Dynamic
monitoring of plant cover and soil erosion often uses remote sensing data,
especially for estimating the plant cover rate (vegetation coverage) by
vegetation index. However, the latter is influenced by atmospheric effects and
methods for correcting them are still imperfect and disputed. This research
supposed and practiced an indirect, fast, and operational method to conduct
atmospheric correction of images for getting comparable vegetation index values
in different times. It tries to find a variable free from atmospheric effects,
e.g., the mean vegetation coverage value of the whole study area, as a basis to
reduce atmospheric correction parameters by establishing mathematical models
and conducting simulation calculations. Using these parameters, the images can
be atmospherically corrected. And then, the vegetation index and corresponding
vegetation coverage values for all pixels, the vegetation coverage maps and
coverage grade maps for different years were calculated, i.e., the plant cover monitoring was realized. Using the vegetation
coverage grade maps and the ground slope grade map from a DEM to generate soil
erosion grade maps for different years, the soil erosion monitoring was also
realized. The results show that in the study area the vegetation coverage was
the lowest in 1976, much better in 1989, but a bit worse again in 2001. Towards
the soil erosion, it had been mitigated continuously from 1976 to 1989 and then
to 2001. It is interesting that a little decrease of vegetation coverage from
1989 to 2001 did not lead to increase of soil erosion. The reason is that the
decrease of vegetation coverage was chiefly caused by urbanization and thus
mainly occurred in very gentle terrains, where soil erosion was naturally
slight. The results clearly indicate the details of plant cover and soil
erosion change in 25 years and also offer a scientific foundation for plant
and soil conservation.

Abstract:
Ting Zhang,1 Yong Zheng,2 iang Peng,3 Xi Cao,1 Tao Gong,1 Zhirong Zhang11Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery Systems, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 2Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 3State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Vincristine (VCR), which is a widely used antineoplastic drug, was integrated with a submicron-emulsion drug-delivery system to enhance the anticancer effect.Methods: After the formation of a VCR–oleic acid ion-pair complex (VCR-OA), the VCR-OA-loaded submicron emulsion (VCR-OA-SME), prepared by classical high-pressure homogenization, was characterized and its in vitro anticancer effects were evaluated.Results: The submicron-emulsion formulation exhibited a homogeneous round shape. The mean particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency were 157.6 ± 12.6 nm, 26.5 ± 5.0 mV and 78.64% ± 3.44%, respectively. An in vitro release study of the VCR-OA-SME revealed that 12.4% of the VCR was released within the first 2 hours (initial burst-release phase) and the rest of the drug was detected in the subsequent sustained-release phase. Compared with VCR solution, the pharmacokinetic study of VCR-OA-SME showed relatively longer mean residence time (mean residence time [0–∞] increased from 187.19 to 227.56 minutes), higher maximum concentration (from 252.13 ng/mL to 533.34 ng/mL), and greater area under the curve (area under the curve [0–∞] from 11,417.77 μg/L/minute to 17,164.34 μg/L/minute. Moreover, the VCR-OA-SME exhibited higher cytotoxicity (P < 0.05) on tumor cells by inducing cell arrest in the G2/M phase or even apoptosis (P < 0.05).Conclusion: The VCR-OA-SME formulation in our study displayed great potential for an anticancer effect for VCR.Keywords: ion-pair complex, submicron emulsion, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell uptake

Abstract:
Autophagy is a cellular pathway that leads to the degradation of proteins and organelles. This process is usually involved in the maintenance of cell homeostasis when the organism experiences nutrient starvation, but in holometabolous insects autophagy also intervenes in the demolition of larval tissues and organs during metamorphosis. This review summarizes the current knowledge about autophagy research in Lepidoptera and discusses the use of moths and butterflies as models for tudying the roles and regulation of autophagy. It also gives insights into the cooperation between utophagy and apoptosis in cell death events that occur in lepidopteran in vivo and in vitro systems.

Abstract:
Based on the framework of the Isospin-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) model in which the initial neutron and proton densities are sampled according to the droplet model, the correlation between triton-to-$^{3}$He yield ratio (R(t/$^{3}$He)$=$Yield(t)/Yield($^{3}$He)) and neutron skin thickness (${\delta}_{np}$) in neutron-rich projectile induced reactions is investigated. By changing the diffuseness parameter of neutron density distribution in the droplet model for the projectile to obtain different ${\delta}_{np}$, the relationship between ${\delta}_{np}$ and the corresponding R(t/$^{3}$He) in semi-peripheral collisions is obtained. The calculated results show that R(t/$^{3}$He) has a strong linear correlation with ${\delta}_{np}$ for neutron-rich $^{50}$Ca and $^{68}$Ni nuclei. It is suggested that R(t/$^{3}$He) could be regarded as a good experimental observable to extract ${\delta}_{np}$ for neutron-rich nuclei because the yields of charged particles triton and $^{3}$He can be measured quite precisely.

