oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2019 ( 15 )

2018 ( 122 )

2017 ( 100 )

2016 ( 126 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 50655 matches for " Y Adamu "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /50655
Display every page Item
Prevalence of Cataract Blindness in Rural Ethiopia
A Woldeyes, Y Adamu
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Over three-quarter of all blindness worldwide are preventable and usually caused by cataract and trachoma. Objective: To assess the prevalence of cataract blindness in rural Ethiopia in order to facilitate further health care planning. Methods: A Cross-sectional, community-based study of inhabitants over 40 years of age from villages in the Abeshge and Kebena Districts, south of Addis Ababa. A total of 1100 eligible participants were identified in the study. Visual acuity (VA) was measured using a Snellen’s E chart at 6 metres and eye examinations were performed using torch light, 2.5 X magnifying glasses and an ophthalmoscope. Cataract was defined as lens opacity identified as the cause of blindness and low vision after ruling out other causes. Unfortunately, there was no access to a refraction set and slit lamp to conduct thorough examinations. Results: The adjusted prevalence of bilateral cataract blindness (VA<3/60) was 2.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8%–3.0%. Cataract is the major cause of bilateral blindness (66.7%) among the participants. The cataract surgical coverage was 28.9% for men and 18.1% for women. The adjusted prevalence of bilateral cataract and VA<6/60 was 3.6% (95% CI, 1.4%–5.8%). In this last group, the surgical coverage was 41.2% (persons) and 38.5% (eyes). Of all operated eyes, 30% could not see at 6/60. Inability to afford the procedure (64.5%) and poor knowledge of cataract (29.8%) were the reasons why surgery had not been performed. Conclusions: Cataract blindness is a major health problem in the study area with low surgical uptake. There is backlog of cataract blindness in the study area that will increase with ageing. This backlog was also reflected in other developing countries. Awareness campaigns, reducing cost, and expansion of surgical services may help to increase the cataract surgical rate, and women should be offered more cataract surgery. These results will enable health managers to plan effective interventions in line with Vision 2020. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2011;25(2):156-160]
Linear Subspaces of Solutions Applied to Hirota Bilinear Equation
M. Y. Adamu,E. Suleiman
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Linear subspace of solution is applied to Boussinesq and Kadomtseve-Petviashvili (KP) equations using Hirota bilinear transformation. A sufficient and necessary condition for the existence of linear subspaces of exponential travelling wave solutions to Hirota bilinear equations is applied to show that multivariate polynomials whose zeros form a vector space can generate the desire Hirota bilinear equations with given linear subspaces of solutions and formulate such multivariate polynomials by using multivariate polynomials which have one and only one zero
Comparative performance of HbA1c 6.5% for FPG ≥ 7.0 vs 2hr PG≥ 11.1 criteria for diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes
AN Adamu
African Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Background: International expert committee on the use of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes mellitus in 2009 and World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 has advocated the use of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes mellitus. Objective: To determine and compare the relationship between the new cut off value of HbA1c with established criteria. Methods: Thirty-one hypertensive subjects attending Lagos University Teaching Hospital were recruited for HbA1c and standard oral glucose tolerance test. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and two-hour plasma glucose (2hrpp) value of e”126mg/dl and >200mg/dl were used as standard respectively for diagnosis of diabetes. The HbA1c of e”6.5% was used to diagnose diabetes. The performance and correlation of HbA1c with FPG and 2hrpp were calculated and results were compared. Results: Mean age of the subjects was 53.97±6.27years. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), efficiency and correlation of FPG is 50%, 68%, 27%, 85%, 64% and 0.5 respectively while the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, efficiency and correlation of 2hrpp is 73.91%, 62.5%,85%, 41.66%, 70.97% and 0.73% respectively. There was a significant difference between FPG and 2hrpp interms of sensitivity, PPV and NPV. Conclusion: The results of HbA1c with 2hrpp has better correlation, sensitivity, and PPV compared to HbA1c with FPG.
Prevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Borno State, Nigeria
J Y Adamu, M M Aliyu
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Epidemiological situation of contagious bovine pleuropneumoia (CBPP) over a ten (10) year period in Borno State of Nigeria was examined. During this period, 1,178 out of 355,745 cattle examined at postmortem had lesions suggestive of CBPP giving an overall prevalence rate of 0.33%. Highest prevalence rate of 0.77% was recorded in 1988 while lowest prevalence rate of 0.08% was recorded in 1994. Total vaccination coverage during the same period was 2,344,520 with highest vaccination coverage of 488,054 (10.8%) in 1988 and the lowest coverage of 66,398 (1.5%) in 1997. A total of 37 outbreaks of CBPP were reported during the period under review with highest outbreak (8) occurring in 1990. Seasonal prevalence of the disease was found to be highest in rainy season (0.20%) than the dry season (0.13%) but was not statistically significant (P>0.05). In a related development, a total of 3,875 cattle were examined between January and July 1998 in an attempt to find the incidence of CBPP using agar gel precipitation test (AGPT). Out of 57 suspected lungs, 41 (1.1%) were positive for AGPT. The disease is still endemic in Borno State and vaccination coverage was grossly inadequate.
Pasteurellosis To Mannheimiosis: Taxanomic Changes
J Y Adamu, J A Ameh
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Pasteurellosis is a disease of ruminants that have been recognized for long but there has been extensive reclassification of the aetiologic agent. Pasteurella haemolytica is the agent of pasteurellosis. Recent advances have renamed the organism to Mannheimia haemolytica conversely changing the disease name to Mannheimiosis. The bacterium has 17 serovars presently but serovars 3, 4, 10 and 15 retained the name Pasteurella which is predominantly associated with septicaemia while the rest are now known as Mannheimia. In Nigeria, serotypes A1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and T10 has been reported. Therefore, pasteurellosis may well be called mannheimiosis.
Effect of Vitamins A, C, and E Supplementation in the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome in Albino Rats
L. S. Bilbis,S. A. Muhammad,Y. Saidu,Y. Adamu
Biochemistry Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/678582
Abstract: Obesity and metabolic syndrome increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress seems to be involved in the path physiology of cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome. In this study we investigated the effects of vitamins A, C, and E in the management of metabolic syndrome traits condition in albino rats fed with high salt diet. The rats were placed on 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and then supplemented with these vitamins for additional 4 weeks in the presence of salt diet. Supplementation with vitamins significantly (<0.01 ) decreased blood pressure of the rats as compared with the control. Supplementation also significantly (<0.05) reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total antioxidant status as compared with untreated group. The percentage protection of the supplemented groups against atherogenesis indicated 55.50±3.75%. Percentage weight gain indicated significant positive correlation with triglyceride, insulin resistance, and malondialdehyde while total antioxidant status and nitric oxide showed significant negative correlation. Salt diet significantly (<0.05) induced features of metabolic syndrome. The result, therefore, indicated strong relationship between obesity and metabolic syndrome and underscores the role of these vitamins in the management of metabolic syndrome.
Effect of Antioxidant Mineral Elements Supplementation in the Treatment of Hypertension in Albino Rats
S. A. Muhammad,L. S. Bilbis,Y. Saidu,Y. Adamu
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/134723
Abstract: Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The current work was designed with the aim of investigating the potentials of antioxidants copper, manganese, and zinc in the treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats. The rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and treatment with supplements in the presence of the challenging agent for additional 4 weeks. The supplementation significantly decreased the blood pressure as compared with hypertensive control. The result also indicated significant decreased in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, insulin and increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total antioxidant activities, and nitric oxide of the supplemented groups relative to the hypertensive control. The average percentage protection against atherogenesis indicated 47.13 ± 9.60% for all the supplemented groups. The mean arterial blood pressure showed significant positive correlation with glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, insulin resistance and malondialdehyde while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total antioxidant activities showed negative correlation. The result therefore indicated strong relationship between oxidative stress and hypertension and underscores the role of antioxidant minerals in reducing oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance associated with hypertension.
