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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 104210 matches for " Xilong Zhang "
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Evaluation of the new rural cooperative medical system in China: is it working or not?
Hassan H Dib, Xilong Pan, Hong Zhang
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-7-17
Abstract: All data samples were randomly collected from the NRCMS Department, Guangdong Province. Gross domestic product (GDP) at 10000 Yuan per capita was employed to divide Guangdong into two economic levels: (1) economically developed & (2) less economically developed regions. A descriptive analysis about tendency of raising premium and reimbursement ratios of common fund was performed with independent samples and t-test as well as implementing a model to evaluate the differences in premium contribution differences in co-payments, thresholds, and rebates. Also, a qualitative study measured several economic factors to evaluate farmers' financial and social potency in contributing to the NRCMS.A higher GDP per capita were found within economically developed regions (p < 0.05) than in less developed areas, with higher tendency for funding capacity and average funding capability in villages and towns within economically developed regions (p < 0.05) than in economically less developed. Maximum benefits between two regions in medical insurance coverage showed significant difference (p < 0.05); differences between basic medical insurance coverage between two regions was insignificant (p > 0.05); nevertheless, economically developed regions showed higher threshold and rebates with less co-payments in the economically developed than less developed.Despite some loop holes in the NRCMS, the system is workable, but needs more strengthening by encouraging farmers' participation into NRCMS with a necessity to implement a new reimbursement payment system by health care providers. In addition it is proposed that for maximum benefits another premium funding should be secured.With the introduction of New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS) in 2003, a significant improvement in China's rural health sector was seen [1]. However, this sector is still facing up with many difficulties, such as shortages in professional staff (GPs, specialized doctors and nurses), technological equipments an
Service utilization in community health centers in China: a comparison analysis with local hospitals
Xilong Pan, Hassan H Dib, Xiaohang Wang, Hong Zhang
BMC Health Services Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-6-93
Abstract: The study was approved by Peking University Health Science Center Institutional Reviewing Board (NO: IRB00001052-T1). Data were collected from all the local health bureaux and processed using SPSS software. Methods of analysis mainly included: descriptive analysis, paired T-test and one-way ANOVA.The six main functions of the CHCs were not fully exploited and the surveys that were collected on their efficiency and utilization of resources indicate that they have a low level of performance and lack the trust of local communities. Furthermore, the CHCs seriously lack funding support and operate under difficult circumstances, and residents have less positive attitudes towards them.The community health service must be adjusted according to the requirements of urban medical and health reform, taking into account communities' health needs. More research is required on the living standards and health needs of residents living within the CHC's range, taking into consideration the users' needs in expanding the newly implemented service, and at the same time revising the old service system so as to make the development of CHCs realistic and capable of providing a better service to patients. Several suggestions are put forward for an attainable scheme for developing a community health service.Since they are considered an important part of the Chinese Urban Health Reform System, Community Health Centers (CHCs) have been established throughout the entire nation; they are currently undergoing substantial re-construction. Until 2002, 31 provinces including the autonomous regions and central government-ruled cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, ChongQing and Tianjin had a total of around 2406 CHCs and 9700 service stations. However, these CHCs are facing many problems in delivering their services, attributable to the different speeds of development among centers, lack of resources, and imbalance in the sizes of CHCs, so it is difficult for them to meet citizens' needs. Nevertheless, t
An analysis of farmers' perception of the new cooperative medical system in Liaoning Province, China
Xilong Pan, Ying Zhang, Li Xu, Ju Huang, Qianqian Zhao
BMC Health Services Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-9-230
Abstract: The data for this study were collected from a survey involving twenty counties in Liaoning Province. Interviews and focus groups were conducted between 10th January and 20th August 2008. A total of 2,780 people aged 18-72 were randomly selected and interviewed. Data were evaluated by nonparametric tests and ordinal regression models.71.6% of the study subjects were satisfied with the NRCMS. Single factor analysis showed that attitudes towards the NRCMS were influenced by gender, age, marital status, and self-rated health status. In the ordinal regression analysis, gender, age, and self-rated health status affect satisfaction (P < 0.05).We found that a considerable proportion of farmers were satisfied with the NRCMS. Gender, age, and self-rated health status had significant effects on farmers' attitudes towards the NRCMS. The Chinese Central Government attempted to adopt active measures