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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8142 matches for " Xinping Cui "
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Establishing a Regional Nitrogen Management Approach to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensity from Intensive Smallholder Maize Production
Liang Wu, Xinping Chen, Zhenling Cui, Weifeng Zhang, Fusuo Zhang
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098481
Abstract: The overuse of Nitrogen (N) fertilizers on smallholder farms in rapidly developing countries has increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and accelerated global N consumption over the past 20 years. In this study, a regional N management approach was developed based on the cost of the agricultural response to N application rates from 1,726 on-farm experiments to optimize N management across 12 agroecological subregions in the intensive Chinese smallholder maize belt. The grain yield and GHG emission intensity of this regional N management approach was investigated and compared to field-specific N management and farmers' practices. The regional N rate ranged from 150 to 219 kg N ha?1 for the 12 agroecological subregions. Grain yields and GHG emission intensities were consistent with this regional N management approach compared to field-specific N management, which indicated that this regional N rate was close to the economically optimal N application. This regional N management approach, if widely adopted in China, could reduce N fertilizer use by more than 1.4 MT per year, increase maize production by 31.9 MT annually, and reduce annual GHG emissions by 18.6 MT. This regional N management approach can minimize net N losses and reduce GHG emission intensity from over- and underapplications, and therefore can also be used as a reference point for regional agricultural extension employees where soil and/or plant N monitoring is lacking.
Comparing genomic expression patterns across plant species reveals highly diverged transcriptional dynamics in response to salt stress
Harkamal Walia, Clyde Wilson, Abdelbagi M Ismail, Timothy J Close, Xinping Cui
BMC Genomics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-10-398
Abstract: A hierarchical clustering approach identified several interesting expression trajectories among rice and barley genotypes. There were no major conserved expression patterns between the two species in response to salt stress. A wheat salt-stress dataset was queried for comparison with rice and barley. Roughly one-third of the salt-stress responses of barley were conserved with wheat while overlap between wheat and rice was minimal. These results demonstrate that, at transcriptome level, rice is strikingly different compared to the more closely related barley and wheat. This apparent lack of analogous transcriptional programs in response to salt stress is further highlighted through close examination of genes associated with root growth and development.The analysis provides support for the hypothesis that conservation of transcriptional signatures in response to environmental cues depends on the genetic similarity among the genotypes within a species, and on the phylogenetic distance between the species.Phenotypic divergence can often be traced to gene expression variation. Gene expression variation resulting in phenotypic differences has been observed among individuals within a population, a species and across multiple species [1,2]. Although instances of phenotypic divergence and underlying expression variation were reported in the past, it was the advent of reliable microarray technology that enabled biologists to study expression variation at a whole-genome level and link it to phenotypic variation.Several studies have focused on expression level variation among accession within the species and between species in Drosophila, primates, yeast and fish [1,3-5]. In the plant kingdom, however, comparative genomics expression analyses across species have been scarce. One noteworthy comparative interspecies experiment sampled different tissues and revealed a low correlation for conserved expression pattern between rice and Arabidopsis orthologs [6]. The comparison betwee
Array-based genotyping and expression analysis of barley cv. Maythorpe and Golden Promise
Harkamal Walia, Clyde Wilson, Pascal Condamine, Abdelbagi M Ismail, Jin Xu, Xinping Cui, Timothy J Close
BMC Genomics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-8-87
Abstract: The level of polymorphism between the two genotypes was explored using the Barley1 GeneChip for single feature polymorphisms (SFPs) and an oligonucleotide pool assay for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Polymorphism analyses revealed three haplotype blocks spanning 6.4 cM on chromosome 1H, 23.7 cM on chromosome 4H and 3.0 cM on 5H. The Barley1 GeneChip was used to examine transcript abundance in different tissues and stages during development. Several genes within the polymorphic haplotype blocks were differentially regulated. Additionally, a more global difference in the jasmonic acid pathway regulation was detected between the two genotypes.The results confirm that Golden Promise and Maythorpe are genetically very closely related but establish that they are not isogenic, as previously reported, due to three polymorphic haplotype blocks. Transcriptome analysis indicates that the response of the two genotypes to salinity stress is quite different. Additionally, the response to salinity stress in the roots and shoot tissue is strikingly different.Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is rated as a salt-tolerant member of the tribe Triticeae on the basis of grain yield in saline environments [1]. Salt tolerance in Triticeae is generally associated with Na+ ion exclusion during growth under saline conditions [2,3]. Considerable genetic variation exists in salt tolerance with respect to Na+ ion exclusion in barley as well as in Triticeae in general. Barley cultivar, Golden Promise was reported to be a gamma-ray induced mutant of cultivar Maythorpe [4]. Golden Promise was selected for its desirable agronomic traits such as short stature and earliness, and became a popular malting variety. It was later discovered that Golden Promise also has a more effective Na+ exclusion than Maythorpe in a salt tolerance screening experiment conducted at the Scottish Crop Research Institute [5]. Golden Promise accumulates lower Na+ in shoot tissue compared to Maythorpe under high salt cond
