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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8996 matches for " Xiaogang Tan "
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Smoking Cause Specific Lung Cancer—Evidence from Non-Smoking Lung Adenocarcinoma  [PDF]
Ning Li, Bin Qu, Kang Shao, Zhaoli Chen, Fengwei Tan, Xiaogang Tan, Baozhong Li, Jiwen Wang, Jie He
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.324056
Abstract: Introduction: Smoking and non-smoking lung cancer have many differences in clinical feature. But those may be the result of interference due to differences in pathological type, as most smoking patients suffer squmous cell lung cancer and non-smokings tend to get adenocarcinoma. This study was conducted on the specific histological type-lung adenocarcinoma-to avoid histological bias and to reveal the true effect of smoking. Methods: A total of 2222 patients with lung adenocarcinoma confirmed by histological or cytological evidence were enrolled from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2004. Differences in clinical features and prognosis between non-smoking and smoking patients were analyzed.Chisquare test was used for univariate comparisons. Univariate probability of survival was computed using Kaplan-Meier estimate and compared to using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk of death. Results: There were 777 current smokers (34.96%), 197 former smokers (8.87%) and 1248 non-smoking patients (56.17%). 860 non-smoking patients (68.91%) were female, compared with 6.31% among current smokers and 4.06% among former smokers (p < 0.001). Non-smoking patients had an earlier age at diagnosis (p < 0.001) and a better response to chemotherapy (p < 0.001) compared to current smoking patients. Current smoking correlated with lower cell differentiation (p < 0.001) and worse prognosis (p = 0.0024). After multivariate analysis, smoking was identified as an independent negative prognostic factor (HR, 1.302; 95% CI, 1.011 - 1.6780, p = 0.041). No difference in prognosis was observed according to smoking conditions in smoking patients. Conclusions: Significent differences exist in clinical features and prognosis between non-smoking and smoking lung adenocarcinoma patients. There is a strong evidence that non-smoking lung adenocarcinoma should be regard as different disease.
Research on the Improvement of Competitiveness of Chain Business Enterprises with the System Theory  [PDF]
Xiaogang Yang
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2016.43051
Abstract: Chain business enterprises face increasing competition. With the system theory, the competitiveness structure of chain business enterprises is analyzed, and practical methods and measures for the improvement of their competitiveness are provided.
The Advantages and Measures of Constructing Logistics Strategic Alliance for Chain Marketing Enterprises  [PDF]
Xiaogang Yang
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2016.67077
Abstract: The results indicated that the logistics strategic alliance has obvious advantages and benefits to economies of scale, and building strategic alliance of logistics is an effective way for the chain marketing enterprises to achieve economies of scale, which can enhance their core competitiveness. In this paper, the author pointed out the specific measures of the chain marketing enterprises to construct and consolidate logistics strategic alliance.
Education Marketing Research  [PDF]
Xiaogang Yang
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.65111
Abstract: “Education marketing” is a new concept used in high frequency interiorly in recent years, but it has significantly different interpretations in the educational circles and business circles, extremely easy to cause the misuse and mix, which is not conducive to the development and application of this new subject of marketing. The analysis of this paper shows that: there are four essential differences in the understanding of “educational marketing” in the education and business circles and two suggestions are put forward to solve the problem.
Three Important Applications of Mathematics in Financial Mathematics  [PDF]
Xiaogang Yang
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2017.79077
Abstract: This paper analyzes the basic connotation of financial mathematics, financial mathematics through research development, control theory, differential game theory and capital asset pricing model from stochastic optimal, and discusses three important applications of mathematics in the financial field.
On the Emergence, Development and Prospect of Financial Mathematics  [PDF]
Xiaogang Yang
Modern Economy (ME) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/me.2017.89078
Abstract: Since its emergence in 1980s, financial mathematics has developed into an interdisciplinary subject with independent theoretical system. On the one hand, financial mathematics has become the key technology that can be seen everywhere in finance. On the other hand, the development of Finance provides an important platform for the application of mathematics. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and summarize the emergence and development of financial mathematics, and to analyze the future of financial mathematics.
A Derivative-Free Optimization Algorithm Using Sparse Grid Integration  [PDF]
Shengyuan Chen, Xiaogang Wang
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2013.31003
Abstract:

We present a new derivative-free optimization algorithm based on the sparse grid numerical integration. The algorithm applies to a smooth nonlinear objective function where calculating its gradient is impossible and evaluating its value is also very expensive. The new algorithm has: 1) a unique starting point strategy; 2) an effective global search heuristic; and 3) consistent local convergence. These are achieved through a uniform use of sparse grid numerical integration. Numerical experiment result indicates that the algorithm is accurate and efficient, and benchmarks favourably against several state-of-art derivative free algorithms.

