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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11748 matches for " Xiaoguang Cao "
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From Disorder to Order  [PDF]
Xiaoguang Yue, Yong Cao, Michael McAleer
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.62032
Abstract: In the physical and social sciences, and especially in physics and economics, respectively, order and disorder (alternatively, equilibrium and disequilibrium in economics) refer to the presence or absence of some symmetry or correlation in a many-particle system. It follows that it is important to examine whether there is any regularity hidden in the phase transition of the disorder-order relationship. In this paper a series of experiments are devised and executed to reveal the power law relationship between order and disorder, and to determine that the power law is indeed an important regular pattern in the phase transition from disorder to order.
A note on anti-coordination and social interactions
Zhigang Cao,Xiaoguang Yang
Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s10878-012-9486-7
Abstract: This note confirms a conjecture of [Bramoull\'{e}, Anti-coordination and social interactions, Games and Economic Behavior, 58, 2007: 30-49]. The problem, which we name the maximum independent cut problem, is a restricted version of the MAX-CUT problem, requiring one side of the cut to be an independent set. We show that the maximum independent cut problem does not admit any polynomial time algorithm with approximation ratio better than $n^{1-\epsilon}$, where $n$ is the number of nodes, and $\epsilon$ arbitrarily small, unless P=NP. For the rather special case where each node has a degree of at most four, the problem is still MAXSNP-hard.
Complementary cooperation, minimal winning coalitions, and power indices
Zhigang Cao,Xiaoguang Yang
Computer Science , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.tcs.2012.11.033
Abstract: We introduce a new simple game, which is referred to as the complementary weighted multiple majority game (C-WMMG for short). C-WMMG models a basic cooperation rule, the complementary cooperation rule, and can be taken as a sister model of the famous weighted majority game (WMG for short). In this paper, we concentrate on the two dimensional C-WMMG. An interesting property of this case is that there are at most $n+1$ minimal winning coalitions (MWC for short), and they can be enumerated in time $O(n\log n)$, where $n$ is the number of players. This property guarantees that the two dimensional C-WMMG is more handleable than WMG. In particular, we prove that the main power indices, i.e. the Shapley-Shubik index, the Penrose-Banzhaf index, the Holler-Packel index, and the Deegan-Packel index, are all polynomially computable. To make a comparison with WMG, we know that it may have exponentially many MWCs, and none of the four power indices is polynomially computable (unless P=NP). Still for the two dimensional case, we show that local monotonicity holds for all of the four power indices. In WMG, this property is possessed by the Shapley-Shubik index and the Penrose-Banzhaf index, but not by the Holler-Packel index or the Deegan-Packel index. Since our model fits very well the cooperation and competition in team sports, we hope that it can be potentially applied in measuring the values of players in team sports, say help people give more objective ranking of NBA players and select MVPs, and consequently bring new insights into contest theory and the more general field of sports economics. It may also provide some interesting enlightenments into the design of non-additive voting mechanisms. Last but not least, the threshold version of C-WMMG is a generalization of WMG, and natural variants of it are closely related with the famous airport game and the stable marriage/roommates problem.
Selfish Bin Covering
Zhigang Cao,Xiaoguang Yang
Computer Science , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.tcs.2011.09.017
Abstract: In this paper, we address the selfish bin covering problem, which is greatly related both to the bin covering problem, and to the weighted majority game. What we mainly concern is how much the lack of coordination harms the social welfare. Besides the standard PoA and PoS, which are based on Nash equilibrium, we also take into account the strong Nash equilibrium, and several other new equilibria. For each equilibrium, the corresponding PoA and PoS are given, and the problems of computing an arbitrary equilibrium, as well as approximating the best one, are also considered.
Ocular manifestations and pathology of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1
Melissa M. Liu,Emiko Furusato,Xiaoguang Cao,DeFen Shen
Rare Tumors , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/rt.2010.e63
Abstract: The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), endemic in defined geographical areas around the world, is recognized as the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), or HTLV-1. ATL is a rare adult onset T-cell malignancy that is characterized by the presence of ATL flower cells with T-cell markers, HTLV-1 antibodies in the serum, and monoclonal integration of HTLV-1 provirus in affected cells. Ocular manifestations associated with HTLV-1 virus infection have been reported and include HTLV-1 uveitis and keratoconjunctivitis sicca, but reports of ocular involvement in ATL are exceedingly rare. This article describes the ocular manifestations and pathology of ATL. We also report for the first time a case of a 34-year-old male with systemic ATL and prominent atypical lymphoid cell infiltration in the choroid. To our knowledge, this is the first report defining prominent choroidal involvement as a distinct ocular manifestation of ATL. ATL may masquerade as a variety of other conditions, and molecular techniques involving microdissection and PCR have proven to be critical diagnostic tools. Inter-national collaboration will be needed to better understand the presentation and diagnosis of this rare malignancy.
