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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13578 matches for " Xingdan Fan "
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Quantitative analysis of sialic acids in Chinese conventional foods by HPLC-FLD  [PDF]
Hongwei Li, Xingdan Fan
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.42009
Abstract:

Background: Sialic acids are a family of ninecarbon sugar compounds with carboxylic acyl derivatives. It exists in bacteria, fish, mammals and other living organisms, participates in and regulates many important life events, such as cell recognition, membrane flow, endocytosis and so on. Sialic acid is usually located in the outermost layer of the sugar part of the cell membrane and the key positions of secreted glycoconjugates (glycolipids, glycoprotein and lipopolysaccharide). Sialic acid (Sia) is an important material foundation for variety of the structure and founction of glycoconjugates. Sia has been known as nearly 50 members, including N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycoulylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and deaminoneuraminic acid (KDN) as its core monomer. The rest of the sialic acids are derived from these three monomers. The contents of Sia in Chinese food products are unknown. Objective: To determine the contents of Sia in raw and cooked red meat, seafood, poultry and so on. Design: The following food products were purchased from a Chinese supermarket: pork, beef, lamb, salmon, cod, tuna, cow milk, cheese, butter, duck, chicken and chicken eggs. Human milk was collected from Xiamen Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital (Xiamen, China). All tissues were homogenized and hydrolyzed with 0.05 M, 0.1 M and 0.2 M TFA for 150 min at 80°C in dark, respectively. The concentrations of Neu5Ac, Neu5Gc and KDN were determined by using HPLC with fluorescence detector. Results: The contents of total Sia (μg/g tissue or μg/mL liquid sample) in Chinese raw meat were highest in lamb (269.60), followed by pork (254.88), duck (200.63), chicken (162.86) and beef (88.03). The percentages of Neu5Gc were 36.08%, 26.48%, 0%, 0% and 28.40%, respectively. Cod contained higher levels of Sia (171.63) than salmon (104.43) and tuna (77.98). Only Neu5Ac was 50 found in detected aquatic product. Egg yolk contained the highest level of Sia (682.04), and a higher level of Sia (390.67) was found in the egg white. Also our result showed that human milk contained extremely high level of Sia (602.55). Neu5Ac was the predominant form of Sia in all

Design and fabrication of soft X-ray multilayer for broadband reflection
Zhanshan Wang,Changjun Ke,Yueying Ma,Tieqiang Zhang,Jianlin Cao,Xingdan Chen
Chinese Science Bulletin , 1999, DOI: 10.1007/BF02887116
Abstract: A random method used for improving light throughput of a soft X-ray multilayer has been developed in the 18–20 nm spectral region, based on the traditional theory of periodic multilayer, and an 8% gain in integrated reflectance is obtained. The ensemble calculation is presented at the same time, and the multilayer is fabricated by magnetron sputtering. Finally low-angle X-ray diffraction and reflectance comparative measurement are used for testing the multilayer. The results demonstrate that layer thickness disorder yields band broadening and increased integrated reflectance in the spectral range with respect to periodic multilayer, but is accompanied by a reduction in reflectance peak. Layer thickness disorder makes it more difficult to fabricate broadband multilayer, and improving the techniques of layer thickness control is the keystone of experiments.
Research on Plane 2-D Sediment Model of a Watercourse on Yangtze River  [PDF]
Yong FAN
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.14032
Abstract: To provide basis for sand excavation of hydraulic fill and land forming in Daohukou region in a watercourse (Wuhan reach) on Yangtze River, a 2-D water-sand mathematic model of this river reach is established. The variation of water levels of this reach and the back silting of watercourse after sand excavation are calculated. The rationality of the results calculated by this model and the measured data are validated and analyzed. The results show that, this model is reasonable and reliable.
On Chinese Trainees and Interns in Japan  [PDF]
Jiaoyan Fan
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2012.32008
Abstract: There are millions of Chinese workers in Japan, most as trainees and interns hired in small or medium sized industries. While they work hard and contribute great to the economic development of Japan, there also exist some problems arising from the mechanism which have to be faced by both Japanese and Chinese governments. On analyzing the status of the trainees and interns, the author exposed some problems in the system, and presents some suggestions from the legal view for the future at last.
Use of metformin during pregnancy for women with polycystic ovary syndrome  [PDF]
Howard Fan
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.31021
Abstract:

Objective: The purpose of this article is to review the literature assessing foetal and maternal pregnancy outcomes in women with PCOS who used metformin during pregnancy. Study Design: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, with analysis of 25 studies that recorded neonatal and maternal outcomes in women who used metformin during pregnancy. The outcomes assessed in this review include congenital deformities, miscarriages, preterm labour, gestational diabetes (GDM) and pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Results: We found that the use of metformin throughout pregnancy correlated with decreased rates of preterm labour, GDM and PIH. Conflicting evidence exists over whether metformin use during pregnancy reduced miscarriage rates. The use of metformin during pregnancy did not increase teratogenicity risks. Conclusion: The use of metformin throughout pregnancy is associated with decreased rates of preterm labour, GDM, and PIH. However, more randomised controls involving larger numbers of participants are required for more definitive results.

