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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 78368 matches for " Xiaoqian Chen "
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Study of Alkali Metal Corrosion on Heating Surfaces and Bed Material Agglomerate in Biomass-fired Fluidized Bed Boiler  [PDF]
Tuo Chen, Yanfen Liao, Shumei Wu, Xiaoqian Ma, Jinghui Song
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.54B002
Abstract: The bed material agglomeration and heating surface high-temperature Corrosion Problems of biomass-fired boiler in South China were studied in this work. The inner and outer surfaces of the corrosion sample were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with Bruker EDX and XRD. Results showed that the outer side of the corrosion sample was mainly composed of alkali chloride deposited ash, sulphide and a small amount of eutectoid; while the inner side of the corrosion sample was still mainly made up of the composition of SUS316, but added with alkali metal, oxygen, chlorine and sulphur elements, appearing as the corrosion products and eutectoid. It was thought that alkali chloride deposit and the reaction with pipe metal to generate low melting point eutectoid on the outer surfaces, or the corrosion reaction through the alkali metal sulphatization process was the main reasons leading to the damage of metal surface oxide film. Chlorine plays a role as haptoreaction in the corrosion process, and transports metal material as the form of chloride from the inner side to the outer side of the pipe surfaces by diffusion, accelerating the corrosion process. Meanwhile, the slag was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with Bruker EDX, and the transformation process of slage was computationally analyzed by FACTSAGE. Results showed that the amount of alkali metal in the agglomerates was little, however, caused a great impact on severe agglomerates. The increase of temperature enhanced the conversion process of alkali metal to molten oxide, especially when the temperature was higher than760℃, the amount of molten product increased sharply. Thus, the temperature control of fluidized bed plays an important role in solving the problem of alkali metal agglomerates; it also reliefs the volatile of alkali metal into gas phase, benefiting the control of heating surface corrosion.
How the Chinese Fiscal Decentralization Frustrate Its County Economic Development: A Literature Review  [PDF]
Xiaoqian Liu
Modern Economy (ME) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/me.2016.75059
Abstract: Fiscal decentralization has been considered as one of the essential institutional forces that can improve the quality of public goods and services as well as the allocation efficiency of regional resources in developing countries. However, along with the Chinese economy’s “miracle growth” under the background of fiscal decentralization, the county economic development of China has paid the price. Therefore, this research explores how the Chinese county economy has been frustrated by its own fiscal decentralization system in two ways: The transfer payments and the power allocation among the sub-national governments in China. Especially, this paper focuses on the fiscal system under the provincial level.
The Foundations and Reasons of County Administrated by Province Reform: Analysis Based on County Economy and People’s Livelihood Perspective  [PDF]
Xiaoqian Liu
Modern Economy (ME) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/me.2018.911119
Abstract: In the process of the further transferring of economic and social development space to the counties in China, the County Administrated by Province Reform takes the important responsibility of solving the problem of improving the county economic performance and improving people’s livelihood security system of counties. Based on this, this paper investigates the Chinese reform of the financial system under the province from two aspects: the basis of the operation of the county administrated by province and the main motivation of the reform. The study finds that the county administrated by province reform is a reform based on county-level government. The fundamental reason is that the deficiency of system changes causes the county-level government’s expenditure responsibility to be inconsistent with its income, and the huge financial pressure is difficult to support the county’s effective and balanced development.
Tri-Subject Kinship Verification: Understanding the Core of A Family
Xiaoqian Qin,Xiaoyang Tan,Songcan Chen
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: One major challenge in computer vision is to go beyond the modeling of individual objects and to investigate the bi- (one-versus-one) or tri- (one-versus-two) relationship among multiple visual entities, answering such questions as whether a child in a photo belongs to given parents. The child-parents relationship plays a core role in a family and understanding such kin relationship would have fundamental impact on the behavior of an artificial intelligent agent working in the human world. In this work, we tackle the problem of one-versus-two (tri-subject) kinship verification and our contributions are three folds: 1) a novel relative symmetric bilinear model (RSBM) introduced to model the similarity between the child and the parents, by incorporating the prior knowledge that a child may resemble a particular parent more than the other; 2) a spatially voted method for feature selection, which jointly selects the most discriminative features for the child-parents pair, while taking local spatial information into account; 3) a large scale tri-subject kinship database characterized by over 1,000 child-parents families. Extensive experiments on KinFaceW, Family101 and our newly released kinship database show that the proposed method outperforms several previous state of the art methods, while could also be used to significantly boost the performance of one-versus-one kinship verification when the information about both parents are available.