Effect of Vitamins A, C, and E Supplementation in the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome in Albino Rats
L. S. Bilbis,S. A. Muhammad,Y. Saidu,Y. Adamu
Biochemistry Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/678582
Abstract: Obesity and metabolic syndrome increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress seems to be involved in the path physiology of cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome. In this study we investigated the effects of vitamins A, C, and E in the management of metabolic syndrome traits condition in albino rats fed with high salt diet. The rats were placed on 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and then supplemented with these vitamins for additional 4 weeks in the presence of salt diet. Supplementation with vitamins significantly ( ) decreased blood pressure of the rats as compared with the control. Supplementation also significantly ( ) reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total antioxidant status as compared with untreated group. The percentage protection of the supplemented groups against atherogenesis indicated %. Percentage weight gain indicated significant positive correlation with triglyceride, insulin resistance, and malondialdehyde while total antioxidant status and nitric oxide showed significant negative correlation. Salt diet significantly ( ) induced features of metabolic syndrome. The result, therefore, indicated strong relationship between obesity and metabolic syndrome and underscores the role of these vitamins in the management of metabolic syndrome. 1. Introduction Metabolic syndrome, a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors that is characterized by hypertension, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and abdominal obesity, is associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases [1–4]. High blood pressure is considered one of the key features of metabolic syndrome [5]. The increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome is due to rising number of people who are obese and inactive [6, 7]. It is important to emphasize that obesity increases the likelihood of an individual to develop insulin resistance [8]. The cluster of risk factors of metabolic syndrome is responsible for cardiovascular morbidity among overweight, obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects [9]. Approximately 1 adult in 4 or 5, depending on the country, shows features of the syndrome. In the category over 50 years of age, it affects more than 40% of the population in the United States and nearly 30% in Europe [10]. There is evidence of increasing incidence and prevalent of the metabolic syndrome in sub-Saharan Africans [11, 12]. However, the establishment of hypertension as a
Effect of Antioxidant Mineral Elements Supplementation in the Treatment of Hypertension in Albino Rats
S. A. Muhammad,L. S. Bilbis,Y. Saidu,Y. Adamu
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/134723
Abstract: Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The current work was designed with the aim of investigating the potentials of antioxidants copper, manganese, and zinc in the treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats. The rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and treatment with supplements in the presence of the challenging agent for additional 4 weeks. The supplementation significantly decreased the blood pressure as compared with hypertensive control. The result also indicated significant decreased in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, insulin and increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total antioxidant activities, and nitric oxide of the supplemented groups relative to the hypertensive control. The average percentage protection against atherogenesis indicated 47.13 ± 9.60% for all the supplemented groups. The mean arterial blood pressure showed significant positive correlation with glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, insulin resistance and malondialdehyde while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total antioxidant activities showed negative correlation. The result therefore indicated strong relationship between oxidative stress and hypertension and underscores the role of antioxidant minerals in reducing oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance associated with hypertension. 1. Introduction Hypertension is one of the most common diseases worlds over and a major cause of death from cardiovascular failure. Due to associated morbidity and mortality, hypertension is a public health problem [1], and thus the need to search for proper preventive and management strategies should be the concern of health care providers. Increased vascular oxidative stress could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension [2, 3] a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality in the developed and developing countries. The onset of hypertension is caused by complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors [4]. Increased salt intake may aggravate the rise in blood pressure and the development of consequential end-organ damage [5]. The novel concept that structural and functional abnormalities in the vasculature, including endothelial dysfunction, increased oxidative stress, and decreased antioxidant
Age at menarche among school girls in Sokoto, Northern Nigeria
KA Tunau, AN Adamu, MA Hassan, Y Ahmed, BA Ekele
Annals of African Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Background/Objectives: Menarche, the first menstrual period, is influenced by many factors including socio-economic status and rural or urban dwelling. The aims of the study were to compare the age at menarche between rural and urban girls and evaluate the anthropometric indices at menarche. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of rural secondary school girls and urban school girls. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on their age at menarche and other relevant data. Their weights and heights were measured using computerized scales and calibrated walls. Results: Two hundred and twenty eight (228) rural girls and four hundred and eighty (480) urban girls that had attained menarche within a year were studied. Mean age at menarche for all the girls was 15.26 years. Mean menarcheal age for the rural and urban girls were 15.32 years and 15.20 years, respectively. Mean weight and height were 47.6 kg and 156.76 cm, respectively for the rural girls and 48.12 kg and 156.8 cm, respectively for the urban girls. There was no significance difference in age of menarche among the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The mean age at menarche for the school girls is 15.26 years. There was no difference in menarcheal age between the rural and urban school girls. Further longitudinal studies to compare rural school girls and urban school girls in private schools are required.
Page 1 /50655
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.