The Scientificalization and Vulgarization of Marxism in the 20th Century: A Critical Analysis on K. Popper’s Critique of Marxism  [PDF]
Fan Chang
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.34069
Abstract: Marxism was indeed vulgarized due to scientism in the 20th century, which even limits the development of Chinese social theories nowadays. This paper put forward the idea that it was serious misunderstanding to interpret Marx as prophet or inventor like empiricists who regard finding out eternal laws as the goal of science. In fact, Marx did not propose any so-called “natural laws of historical development”. He articulated that the only thing worth to do was to take note of what happened before his eyes and to become its mouthpiece. Thus, to understand science in the face of social practice, to analyze everything historically and never to thrust “eternal” laws in any era should be taken as the core of Marx’s new science, which is very important to China today.
Coordinated Control of Traffic Signals for Multiple Intersections  [PDF]
Liqiang Fan
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.513197
Abstract: The proper phase difference of traffic signals for adjacent intersections could decrease the time of operational delay. Some theorems show how to minimize the total average delay time for vehicle operating at adjacent intersections under given conditions. If the distance and signal cycles of adjacent intersections satisfy with specific conditions, the total average delay time would achieve zero. If the signal cycles of adjacent intersections and the phase difference of them are co-prime numbers, the total average delay time would be a constant. In general, if signal cycles of adjacent intersections and the phase difference of them are reducible numbers, the minimum total average delay time would be solved by the given algorithm. Numerical experiments have verified the rationality of these theorems.
Spectral Analysis of Water Reflectance for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Water Quailty in Estuarine Water  [PDF]
Chunlei Fan
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2014.22004
Abstract: Hyperspectral remote sensing offers an effective approach for frequent, synoptic water quality measurements over a large spatial extent. However, the optical complexity of case 2 water makes the water quality monitoring by remote sensing in estuarine water a challenge. The prime objective of this study was to develop algorithms for hyperspectral remote sensing of water quality based on in situ spectral measurement of water reflectance. In this study, water reflectance spectra R(λ) were acquired by a pair of Ocean Optic 2000 spectroradiometers during the summers from 2008 to 2011 at Patuxent River, a tributary of Chesapeake Bay, USA. Simultaneously, concentrations of chlorophyll a and total suspended solids (TSS), as well as absorption of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured. Empirical models that based on spectral features of water reflectance generally showed good correlations with water quality parameters. The retrieval model that using spectral bands at red/NIR showed a high correlation with chlorophyll a concentration (R2 = 0.81). The ratio of green to blue spectral bands is the best predictor for TSS (R2 = 0.75), and CDOM absorption is best correlated with spectral features at blue and NIR regions (R2 = 0.85). These empirical models were further applied to the ASIA Eagle hyperspectral aerial imagery to demonstrate the feasibility of hyperspectral remote sensing of water quality in the optical complex estuarine waters.
The Impact of Economic Capital, Social Capital and Cultural Capital: Chinese Families’ Access to Educational Resources  [PDF]
Jingbo Fan
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2014.44028
Abstract: Family background can influence an individual’s access to educational resources. Specifically, an advantaged family background can promote an individual’s access to educational resources. This study constructs a model to analyze the impact of the economic, social and cultural capital of Chinese families on their children’s education. The results show that all three types of capital have significant effects on individual education but a family’s cultural capital has the strongest effect. Furthermore, the father’s background influences a child’s education more than the mother’s for all three types of capital. The present study affirms the importance of the resource-centered conception of economic, social and cultural capital that significantly influences inequality as a predominant issue in China.
Judges’ Continuing Construction in Enterprise-Conditioned Employer Dismissal in Germany: Specific Research of the Proportion Principle  [PDF]
Jianhong Fan
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2014.54030
Abstract: A common theme must be ensuring equity to protecting the job security of employees, when the enterprise owners implement the dismissal right due to enterprises reasons. There are yet many problems needing to be solved in the interpretation, application, construction and supplementation of the norm of “social rationality” according to German Federal Dismissal Protection Statute. It is important to Germany itself but will also have far-reaching effects on foreign countries that have enterprise in Germany. Nevertheless, it is not easy for designing a new control structure for such dismissal. In this paper, a legislative space of social rationality could be continuingly constructed or supplemented successfully. This should thus be welcomed by international judges, lawyers and citizens.
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