Assessment of the Socia-Economic Benefits of Two Indigenous Fruit Tree: Apple (Gornoaltaiskoje) and Sea Buckthorn (Altaja) to the People of Biger Rural City in Western Region of Mongolia  [PDF]
Gunjargal Balt, Xiaoqian Chen, Suvdantsetseg Balt
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102671
The purpose of this research is to assess the socio-economic importance of two indigenous fruit trees of Apple and Sea buckthorn in Biger rural city of Gobi-Altai province, Mongolia. Specifically, the study assesses the contributions of indigenous fruits to household’s cash income and to supply the local fruits demand. This study used a qualitative and quantitative analyzing approach which conducted field survey using semi-structured interview with locals and experts, observation and self-designed household exploratory questionnaires were used for primary data collection. The result of research found 12.5 hectare area at 3 places in Biger city planting small apple and sea buckthorn and they were planning to extent the planting area in another 15 hectare from 2015. These two fruits have been supplied big benefits to the 124 householders cash income, domestic use of bordering 17,822 citizens apple’s demand and supply of primary goods for local wine industry since 1971. The other benefits of the fruits planting area also have been supplying 1726 ton forage for 404 herder householder’s livestock food demand in the case area. The local small afro farm areas are contributing lots of benefits to the local householders’ livelihood and wellbeing, neighboring citizens’ fruit demand, livestock forage supply and also reducing desertification process in the Gobi desert region of Mongolia which is very important forest type.
Stem cell therapy for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: How far are we from the bench to the bedside?  [PDF]
Zheng Wang, Xiaoju Zhang, Yi Kang, Yanli Zeng, Hongmei Liu, Xiaoqian Chen, Lijun Ma
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.68A2004
Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by exuberant apoptosis and inadequate regeneration of lung parenchyma cells. Intratracheal alveolar type II epithelial cell instillation alleviates lung inflammation and fibrosis. Resident lung epithelial stem cells, as well as exogenous mesenchymal stem cells, are capable of differentiating into lung epithelial cells and repair the injured lung. It is thus supposed that, either engraftment of exogenous stem cells, or methods facilitating endogenous lung stem cell proliferation, are promising treatments for IPF, a devastating disease. Arrays of cellular and animal studies have shown the potential of stem cells in alleviating experimental lung fibrosis. Moreover, clinical trials have been launched to investigate the potentials of cell-based therapy in IPF patients. We intend to discuss the newest advances on stem cell therapy in pulmonary fibrosis, particularly the advantages, promises, and possible hurdles to pass from the successes in laboratory experiments to the eventual clinical applications.
Effect of Shear on Ultrasonic Flow Measurement Using Nonaxisymmetric Wave Modes
Yong Chen,Yiyong Huang,Xiaoqian Chen,Dengpeng Hu
Shock and Vibration , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/912404
Abstract: Nonaxisymmetric wave propagation in an inviscid fluid with a pipeline shear flow is investigated. Mathematical equation is deduced from the conservations of mass and momentum, leading to a second-order differential equation in terms of the acoustic pressure. Meanwhile a general boundary condition is formulated to cover different types of wall configurations. A semianalytical method based on the Fourier-Bessel theory is provided to transform the differential equation to algebraic equations. Numerical analysis of phase velocity and wave attenuation in water is addressed in the laminar and turbulent flow. Meanwhile comparison among different kinds of boundary condition is given. In the end, the measurement performance of an ultrasonic flow meter is demonstrated. 1. Introduction Wave propagation in an inviscid fluid with a shear mean flow has been studied mostly by numerical and semianalytical methods [1, 2] which is of considerable interest in industrial applications such as noise damping [3, 4] and ultrasonic flow meter [5, 6], to mention a few. On the neglect of the fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity, Pridmore-Brown [7] firstly established the governing equation of the transverse modes in a shear mean flow confined by a rectangular duct. Mungur and Plumblee [8] derived the corresponding convected wave equation in the case of a circular pipeline. Following the contribution of Mungur and Plumblee [8], various aspects of wave propagation in the circular pipeline containing