Abstract:
We carry out a series of studies on pion and photon productions in neutrino/electron/photon--nucleus scatterings. The low energy region is investigated by using a chiral effective field theory for nuclei. The results for the neutral current induced photon production ($\gamma$-NCP) are then extrapolated to neutrino energy $E_{\nu}\sim$ GeV region. By convoluting the cross sections with MiniBooNE's beam spectrum and detection efficiency, we estimate its $\gamma$-NCP, event number, and conclude that such photon production can not fully explain its low energy event excess in both neutrino and antineutrino runs.

Abstract:
We generalize forward real Compton amplitude to the case of the interference of the electromagnetic and weak neutral current, formulate a low-energy theorem, relate the new amplitudes to the interference structure functions and obtain a new set of sum rules. We address a possible new sum rule that relates the product of the axial charge and magnetic moment of the nucleon to the 0th moment of the structure function $g_5(\nu,0)$. We apply the GDH and the finite energy sum rule for constraining the dispersive $\gamma Z$-box correction to the proton's weak charge.

Abstract:
In this paper we study the jet response (particularly azimuthal anisotropy) as a hard probe of the harmonic fluctuations in the initial condition of central heavy ion collisions. By implementing the fluctuations via cumulant expansion for various harmonics quantified by $\epsilon_n$ and using the geometric model for jet energy loss, we compute the response $\chi^h_n=v_n/\epsilon_n$. Combining these results with the known hydrodynamic response of the bulk matter expansion in the literature, we show that the hard-soft azimuthal correlation arising from their respective responses to the common geometric fluctuations reveals a robust and narrow near-side peak that may provide the dominant contribution to the "hard-ridge" observed in experimental data.

Abstract:
We report our calculation of jet quenching and its azimuthal anisotropy in the high energy AA and high multiplicity pA and dA collisions. The purpose of this study is twofold. First, we improve our previous event-by-event studies, by properly implementing $p_t$ dependence in the modeling. We show that, within the jet "monography" scenario featuring a strong near-Tc-enhancement of jet energy loss, the computed high-$p_t$ nuclear modification factor $R_{AA}$ and the harmonic coefficients in its azimuthal anisotropy $v_{2,\,3,\,4}$, agree well with the available data from both Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Second, in light of current discussions on possible final state collective behavior in the high-multiplicity pPb and dAu collisions, we examine the implication of final state jet attenuation in such collisions, by applying the same model used in AA collisions and quantifying the corresponding $R_{pA}$ and $R_{dA}$ and their azimuthal anisotropy. The high-$p_t$ $V_n$ provide a set of clean indicators of final state energy loss. In particular we find in the most central pPb (5.02 TeV) and dAu (200 GeV) collisions, $V_2$ is on the order of $0.01$ and $0.1$ respectively, measurable with current experimental accuracy. In addition, our high-$p_t$ $R_{dA}$ is around $0.6$ which is compatible with preliminary dAu results from RHIC.

Abstract:
[Background:] A significant quenching of high energy jets was observed in the heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility, and is now confirmed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) facility. The RHIC plus LHC era provides a unique opportunity to study the jet-medium interaction that leads to the jet quenching, and the medium itself at different collision energies (medium temperatures). [Purpose:] We study the azimuthal anisotropy of jet quenching, to seek constraints on different models featuring distinct path-length and density dependences for jet energy loss, and to gain a better understanding of the medium. [Methods:] The models are fixed by using the RHIC data, and then applied to study the LHC case. A set of harmonic (Fourier) coefficients $v_{n}$ are extracted from the jet azimuthal anisotropy on a event-by-event basis. [Results:] The second harmonics $v_{2}$, mostly driven by the medium's geometry, can be used to differentiate jet quenching models. Other harmonics are also compared with the LHC (2.76 TeV) data. The predictions for future LHC (5.5 TeV) run are presented. [Conclusions:] We find that a too strong path-length dependence (e.g., cubic) is ruled out by the LHC $v_{2}$ data, while the model with a strong near-$T_c$ enhancement for the jet-medium interaction describes the data very well. It is worth pointing out that the latter model expects a less color-opaque medium at LHC.

Abstract:
In this paper we present with full details a systematic quantification, on an even-by-event basis, of the hard probe response to the geometry and fluctuations of the hot QCD matter created in heavy ion collisions at both the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The azimuthal anisotropy of jet quenching is extracted and decomposed as harmonic responses (for n=1,2,3,4,5,6) to the corresponding harmonics in the fluctuating initial condition. We show that such jet response harmonics are sensitive to the jet quenching models as well as to the bulk matter initial compositions. By studying these for all centralities at both RHIC and LHC energies we put a strong constraint on the path-length and medium-density dependence of jet energy loss. We also examine the hard-soft di-hadron correlation arising from the hard and soft sectors' responses to the common initial fluctuations. We demonstrate that the experimentally observed "hard-ridge" can be explained this way and that its dependence on the trigger-azimuthal-angle could also be qualitatively understood.