Abstract:
The fragment production in collisions of $^{48,50}$Ca+$^{12}$C at 50 MeV/nucleon are simulated via the Isospin-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) model followed by the {GEMINI code}. {By changing the diffuseness parameter of neutron density distribution to obtain different neutron skin size, the effects of neutron skin thickness (${\delta}_{np}$) on projectile-like fragments (PLF) are investigated. The sensitivity of isoscaling behavior to neutron skin size is studied, from which it is found that the isoscaling parameter $\alpha$ has a linear dependence on ${\delta}_{np}$. A linear dependence between ${\delta}_{np}$ and the mean $N/Z$ [N(Z) is neutron(proton) number] of PLF is obtained as well.} The results show that thicker neutron skin will lead to smaller {isoscaling parameter} $\alpha$ and N/Z. Therefore, it may be probable to extract information of neutron skin thickness from {isoscaling parameter} $\alpha$ and N/Z.

Abstract:
The correlation between the elliptic flow $v_2$ scaled by the impact parameter $b$ and the shear viscosity $\eta$ as well as the specific viscosity $\eta/s$, defined as the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density $s$, is investigated for the first time in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions based on an isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamic model. The elliptic flow is calculated at balance energies to exclude the geometric influence such as the blocking effect from the spectators. Our study shows that $v_{2}/b$ decreases almost linearly with increasing $\eta$, consistent with that observed in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. On the other hand, $v_{2}/b$ is found to increase with increasing $\eta/s$.

Abstract:
Pygmy and Giant Dipole Resonance (PDR and GDR) in Ni isotopes have been investigated by Coulomb excitation in the framework of the Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (IQMD). The spectra of $\gamma$ rays are calculated and the peak energy, the strength and Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of GDR and PDR have been extracted. Their sensitivities to nuclear equation of state, especially to its symmetry energy term are also explored. By a comparison with the other mean-field calculations, we obtain the reasonable values for symmetry energy and its slope parameter at saturation, which gives an important constrain for IQMD model. In addition, we also studied the neutron excess dependence of GDR and PDR parameters for Ni isotopes and found that the energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR) $PDR_{m_1}/GDR_{m_1}%$ increases linearly with the neutron excess.

Abstract:
The isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) in Sn isotopes and other nuclei is investigated in the framework of the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model. The spectrum of GMR is calculated by taking the root-mean-square (RMS) radius of a nucleus as its monopole moment. The peak energy, the full width at half maximum (FWHM), and the strength of GMR extracted by a Gaussian fit to the spectrum have been studied. The GMR peak energies for Sn isotopes from the calculations using a mass-number dependent Gaussian wave-packet width $\sigma_r$ for nucleons are found to be overestimated and show a weak dependence on the mass number compared with the experimental data. However, it is found that experimental data of the GMR peak energies for $^{56}$Ni, $^{90}$Zr, and $^{208}$Pb as well as Sn isotopes can be nicely reproduced after taking into account the isospin dependence in isotope chains in addition to the mass number dependence of $\sigma_r$ for nucleons in the IQMD model calculation.

Abstract:
The technology of genetic engineering has been widely used to express macromolecules such as enzymes. However, it is difficult to detect and purify the micromolecules such as small peptides, because of their instability and degradability. Construction of multi-copy recombinant expression plasmid can be achieved by inserting multiple target genes or expression cassette containing target genes with the same orientation into expression vector. This is effective to increase the expression level of small peptides. In this article we described four methods in order to provide some optional methods and ideas for the expression of active small peptides.

Abstract:
a high-temperature molten carbonate fuel cell stack was studied experimentally and computationally. experimental data for fuel cell temperature was obtained when the stack was running under given operational conditions. a 3-d cfd numerical model was set up and used to simulate the central fuel cell in the stack. it includes the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, the ideal gas law and an empirical equation for cell voltage. the model was used to simulate the transient behavior of the fuel cell under the same operational conditions as those of the experiment. simulation results show that the transient temperature and current and power densities reach their maximal values at the channel outlet. a comparison of the modeling results and the experimental data shows the good agreement.