the shear flow were studied by many researchers, such as Gogate and Munjal [9], Ko [10], Eversman [11], Agarwal and Bull [12], and Pagneux and Froelich [13]. Boucheron et al. [2] made a comprehensive review of axisymmetric acoustic wave propagating in the rigid-walled pipeline. In the case of a lined-walled pipeline where the effect of acoustic impedance of the wall was considered, theoretical and numerical contributions were made by Rienstra and Darau [3], Rienstra [14], Smith et al. [15], Brambley et al. [16], and Buske et al. [17]. Some experiment data can be found in the work of Marx et al. [18]. In the application of an ultrasonic flow measurement, particular considerations are given to improve the measurement performance. Due to the complexity of wave propagation in the pipeline flow, various compensation methods in the engineering aspect have been provided, which was comprehensively summarized by Chen et al. [5]. On the other hand, theoretical analysis based on the wave equation was conducted by Lechner [19], Willatzen [20–24], and Chen et al. [6]. Based on the axisymmetric
The Drug Development Based on Pathogenetic Research in Alzheimer’s Disease  [PDF]
Xiaoqian Lin, Qingzhu Zhang
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aad.2014.32007
Abstract: Neuropathologically, Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the presence of extracellular deposits of amyloid-β peptides, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and atrophy of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. The research of pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease inspirits potential clinical drugs for treatment. To block the progression of the disease, drugs under development have to interfere with the pathogenic steps responsible for the clinical symptoms, including cholinergic deficit, calcium dysregulation, inflammation and oxidative damage, and the deposition of amyloid- β plaques and of neurofibrillary tangles. In this review, the pertinent literature about drugs targeted on relieving symptoms above is reviewed. We aim to discuss possible research priorities in the future.
Off-Isocenter Winston-Lutz Test for Stereotactic Radiosurgery/Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy  [PDF]
Junfang Gao, Xiaoqian Liu
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2016.52017
Abstract: The single-isocenter technique in linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery/stereotactic body radiotherapy (SRS/SBRT) has been broadly used to treat multiple lesions. However, quantitative study to verify that the mechanical field center coincides with the radiation field center when both are off from the isocenter has never been performed. We developed an innovative method to measure this accuracy, called the off-isocenter Winston-Lutz test, and here we provided a practical clinical guideline to implement this technique. We used ImagePro V.6 to analyze images of a Winston-Lutz phantom obtained using a Varian 21EX linear accelerator with an electronic portal imaging device, set up as for single-isocenter SRS/SBRT for multiple lesions. We investigated asymmetry field centers that were 3 cm and 5 cm away from the isocenter, as well as performing the standard Winston-Lutz test. We used a special beam configuration to acquire images while avoiding collision, and we investigated both jaw and multileaf collimation. For the jaw collimator setting, at 3 cm off-isocenter, the mechanical field deviated from the radiation field by about 2.5 mm; at 5 cm, the deviation was above 3 mm, up to 4.27 mm. For the multileaf collimator setting, at 3 cm off- isocenter, the deviation was below 1 mm; at 5 cm, the deviation was above 1 mm, up to 1.72 mm, which was 72% higher than the tolerance threshold. These results indicated that the further the asymmetry field center is from the machine isocenter, the larger the deviation of the mechanical field from the radiation field, and the distance between the center of the asymmetry field and the isocenter should not exceed 3 cm in our clinic. We recommend that every clinic that uses linear accelerator, multileaf collimator-based SRS/SBRT perform the off-isocenter Winston-Lutz test in addition to the standard Winston-Lutz test and use their own deviation data to create planning guideline.
Global Solution of a Nonlinear Conservation Law with Weak Discontinuous Flux in the Half Space  [PDF]
Xiaoqian Li, Jing Zhang
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2018.84026
This paper is concerned with the initial-boundary value problem of a nonlinear conservation law in the half space R+= {x |x > 0}
where a>0 , u(x,t) is an unknown function of x ∈ R+
and t>0 , u ± , um are three given constants satisfying um=u+u-
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