Understanding Dry Matter and Nitrogen Accumulation with Time-Course for High-Yielding Wheat Production in China
Qingfeng Meng, Shanchao Yue, Xinping Chen, Zhenling Cui, Youliang Ye, Wenqi Ma, Yanan Tong, Fusuo Zhang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068783
Abstract: Understanding the time-course of dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) accumulation in terms of yield–trait relationships is essential to simultaneously increase grain yield and synchronize N demand and N supply. We collected 413 data points from 11 field experiments to address patterns of DM and N accumulation with time in relation to grain yield and management of winter wheat in China. Detailed growth analysis was conducted at the Zadok growth stages (GS) 25 (regreening), GS30 (stem elongation), GS60 (anthesis), and GS100 (maturity) in all experiments, including DM and N accumulation. Grain yield averaged 7.3 Mg ha?1, ranging from 2.1 to 11.2 Mg ha?1. The percent N accumulation was consistent prior to DM accumulation, while both DM and N accumulation increased continuously with growing time. Both the highest and fastest DM and N accumulations were observed from stem elongation to the anthesis stage. Significant correlations between grain yield and DM and N accumulation were found at each of the four growth stages, although no positive relationship was observed between grain yield and harvest index or N harvest index. The yield increase from 7–9 Mg ha?1 to >9 Mg ha?1 was mainly attributed to increased DM and N accumulation from stem elongation to anthesis. Although applying more N fertilizer increased N accumulation during this stage, DM accumulation was not improved, indicating that N fertilizer management and related agronomic management should be intensified synchronously across the wheat growing season to simultaneously achieve high yields and match N demand and N supply.
Zinc, Iron, Manganese and Copper Uptake Requirement in Response to Nitrogen Supply and the Increased Grain Yield of Summer Maize
Yanfang Xue, Shanchao Yue, Wei Zhang, Dunyi Liu, Zhenling Cui, Xinping Chen, Youliang Ye, Chunqin Zou
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093895
Abstract: The relationships between grain yields and whole-plant accumulation of micronutrients such as zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) in maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated by studying their reciprocal internal efficiencies (RIEs, g of micronutrient requirement in plant dry matter per Mg of grain). Field experiments were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in North China to evaluate RIEs and shoot micronutrient accumulation dynamics during different growth stages under different yield and nitrogen (N) levels. Fe, Mn and Cu RIEs (average 64.4, 18.1and 5.3 g, respectively) were less affected by the yield and N levels. ZnRIE increased by 15% with an increased N supply but decreased from 36.3 to 18.0 g with increasing yield. The effect of cultivars on ZnRIE was similar to that of yield ranges. The substantial decrease in ZnRIE may be attributed to an increased Zn harvest index (from 41% to 60%) and decreased Zn concentrations in straw (a 56% decrease) and grain (decreased from 16.9 to 12.2 mg kg?1) rather than greater shoot Zn accumulation. Shoot Fe, Mn and Cu accumulation at maturity tended to increase but the proportions of pre-silking shoot Fe, Cu and Zn accumulation consistently decreased (from 95% to 59%, 90% to 71% and 91% to 66%, respectively). The decrease indicated the high reproductive-stage demands for Fe, Zn and Cu with the increasing yields. Optimized N supply achieved the highest yield and tended to increase grain concentrations of micronutrients compared to no or lower N supply. Excessive N supply did not result in any increases in yield or micronutrient nutrition for shoot or grain. These results indicate that optimized N management may be an economical method of improving micronutrient concentrations in maize grain with higher grain yield.
Trichinella spiralis Paramyosin Binds to C8 and C9 and Protects the Tissue-Dwelling Nematode from Being Attacked by Host Complement
Zhifei Zhang,Jing Yang,Junfei Wei,Yaping Yang,Xiaoqin Chen,Xi Zhao,Yuan Gu,Shijuan Cui,Xinping Zhu
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001225
Abstract: Background Paramyosin is a thick myofibrillar protein found exclusively in invertebrates. Evidence suggested that paramyosin from helminths serves not only as a structural protein but also as an immunomodulatory agent. We previously reported that recombinant Trichinella spiralis paramyosin (Ts-Pmy) elicited a partial protective immunity in mice. In this study, the ability of Ts-Pmy to bind host complement components and protect against host complement attack was investigated. Methods and Findings In this study, the transcriptional and protein expression levels of Ts-Pmy were determined in T. spiralis newborn larva (NBL), muscle larva (ML) and adult worm developmental stages by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Expression of Ts-Pmy at the outer membrane was observed in NBL and adult worms using immunogold electron microscopy and immunofluorescence staining. Functional analysis revealed that recombinant Ts-Pmy(rTs-Pmy) strongly bound to complement components C8 and C9 and inhibited the polymerization of C9 during the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). rTs-Pmy also inhibited the lysis of rabbit erythrocytes (ER) elicited by an alternative pathway-activated complement from guinea pig serum. Inhibition of native Ts-Pmy on the surface of NBL with a specific antiserum reduced larvae viability when under the attack of complement in vitro. In vivo passive transfer of anti-Ts-Pmy antiserum and complement-treated larvae into mice also significantly reduced the number of larvae that developed to ML. Conclusion These studies suggest that the outer membrane form of T. spiralis paramyosin plays an important role in the evasion of the host complement attack.