in the future to continuously improve the NRCMS, including initiating educational programs, building new medical facilities and increasing financial investment.The New Cooperative Medical System (NCMS) is a main component of the Chinese new rural medical insurance system. The development of Chinese rural medical insurance system has gone through three stages:The forming period of the Cooperative Medical System (CMS) (1958-1980s): Before 1958, economic development was slow in rural China. No medical insurance system existed. In 1958, the National People's Congress of China (NPC) decided that the rural cooperative community, which was based on traditional geographic village, should be built as the most fundamental government agency in rural areas,. The CMS was established in the rural cooperative community to provide basic medical insurance to the community memembers, and in return each member made fixed contribution to CMS every year. Thus the communitymembers were insured by the CMS in case they needed medical care. This system played a significant role in promoting healthcare in rura
Relationship between Rad51 G135C and G172T Variants and the Susceptibility to Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Involving 54 Case-Control Studies
Mengmeng Zhao, Pin Chen, Yanbin Dong, Xianji Zhu, Xilong Zhang
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087259
Abstract: Background The associations between Rad51 gene polymorphisms (G135C and G172T) and risk of cancer have been investigated, but the results were inconclusive. To get a comprehensive evaluation of the association above, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies. Methods A computerized search of PubMed, Embase and Web of Knowledge databases for all relevant studies was performed and the data were analyzed in a meta-analysis. The overall odds ratio (OR) with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated to assess the strength of the association between Rad51 polymorphisms and cancer risk. Data were analyzed using fixed- or random-effects model when appropriate. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias test were also estimated. Results Overall, a total of 54 case-control studies were included in the current meta-analysis, among which 42 studies with 19,142 cases and 20,363 controls for RAD51 G135C polymorphism and 12 studies with 6,646 cases and 6,783 controls for G172T polymorphism. For G135C polymorphism, the pooled results indicated that significantly increased risk was found in overall cancers (homozygote model: OR = 1.776, 95% CI = 1.288–2.449; allelic genetic model: OR = 1.169, 95% CI = 1.016–1.345; recessive model: OR = 1.946, 95% CI = 1.336–2.835), especially in breast cancer (homozygote model: OR = 1.498, 95% CI = 1.026–2.189; recessive model: OR = 1.732, 95% CI = 1.170–2.562). For G172T polymorphism, a decreased cancer risk was observed in head and neck cancer (homozygote model: OR = 0.621, 95% CI = 0.460–0.837; allelic genetic model: OR = 0.824, 95% CI = 0.716–0.948; recessive model: OR = 0.639, 95% CI = 0.488–0.837). Conclusions Our results suggested that the Rad51 G135C polymorphism is a candidate for susceptibility to overall cancers, especially to breast cancer, and that the Rad51 G172T might play a protective role in the development of head and neck cancer.
Adiponectin Protects Rat Myocardium against Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Injury via Inhibition of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
Wenxiao Ding, Xiaofeng Zhang, Hanpeng Huang, Ning Ding, Shijiang Zhang, Sean Z. Hutchinson, Xilong Zhang
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094545
Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with many cardiovascular disorders such as heart failure, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and arrhythmia and so on. Of the many associated factors, chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in particular is the primary player in OSAS. To assess the effects of CIH on cardiac function secondary to OSAS, we established a model to study the effects of CIH on Wistar rats. Specifically, we examined the possible underlying cellular mechanisms of hypoxic tissue damage and the possible protective role of adiponectin against hypoxic insults. In the first treatment group, rats were exposed to CIH conditions (nadir O2, 5–6%) for 8 hours/day, for 5 weeks. Subsequent CIH-induced cardiac dysfunction was measured by echocardiograph. Compared with the normal control (NC) group, rats in the CIH-exposed group experienced elevated levels of left ventricular end-systolic dimension and left ventricular end-systolic volume and depressed levels of left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular fractional shortening (p<0.05). However, when adiponectin (Ad) was added in CIH + Ad group, we saw a rescue in the elevations of the aforementioned left ventricular function (p<0.05). To assess critical cardiac injury, we detected myocardial apoptosis by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) analysis. It was showed that the apoptosis percentage in CIH group (2.948%) was significantly higher than that in NC group (0.4167%) and CIH + Ad group (1.219%) (p<0.05). Protein expressions of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved-caspase-12 validated our TUNEL results (p<0.05). Mechanistically, our results demonstrated that the proteins expressed with endoplasmic reticulum stress and the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly elevated under CIH conditions, whereas Ad supplementation partially decreased them. Overall, our results suggested that Ad augmentation could improve CIH-induced left ventricular dysfunction and associated myocardial apoptosis by inhibition of ROS-dependent ER stress.
