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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5674 matches for " Xiaoyuan Chu "
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China’s ODI Motivations, Political Risk, Institutional Distance and Location Choice  [PDF]
Jing Han, Xiaoyuan Chu, Ke Li
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.47068

Utilizing an outward foreign direct investment (ODI) data sample of 48 countries and districts from the year 2003 to 2010, and based on institutional distance theory, a resource-based view, an institutional-based view and political risk management theory, this paper applies multiple regression equations to explore the linkages between China’s ODI motivations, political risk, institutional distance and location choice. We obtain the following conclusions: 1) there are three different motivations affecting China’s ODI location choice, namely, resource-seeking, strategic asset-seeking and market-seeking motivations; 2) generally, China’s multinational enterprises are inclined to invest ODI in countries with high political risk and short institutional distance; and 3) multinational enterprises with different ODI motivations have diverse location choices. For resource-seeking foreign investment, Chinese multinational enterprises tend to invest in countries with high political risk and short institutional distance. For strategic asset-seeking foreign investment, Chinese multinational enterprises tend to avoid countries with high political risk and short institutional distance. For market-seeking foreign investment, multinational enterprises of China tend to avoid countries with high political risk and short institutional distance.

Analysis of the Long-Term Trend of the Exchange Rate of RMB Based on ICP’s Datum in 2011 Year  [PDF]
Hua Niu Niu, Yanxin Ma, Xiaoyuan Chu
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.53045
Abstract: This paper analyzes and compares the purchasing power parity (PPP) and exchange rate worldwide based on the datum of International Comparison Program (ICP) in the year 2005 and 2011. The results indicate that developing countries have been experiencing more substantial currency devaluation, while currency appreciation occurs mainly in high-income countries. After analyzing the relative price levels for 2011 and per capita income, we find that the relative price level is above 1.5 in most countries worldwide, while the relative price level is between 0.5 and 1 in a few high-income countries. When the per capita income is around $3000, the peering relationships of purchasing power parity and exchange rates are the most obvious.
Study on the Fluctuation of Purchasing Power Parity  [PDF]
Hua Niu, Xiaoyuan Chu, Yanxin Ma
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2016.41008
Abstract: This paper tests the effect of per capita income, exchange rate, foreign direct investment inflows, net trade condition index and the final consumption expenditure growth rate on the fluctuation of purchasing power parity basing on panel fixed effects model during the period of 2000-2013 of 62 countries (religions). Empirical results show that the fluctuation of per capita income and exchange rate are the key factors to explain the fluctuation of purchasing power parity, however, purchasing power parity (PPP) fluctuation is influenced by the five variables has some differences in terms of magnitude and direction between different economies. The effect of the foreign investment on purchasing power parity is negative in low income economies, but other economies are the opposite, at the same time, the estimated coefficient of high income is lower than upper & middle income economies. The growth of final consumption expenditure is helpful to improve the purchasing power parity of low income and high income economies. It is surprising that the increase in per capita income will reduce the purchasing power of some developed economies. In China, purchasing power parity will continue a growth trend in future.
Comparative Study of Regular and Vocational High School Students on Family Socioeconomic Status, Social Support, Self-Efficacy and Well-Being  [PDF]
Xiaoyuan Chu, Zhenyu Li, Binglin Yan, Jing Han, Fuqiang Fan
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.38006
Abstract: Based on the theoretical analysis, with first-hand data collection and using T-test method, this study analyzed the difference between regular and vocational high school students in family socioeconomic status, social support, self-efficacy and well-being to find out the underlying problems for vocational high school students and vocational education in China. We draw on the following conclusions: 1) regular high school student is significantly higher than vocational high school student in family socioeconomic status as well as in all its dimensions (father’s degree of education, mother’s degree of education, family annual income, father’s occupation and mother’s occupation); 2) regular high school student is significantly higher than vocational high school student in social support as well as in all its dimensions (family support, peer support and general support of others); 3) regular high school student is significantly higher than vocational high school student in self-efficacy; 4) regular high school student is significantly higher than vocational high school student in general well-being.
Identification and characterization of SP cells in human lung adenocarcinoma SPC-A1 cells
Yanliang ZHU,Longbang CHEN,Jinghua WANG,Xiaoyuan CHU
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer , 2008,
Abstract: Background and objective Recently, eloquent studies from some solid tumors have provided proofs that cancers originate from cancer stem cells (CSC). The discovery of CSC has changed our view of carcinogenesis and chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize the CSC population that drives and maintains lung adenocarcinoma growth and metastasis. Methods Side population (SP) cell analysis combined with serum-free media (SFM) were applied to established human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Properties of SP cells were evaluated by their proliferative index, colony-forming efficiency and tumorigenic potential. Results Characteristic SP cells could be detected by FACS in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. And the proportion of SP cells is greatly increased after serum-free culture.SP cells have a greater proliferative index, a higher colony-forming efficiency and a greater ability to form tumor in vivo .Conclusion SP cells exist in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and they could be further enriched by preliminary serum-free culture before FACS sorting.