Detection and validation of single feature polymorphisms in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) using a soybean genome array
Sayan Das, Prasanna R Bhat, Chinta Sudhakar, Jeffrey D Ehlers, Steve Wanamaker, Philip A Roberts, Xinping Cui, Timothy J Close
BMC Genomics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-107
Abstract: Here we report detection and validation of SFPs in cowpea using a readily available soybean (Glycine max) genome array. Robustified projection pursuit (RPP) was used for statistical analysis using RNA as a surrogate for DNA. Using a 15% outlying score cut-off, 1058 potential SFPs were enumerated between two parents of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population segregating for several important traits including drought tolerance, Fusarium and brown blotch resistance, grain size and photoperiod sensitivity. Sequencing of 25 putative polymorphism-containing amplicons yielded a SFP probe set validation rate of 68%.We conclude that the Affymetrix soybean genome array is a satisfactory platform for identification of some 1000's of SFPs for cowpea. This study provides an example of extension of genomic resources from a well supported species to an orphan crop. Presumably, other legume systems are similarly tractable to SFP marker development using existing legume array resources.Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is grown extensively as a food and fodder crop in West Africa, lower elevation areas of eastern and southern Africa, north-eastern Brazil, parts of the Middle East, India, and the south-eastern and south-western regions of North America [1]. Like common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) which are combined with maize or other starchy staple crops in other parts of the world, dry grain cowpea is consumed with lower protein cereal and root/tuber staples to provide an adequate protein quantity and quality to hundreds of millions of rural and urban consumers in West Africa [2,3]. Cowpea forage is used for livestock and cowpea hay plays a critical role as fodder during the dry season in West Africa [4]. 'Longbean' or 'Asparagus bean' of cowpea cultivar group Sesquipedialis is considered one of the top-ten Asian vegetable crops and is grown on at least 400,000 hectares worldwide for production of fresh 'green' or 'snap' beans.Cowpea (2n = 2x = 22) with genome size ~600 Mb be
Is the Inherent Potential of Maize Roots Efficient for Soil Phosphorus Acquisition?
Yan Deng, Keru Chen, Wan Teng, Ai Zhan, Yiping Tong, Gu Feng, Zhenling Cui, Fusuo Zhang, Xinping Chen
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090287
Abstract: Sustainable agriculture requires improved phosphorus (P) management to reduce the overreliance on P fertilization. Despite intensive research of root adaptive mechanisms for improving P acquisition, the inherent potential of roots for efficient P acquisition remains unfulfilled, especially in intensive agriculture, while current P management generally focuses on agronomic and environmental concerns. Here, we investigated how levels of soil P affect the inherent potential of maize (Zea mays L.) roots to obtain P from soil. Responses of root morphology, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, and phosphate transporters were characterized and related to agronomic traits in pot and field experiments with soil P supply from deficiency to excess. Critical soil Olsen-P level for maize growth approximated 3.2 mg kg?1, and the threshold indicating a significant environmental risk was about 15 mg kg?1, which represented the lower and upper levels of soil P recommended in current P management. However, most root adaptations involved with P acquisition were triggered when soil Olsen-P was below 10 mg kg?1, indicating a threshold for maximum root inherent potential. Therefore, to maintain efficient inherent potential of roots for P acquisition, we suggest that the target upper level of soil P in intensive agriculture should be reduced from the environmental risk threshold to the point maximizing the inherent potential of roots.
Coherent exciton transport and trapping on long-range interacting cycles
Xinping Xu
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.79.011117
Abstract: We consider coherent exciton transport modeled by continuous-time quantum walks (CTQWs) on long-range interacting cycles (LRICs), which are constructed by connecting all the two nodes of distance $m$ in the cycle graph. LRIC has a symmetric structure and can be regarded as the extensions of the cycle graph (nearest-neighboring lattice). For small values of $m$, the classical and quantum return probabilities show power law behavior $p(t)\sim t^{-0.5}$ and $\pi(t)\sim t^{-1}$, respectively. However, for large values of $m$, the classical and quantum efficiency scales as $p(t)\sim t^{-1}$ and $\pi(t)\sim t^{-2}$. We give a theoretical explanation of this transition using the method of stationary phase approximation (SPA). In the long time limit, depending on the network size $N$ and parameter $m$, the limiting probability distributions of quantum transport show various patterns. When the network size $N$ is an even number, we find an asymmetric transition probability of quantum transport between the initial node and its opposite node. This asymmetry depends on the precise values of $N$ and $m$. Finally, we study the transport processes in the presence of traps and find that the survival probability decays faster on networks of large $m$.
Connection probability for random graphs with given degree sequence
Xinping Xu
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: Recently, the classical configuration model for random graphs with given degree distribution has been extensively used as a null model in contraposition to real networks with the same degree distribution. In this paper, we briefly review the applications of this model and derive analytical expression for connection probability by the expanding coefficient method. We also use our expanding coefficient method to obtain the connection probability for the directed configuration model.
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