Discovery of a Strongly-Interrelated Gene Network in Corals under Constant Darkness by Correlation Analysis after Wavelet Transform on Complex Network Model
Longlong Liu, Jieqiong Qu, Xilong Zhou, Xuefeng Liu, Zhaobao Zhang, Xumin Wang, Tao Liu, Guiming Liu
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092434
Abstract: Coral reefs occupy a relatively small portion of sea area, yet serve as a crucial source of biodiversity by establishing harmonious ecosystems with marine plants and animals. Previous researches mainly focused on screening several key genes induced by stress. Here we proposed a novel method—correlation analysis after wavelet transform of complex network model, to explore the effect of light on gene expression in the coral Acropora millepora based on microarray data. In this method, wavelet transform and the conception of complex network were adopted, and 50 key genes with large differences were finally captured, including both annotated genes and novel genes without accurate annotation. These results shed light on our understanding of coral's response toward light changes and the genome-wide interaction among genes under the control of biorhythm, and hence help us to better protect the coral reef ecosystems. Further studies are needed to explore how functional connections are related to structural connections, and how connectivity arises from the interactions within and between different systems. The method introduced in this study for analyzing microarray data will allow researchers to explore genome-wide interaction network with their own dataset and understand the relevant biological processes.
A Ribosomal Protein AgRPS3aE from Halophilic Aspergillus glaucus Confers Salt Tolerance in Heterologous Organisms
Xilong Liang,Yiling Liu,Lixia Xie,Xiaodan Liu,Yi Wei,Xiaoyang Zhou,Shihong Zhang
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/ijms16023058
Abstract: High salt in soils is one of the abiotic stresses that significantly reduces crop yield, although saline lands are considered potential resources arable for agriculture. Currently, genetic engineering for enhancing salt tolerance is being tested as an efficient and viable strategy for crop improvement. We previously characterized a large subunit of the ribosomal protein RPL44, which is involved in osmotic stress in the extremely halophilic fungus Aspergillus glaucus. Here, we screened another ribosomal protein (AgRPS3aE) that also produced high-salt tolerance in yeast. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that AgRPS3aE encodes a 29.2 kDa small subunit of a ribosomal protein belonging to the RPS3Ae family in eukaryotes. To further confirm its protective function against salinity, we expressed AgRPS3aE in three heterologous systems, the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and two model plants Arabidopsis and tobacco. Overexpression of AgRPS3aE in all tested transformants significantly alleviated stress symptoms compared with controls, suggesting that AgRPS3aE functions not only in fungi but also in plants. Considering that ribosomal proteins are housekeeping components in organisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, we propose that AgRPS3aE is one of the optimal genes for improving high-salt tolerance in crops.
The Entropy Model of Fractal Supply Chain Network System Based on Fuzzy AHP
Xilong Qu,Zhongxiao Hao
Journal of Computers , 2010, DOI: 10.4304/jcp.5.8.1213-1218
Abstract: The entropies of structure, information and the effectiveness entropy between knowledge and organization structure are main entropy sources of supply chain network. Entropy model of fractal supply chain network organization structure is established. Moreover, the basic principle and process of fuzzy AHP are introduced. Fractal knowledge management network outside independently organization structure is set up based on fuzzy AHP. Knowledge and organization structure have the whole similarity, and its entropy model is established. Finally, the entropies of structure, information and the effectiveness entropy are summed to research. And the model shows that fractal structure has prominent effect of dropping entropy.
Design of Image Security System Based on Chaotic Maps Group
Feng Huang,Xilong Qu
Journal of Multimedia , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/jmm.6.6.510-517
Abstract: Images are used more and more widely in people’s life today. The image security becomes an important issue. Some encryption technologies are used to ensure the security of images. In them, the SCAN patterns are the one of effective tools to protect image. It generates very large number of scanning patterns of image. Then it shuffles the positions of image pixels by the patterns. The idea of chaotic maps group is similar to SCAN patterns. The paper designs a new image security system based on chaotic maps group. It takes the different maps of chaotic maps as patterns. The key represents different chaotic map patterns. Simulation shows that the image security system has a fast encryption speed and large enough key space, which mean high security. The design solve the limit between the keys and the size of image when encrypt image by chaotic map. At the same time it also solves the problem of the size of image required by SCAN pattern.
Design of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Compound Two-dimensional Maps
Feng Huang,Xilong Qu
Journal of Software , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/jsw.6.10.1953-1960
Abstract: With the application of image in internet, security of image became an important issue. The paper designs an image encryption algorithm. Firstly, it analyzes a symmetric image encryption scheme based on a new chaotic map. Analysis shows it isn’t enough safe. Because there are a lot of week keys and duplicate keys in encryption. The diffusion mechanism is too simple to resist plain-text attack. The paper uses two chaotic maps at the same time to solve the problems. The maps are completely different. It designs a method of key generation. Thus it has large key space and avoids the duplicate key. At the same time parts of the key are used as the parameters of classic logistic map. It solves the problem of weak key. Several simulation results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.
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