Abstract:
Based on the development of the offshore water drive reservoir, the determination of reasonable water injection of monolayer and single well affects the distribution of remaining oil and development effect of oil field water flooding, so this paper, using the grey correlation analysis method, studies the main factors influencing the dividing coefficient of water-injection and weight. This method takes into account the effective thickness, permeability, injection-production well spacing, the number of injection-production wells, and the direction of formation coefficient factors such as the influence of the dividing coefficient for injection. The formula for water-injection multi-factor controlled is established, at the same time, applying water injection formula of this article and the conventional on injection allocation of A-platform offshore injection wells. And the difference of single-well injection-allocation quantity in layers is analyzed. Based on a platform offshore, layers exist in the process of water flooding and the problems such as the contradiction between the layers, put forward the necessity of layered water injection through this article to determine water injection formula and injection allocation on a platform of injection wells by implementing effect which can be found. A platform for water flooding development of water cut under control, natural decline rate reduced to verify the reliability and practicability of the formula to determine injection in this paper. It has certain guiding significance to the offshore for the water-injection development oilfield.

Abstract:
Neutrino-induced productions (neutrinoproduction) of photons and pions from nucleons and nuclei are important for the interpretation of neutrino-oscillation experiments, as they are potential backgrounds in the MiniBooNE experiment [A. A. Aquilar-Arevalo et al. (MiniBooNE Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 100}, 032301 (2008)]. These processes are studied at intermediate energies, where the \Delta (1232) resonance becomes important. The Lorentz-covariant effective field theory, which is the framework used in this series of study, contains nucleons, pions, \Delta s, isoscalar scalar (\sigma) and vector (\omega) fields, and isovector vector (\rho) fields. The lagrangian exhibits a nonlinear realization of (approximate) $SU(2)_L \otimes SU(2)_R$ chiral symmetry and incorporates vector meson dominance. In this paper, we focus on setting up the framework. Power counting for vertices and Feynman diagrams is explained. Because of the built-in symmetries, the vector current is automatically conserved (CVC), and the axial-vector current is partially conserved (PCAC). To calibrate the axial-vector transition current (N $\leftrightarrow$ \Delta), pion production from the nucleon is used as a benchmark and compared to bubble-chamber data from Argonne and Brookhaven National Laboratories. At low energies, the convergence of our power-counting scheme is investigated, and next-to-leading-order tree-level corrections are found to be small.

Abstract:
We study the incoherent neutrinoproduction of photons and pions with neutrino energy E_{\nu} $\leqslant$ 0.5 GeV. These processes are relevant to the background analysis in neutrino-oscillation experiments, for example MiniBooNE [A. A. Aquilar-Arevalo \textit{et al.} (MiniBooNE Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 032301(2008)]. The calculations are carried out using a Lorentz-covariant effective field theory (EFT) which contains nucleons, pions, the Delta (1232) ($\Delta$ s), isoscalar scalar ($\sigma$) and vector ($\omega$) fields, and isovector vector ($\rho$) fields, and has SU(2)_{L} $\otimes$ SU(2)_{R} chiral symmetry realized nonlinearly. The contributions of one-body currents are studied in the local fermi gas approximation. The current form factors are generated by meson dominance in the EFT Lagrangian. The conservation of the vector current and the partial conservation of the axial current are satisfied automatically, which is crucial for photon production. The $\Delta$ dynamics in nuclei, as a key component in the study, are explored. Introduced $\Delta$-meson couplings explain the $\Delta$ spin-orbit (S-L) coupling in nuclei, and this leads to interesting constraints on the theory. Meanwhile a phenomenological approach is applied to parametrize the $\Delta$ width. To benchmark our approximations, we calculate the differential cross sections for quasi-elastic scattering and incoherent electroproduction of pions without a final state interaction (FSI). The FSI can be ignored for photon production.

Abstract:
Neutrino-induced pion and photon production from nucleons and nuclei are important for the interpretation of neutrino-oscillation experiments, and these processes are potential backgrounds in the MiniBooNE experiment [A. A. Aquilar-Arevalo \textit{et al.} (MiniBooNE Collaboration), Phys.\ Rev.\ Lett.\ {\bf 100}, 032301 (2008)]. Pion and photon production are investigated at intermediate energies, where the $\Delta$ resonance becomes important. The Lorentz-covariant effective field theory contains nucleons, pions, Deltas, isoscalar scalar ($\sigma$) and vector ($\omega$) fields, and isovector vector ($\rho$) fields. The lagrangian exhibits a nonlinear realization of (approximate) $SU(2)_L \otimes SU(2)_R$ chiral symmetry and incorporates vector meson dominance. Power counting for vertices and Feynman diagrams involving the $\Delta$ is explained. Because of the built-in symmetries, the vector currents are automatically conserved, and the axial-vector currents satisfy PCAC. The irrelevance of so-called off-shell $\Delta$ couplings and the structure of the dressed $\Delta$ propagator, which has a pole only in the spin-3/2 channel, are discussed. To calibrate the axial-vector transition current $(N\! \leftrightarrow \Delta)$, pion production from the nucleon is used as a benchmark and compared to bubble-chamber data from Argonne and Brookhaven National Laboratories. At low energies, the convergence of our power-counting scheme is investigated, and next-to-leading-order tree-level corrections are found to be very small.