Genome-Wide Screen of DNA Methylation Changes Induced by Low Dose X-Ray Radiation in Mice
Jingzi Wang, Youwei Zhang, Kai Xu, Xiaobei Mao, Lijun Xue, Xiaobei Liu, Hongjun Yu, Longbang Chen, Xiaoyuan Chu
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090804
Abstract: Epigenetic mechanisms play a key role in non-targeted effects of radiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate global hypomethylation and promoter hypermethylation of particular genes induced by low dose radiation (LDR). Thirty male BALB/c mice were divided into 3 groups: control, acutely exposed (0.5Gy X-rays), and chronic exposure for 10 days (0.05Gy/d×10d). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and MeDIP-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to study methylation profiles. DNMT1 and MBD2 expression was determined by qPCR and western blot assays. Methylation and expression of Rad23b and Ddit3 were determined by bisulfate sequencing primers (BSP) and qPCR, respectively. The results show that LDR induced genomic hypomethylation in blood 2 h postirraditaion, but was not retained at 1-month. DNMT1 and MBD2 were downregulated in a tissue-specific manner but did not persist. Specific hypermethylation was observed for 811 regions in the group receiving chronic exposure, which covered almost all key biological processes as indicated by GO and KEGG pathway analysis. Eight hypermethylated genes (Rad23b, Tdg, Ccnd1, Ddit3, Llgl1, Rasl11a, Tbx2, Scl6a15) were verified by MeDIP-qPCR. Among them, Rad23b and Ddit3 gene displayed tissue-specific methylation and downregulation, which persisted for 1-month postirradiation. Thus, LDR induced global hypomethylation and tissue-specific promoter hypermethylation of particular genes. Promoter hypermethylation, rather than global hypomethylation, was relatively stable. Dysregulation of methylation might be correlated with down-regulation of DNMT1 and MBD2, but much better understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in this process will require further study.
Integrin Targeted Imaging and Therapy
Xiaoyuan Chen
Theranostics , 2011,
Abstract: This theme issue provides an overview on the biology and pathology of various integrins as well as in-depth discussion on the use of integrin as targeting molecules for molecular imaging and molecular therapy.
Analysis of Harmonic Current in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and Its Effect on Motor Torque  [PDF]
Xiaoyuan Wang, Wei Zhou, Ruzhen Dou
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2012.41003
Abstract: The inverter is used as the power supply of modern permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The inverter may produce harmonics in inversion process and form harmonic currents in motor stator winding which can lead to factors against motor smooth operation such as torque fluctuating and winding heating. This article focuses on the harmonic currents formed in the motor stator winding by getting the harmonics frequency spectrum with software. The effect of harmonic currents to motor torque is analyzed with the finite element method (FEM).
Why Integrin as a Primary Target for Imaging and Therapy
Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen
Theranostics , 2011,
Abstract: Integrin-mediated cell adhesion is involved in many essential normal cellular and pathological functions including cell survival, growth, differentiation, migration, inflammatory responses, platelet aggregation, tissue repair and tumor invasion. 24 different heterodimerized transmembrane integrin receptors are combined from 18 different α and 8 different β subunits. Each integrin subunit contains a large extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain and a usually short cytoplasmic domain. Integrins bind extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins through their large extracellular domain, and engage the cytoskeleton via their short cytoplasmic tails. These integrin-mediated linkages on either side of the plasma membrane are dynamically linked. Thus, integrins communicate over the plasma membrane in both directions, i.e., outside-in and inside-out signaling. In outside-in signaling through integrins, conformational changes of integrin induced by ligand binding on the extracellular domain altered the cytoplasmic domain structures to elicit various intracellular signaling pathways. Inside-out signaling originates from non-integrin cell surface receptors or cytoplasmic molecules and it activates signaling pathways inside the cells, ultimately resulting in the activation/deactivation of integrins. Integrins are one of key family proteins for cell adhesion regulation through binding to a large number of ECM molecules and cell membrane proteins. Lack of expression of integrins may result in a wide variety of effects ranging from blockage in pre-implantation to embryonic or perinatal lethality and developmental defects. Based on both the key role they played in angiogenesis, leukocytes function and tumor development and easy accessibility as cell surface receptors interacting with extracellular ligands, the integrin superfamily represents the best opportunity of targeting both antibodies and small-molecule antagonists for both therapeutic and diagnostic utility in various key diseases so far.
Integrin Targeted Delivery of Chemotherapeutics
Kai Chen, Xiaoyuan Chen
Theranostics , 2011,
Abstract: Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics is defined in the sense, that is, to maximize the therapeutic index of a chemotherapeutic agent by strictly localizing its pharmacological activity to the site or tissue of action. Integrins are a family of heterodimeric transmembrane glycoproteins involved in a wide range of cell-to-extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-to-cell interactions. As cell surface receptors, integrins readily interact with extracellular ligands and play a vital role in angiogenesis, leukocytes function and tumor development, which sets up integrins as an excellent target for chemotherapy treatment. The peptide ligands containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD), which displays a strong binding affinity and selectivity to integrins, particularly to integrin αvβ3, have been developed to conjugate with various conventional chemotherapeutic agents, such as small molecules, peptides and proteins, and nanoparticle-carried drugs for integtrin targeted therapeutic studies. This review highlights the recent advances in integrin targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents with emphasis on target of integrin αvβ3, and describes the considerations for the design of the diverse RGD peptide-chemotherapeutics conjugates and their major applications.
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