diagrams, how the microstructures of ordering and phase separation affect some properties of alloys.
Quasi-Square Wave Mode Phase-Shifted PWM LCC Resonant Converter for Regulated Power Supply  [PDF]
S. PADMANABHAN, Y. SUKHI, Y. JEYASHREE
Engineering (ENG) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2009.13024
Abstract: This paper presents an improved self sustained oscillating controller circuit using LCC components for improving the overall efficiency of the system. It has a micro controller based active controller, which controls the performance from no-load up to full-load. The steady state characteristics are developed and a design example is given in detail. The proposed controller allows zero current switching at any loading condition which results in a reasonable reduction of power loss during switching with a promising efficiency. Analytical and experimental results verify the achievement the design specifications.
After the Treatment Phase of Colorectal Cancer Care: Survivorship and Follow-Up  [PDF]
Maria Y. Ho, Winson Y. Cheung
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.326125
Abstract: The number of long-term colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors has increased substantially over the past three decades due to both ongoing advances in early detection and improvements in cancer therapies. Adult survivors of CRC experience chronic health conditions due to normal issues associated with aging, which is further compounded by the long-term adverse effects of having had cancer and anti-cancer therapies. In addition, they are at a higher risk for CRC recurrences, new primary cancers, and other co-morbidities. This article will provide an overview of the clinical care of adult survivors of CRC. Epidemiologic data will be presented followed by a discussion of the approach to the care of long-term adult survivors of CRC, including surveillance of recurrences and new primary cancers, interventions to manage both physical and psychological consequences of cancer and its treatments, and strategies to address concerns related to unemployment and disability. Finally, we will explore the challenges of healthcare delivery, especially with respect to the coordination of follow-up between cancer specialists and primary care physicians, so as to ensure that all of the survivor’s health needs are met promptly and appropriately.
Electronic states and pairing symmetry in the two-dimensional 16 band d-p model for iron-based superconductor
Y. Yanagi,Y. Yamakawa,Y. ōno
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJS.77SC.149
Abstract: The electronic states of the FeAs plane in iron-based superconductors are investigated on the basis of the two-dimensional 16-band d-p model, where the tight-binding parameters are determined so as to fit the band structure obtained by the density functional calculation for LaFeAsO. The model includes the Coulomb interaction on a Fe site: the intra- and inter-orbital direct terms U and U', the exchange coupling J and the pair-transfer J'. Within the random phase approximation (RPA), we discuss the pairing symmetry of possible superconducting states including s-wave and d-wave pairing on the U'-J plane.
Detecting the light of the night sky in Mars  [PDF]
Nebil Y. Misconi
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.34036
Abstract: In this paper a new methodology is outlined to detect the dust content in the Martian atmosphere during nighttime. In the previous Lander missions to Mars, scientists were able to determine the dust load in the Martian atmosphere during daylight using spectral lines of the Sun. Since the dynamics of Martian dust storms had been determined to be very rapid changing over times of hours and not days, it is imperative to determine the dust load during nighttime, so future astronauts to Mars can take protective measures for their equipment. They can also factor this effect for their planned activities during daytime. The new methodology greatly improves on the classical method for determining the extinction in the Earth’s atmosphere. The classical method uses observations of bright stars from which the optical depth, ?total, can then be deduced from the classical brightness equation. The classical method succeeds reasonably well at high elevation angles from the horizon but fails dramatically at low elevation angles. It also determines ?total from the slope of a plot of observed brightness of a bright star vs. air mass at all elevations. The plot shows a straight line at high elevations angles, which then curves and becomes uncertain at low elevation angles. The new methodology bypasses this severe difficulty by simply eliminating this plot, and by acquiring the brightness of a bright star above the atmosphere (no extinction) and compares it to the observed bright- ness of the same star below the atmosphere at all elevations.
The Effects of Dimension Ratio and Horizon Length in the Micropolar Peridynamic Model  [PDF]
Y. Ferhat, I. Ozkol
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.36071
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of horizon selection on the elastic behaviour of plate type structures in the micropolar peridynamic theory. Plates with various lengths and widths have been investi-gated using micropolar peridynamic model for different horizon selections. The mathematical model of plates has been provided applying the micropolar peridynamic theory and solution of this model has been obtained by finite element methods. The displacement fields have been computed for the different horizons and dimension ratios of plates. To compute the displacement field a program code has been developed by using the software package MATHEMATICA. The results obtained have been compared with the analytical solution of the classical elasticity theory and with the solution of displacement based finite element methods. For displacement based finite element method solution the software package ANSYS has been used. Ac-cording to results it has been observed that the displacement fields of the plates are strongly affected by ho-rizon selection. Therefore a question raises that which horizon length should be used with the problem in hand or is there any method to find the appropriate/best horizon length.
Distortion of Space and Time during Saccadic Eye Movements  [PDF]
M. Suzuki, Y. Yamazaki
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2010.22011
Abstract: The space-time distortion perceived subjectively during saccadic eye movements is an associative phenomenon of a transient shift of observer’s visual frame of reference from one position to another. Here we report that the lines of subjective simultaneity defined as two spatially separated flashes perceived during saccades were nearly uniformly tilted along the physical time-course. The causality of the resulting space-time compression may be explained by the Minkowski space-time diagram in physics.
Byuons, Quantum Information Channel, Consciousness and Universe  [PDF]
Y. A. Baurov
Open Journal of Microphysics (OJM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojm.2011.12007
Abstract: The physics of consciousness and universal mind is shown on the base of theory of byuons, the theory of “life’ of special unobservable discrete objects—byuons from which the surrounding space and the world of elementary particles are formed. An essential distinction of that theory from the modern models in the classical and quantum field theories is that the potentials of physical fields (gravitational, electromagnetic, asf.) gain exactly fixable, measurable values. Basic axioms and some conclusions of this theory are discussed. The theory of byuons predicts the existence of a new force and a new quantum information channel in nature. All objects of the Universe are shown to be united into the unique information field due to the huge interval of uncertainty in the coordinate (Δx = L = 1028 cm) of objects 4b (object formed during four-contact byuon-byuon interaction ( mc24b = 33 eV)) forming the surrounding physical space. It is a new quantum information channel.
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