Theoretical Properties of Composite Likelihoods  [PDF]
Xiaogang Wang, Yuehua Wu
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2014.43018
Abstract:

The general functional form of composite likelihoods is derived by minimizing the Kullback-Leibler distance under structural constraints associated with low dimensional densities. Connections with the I-projection and the maximum entropy distributions are shown. Asymptotic properties of composite likelihood inference under the proposed information-theoretical framework are established.

Common promoter variants of the NDUFV2 gene do not confer susceptibility to schizophrenia in Han Chinese
Wen Zhang, Xiaogang Chen, Wei Gong, Jinsong Tang, Liwen Tan, Hao Guo, Yong-Gang Yao
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-6-75
Abstract: We genotyped the promoter variants of this gene (rs6506640 and rs1156044) by direct sequencing in 529 unrelated Han Chinese schizophrenia patients and 505 matched controls. Fisher's Exact test was performed to assess whether these two reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) confer susceptibility to schizophrenia in Chinese.Allele, genotype and haplotype comparison between the case and control groups showed no statistical significance, suggesting no association between the NDUFV2 gene promoter variants and schizophrenia in Han Chinese.The role of NDUFV2 played in schizophrenia needs to be further studied. Different racial background and/or population substructure might account for the inconsistent results between studies.Mitochondrial dysfunction was considered as a risk factor for the onset of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders [1]. As a core component of mitochondrial respiratory chain, the 24 kD subunit of mitochondrial complex I, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase flavoprotein (NDUFV2), is a hot candidate target for psychiatric disorders [2-7]. The first clue that indicated a potential positive association of the NDUFV2 gene with schizophrenia could be traced to the pioneer association and linkage study by Schwab and colleagues [8], in which they reported chromosome 18p (which contains this gene), conferred susceptibility to functional psychoses in families with schizophrenia. Subsequent analyses showed a decreased level of NDUFV2 expression in postmortem prefrontal cortex and striatum of schizophrenia patients [9-11] and in lymphoblastoid cell line of Caucasian schizophrenia patients [4], suggesting an active involvement of NDUFV2 in schizophrenia. Recent association studies further indicated that the NDUFV2 promoter haplotype, which was constituted by two SNPs (rs6506640-rs1156044), was significantly associated with schizophrenia in Japanese population [5]. This association was also found in patients with bipolar disorder from different populatio
Decrease in Temporal Gyrus Gray Matter Volume in First-Episode, Early Onset Schizophrenia: An MRI Study
Jinsong Tang, Yanhui Liao, Bing Zhou, Changliang Tan, Weiqing Liu, Dong Wang, Tieqiao Liu, Wei Hao, Liwen Tan, Xiaogang Chen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040247
Abstract: Background Loss of gray matter has been previously found in early-onset schizophrenic patients. However, there are no consistent findings between studies due to different methods used to measure grey matter volume/density and influences of confounding factors. Methods The volume of gray matter (GM) was measured in 29 first episode early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and 34 well-matched healthy controls by using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Psychotic symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The correlations between the GM volume and PANSS scores, age of psychosis onset, duration of psychosis, and chlorpromazine (CPZ) equivalent value were investigated. Results Relative to healthy subjects, the patients with first episode EOS showed significantly lower GM volume in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus. The loss of GM volume negatively correlated with PANSS-positive symptoms (p = 0.002), but not with PANSS-negative symptoms, PANSS-general psychopathology, and PANSS-total score. No significant correlation was found between GM volume and age of psychosis onset, duration of psychosis, and CPZ equivalent value. Conclusion Patients with first episode EOS have evidence of reduced GM in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus. Structural abnormalities in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
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