Fashion, Cooperation, and Social Interactions
Zhigang Cao, Haoyu Gao, Xinglong Qu, Mingmin Yang, Xiaoguang Yang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049441
Abstract: Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people’s cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.
Rebels Lead to the Doctrine of the Mean: Opinion Dynamic in a Heterogeneous DeGroot Model
Zhigang Cao,Mingmin Yang,Xinglong Qu,Xiaoguang Yang
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: We study an extension of the DeGroot model where part of the players may be rebels. The updating rule for rebels is quite different with that of normal players (which are referred to as conformists): at each step a rebel first takes the opposite value of the weighted average of her neighbors' opinions, i.e. 1 minus that average (the opinion space is assumed to be [0,1] as usual), and then updates her opinion by taking another weighted average between that value and her own opinion in the last round. We find that the effect of rebels is rather significant: as long as there is at least one rebel in every closed and strongly connected group, under very weak conditions, the opinion of each player in the whole society will eventually tend to 0.5.
Effects of Different Nitrogen Applications on Soil Physical, Chemical Properties and Yield in Maize (Zea mays L.)  [PDF]
Heng Zhong, Qiao Wang, Xinhua Zhao, Qi Du, Yue Zhao, Xiaoguang Wang, Chunji Jiang, Shuli Zhao, Minjian Cao, Haiqiu Yu, Dawei Wang
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.514155
Abstract: Application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is one of the most important approaches on improving maize grain yield. However, as is known to all, overuse N fertilizer not only leads to decline of N use efficiency and maize yield, but also leads to potential risk to environment pollution. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of N fertilizer applications with nine different treatments on soil physical-chemical characters and maize grain yield using hybrid variety Zhengdan 958 in 2011 and 2012. Results indicated that the soil bulk densities of T2 (CK) and T1 were the lowest compared to other treatments in 2011 and 2012, respectively, whereas the soil bulk density of T5 in 2011 and T3 in 2012 were higher than other treatments. The soil porosity and field capacity of T5 in 2011 and T3 in 2012 were lower than other treatments, but those of CK in 2011 and T1 in 2012 were higher than other treatments. The pH values of T3 to T7 were lower than other treatments. These results indicated that the soil bulk densities were increased, whereas the soil porosity, field capacity and values pH were decreased by N application at different stages. N application could increase the N contents of leaf and stem, whereas less or excess N application should not significant improve maize yield. Although the soil organic matter and total N contents of T3 were the highest in both 2011 and 2012, the yield of T4 is the highest in both 2011 and 2012. The application amount, period and times of N fertilizer were important to maize yield.

The Safe Navigation of Partial Motion Planning Based on “Cooperation” with Roadside Fixed Sensors in VANET  [PDF]
Rong Ding, Xiaoguang Li
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2010.29079
Abstract: In recent years, many methods of safe vehicle navigation and partial motion planning (PMP) have been proposed in vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) field. In order to improve the limitation of traditional PMP, this paper presents a novel effective way to plan motion with cooperation of roadside fixed sensors (RFSs). With their cooperation, the vehicles can get the surrounding information quickly and effectively, and give highly accurate projections about the near future conditions on road. After proposing our algorithm, the worst case is analyzed and methods are found to solve the problem. Finally we conduct one elemental contrast experiment, driver situation awareness, with or without the “cooperation” of RFSs in highway scenarios. The result shows that the vehicles can make a better PMP based on the forward conditions received from RFSs, and extend the warning distance obviously when emergency happens.
Risk Evaluation of Dynamic Alliance Based on Fuzzy Analytic Network Process and Fuzzy TOPSIS  [PDF]
Xiaoguang Zhou, Mi Lu
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2012.53028
Abstract: Dynamic alliance formations have increased dramatically over the past decade for its adaptation to environmental change and market competition. However, many fail, while an even greater proportion perform poorly. The risk analysis of dynamic alliance will help enterprises to choose a coalition partner and make a reasonable benefit allocation plan. It’s also good for reducing the risk and keeping the stability of the alliance. Based on the interaction and feedback relationships between criteria and/or indices, an index system for evaluating the risk of dynamic alliance is developed. With the information uncertainty and inaccuracy being considered, a new hybrid model based on fuzzy analytic network process (FANP) and fuzzy technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is proposed. The local weights of criteria and indices are obtained by fuzzy preference programming (FPP), and the comprehensive weights are derived by FANP. According to fuzzy TOPSIS, an optimal alternative is chosen by the closeness coefficient based on the shortest distance from the positive and the farthest distance from the negative ideal solutions. Finally, a numerical case is given by the proposed method.
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