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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7942 matches for " Xianlan Cui "
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Complete Genome Sequence of the First Chinese Virulent Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus
Congcong Kong, Yan Zhao, Xianlan Cui, Xiaomin Zhang, Hongyu Cui, Mei Xue, Yunfeng Wang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070154
Abstract: Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute respiratory disease caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The complete genome sequences of five attenuated ILTV vaccine strains and six virulent ILTV strains as well as two Australian ILTV field strains have been published in Australia and the USA so far. To provide the complete genome sequence information of ILTVs from different geographic regions, the whole genome of ILTV LJS09 isolated in China was sequenced. The genome of ILTV LJS09 was 153,201 bp in length, and contained 79 ORFs. Most of the ORFs had high sequence identity with homologous ORFs of reference strains. There was a large fragment deletion within the noncoding region of unique long region (UL) of ILTV LJS09 compared with SA2 and A20 strains. Though the origin binding protein of ILTV LJS09 existed, there was no AT-rich region in strain LJS09. Alignments of the amino acid sequences revealed seven mutations at amino acids 71 (Arg → Lys), 116 (Ala → Val), 207 (Thr → Ile) and 644 (Thr → Ile) on glycoprotein B, 155 (Phe → Ser) and 376 (Arg → His) on glycoprotein D and 8 (Gln→Pro) on glycoprotein L of ILTV LJS09 compared to those of virulent strain (USDA) as ILTV LJS09 did not grow on chicken embryo fibroblasts, suggesting the role of the key seven amino acids in determination of the cell tropism of ILTV LJS09. This is the first complete genome sequence of the virulent strain of ILTV in Asia using the conventional PCR method, which will help to facilitate the future molecular biological research of ILTVs.
Effects of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Infection on Cytokine Production in SPF Chickens
Mei Xue, Xingming Shi, Yan Zhao, Hongyu Cui, Shunlei Hu, Xianlan Cui, Yunfeng Wang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083918
Abstract: Infection with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), a gammaretrovirus in the Retroviridae family, can result in immunosuppression and subsequent increased susceptibility to secondary infections. The effects of REV infection on expression of mRNA for cytokine genes in chickens have not been completely elucidated. In this study, using multiplex branched DNA (bDNA)?technology, we identified molecular mediators that participated in the regulation of the immune response during REV infection in chickens. Cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression levels were evaluated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Expression levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-13 and?tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were significantly up-regulated while interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β,IL-2, IL-3, IL-15, IL-17F, IL-18 and colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 were markedly decreased in PBMCs at all stages of infection. Compared with controls, REV infected chickens showed greater expression levels of IL-8 in PBMCs 21 and 28 days post infection. In addition, REV regulates host immunity as a suppressor of T cell proliferative responses. The results in this study will help us to understand the host immune response to virus pathogens.
Identification of a Conserved B-cell Epitope on Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Envelope Protein by Screening a Phage-displayed Random Peptide Library
Mei Xue, Xingming Shi, Jing Zhang, Yan Zhao, Hongyu Cui, Shunlei Hu, Hongbo Gao, Xianlan Cui, Yun-Feng Wang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049842
Abstract: Background The gp90 protein of avian reticuloendotheliosis-associated virus (REV-A) is an important envelope glycoprotein, which is responsible for inducing protective antibody immune responses in animals. B-cell epitopes on the gp90 protein of REV have not been well studied and reported. Methods and Results This study describes the identification of a linear B-cell epitope on the gp90 protein by screening a phage-displayed 12-mer random peptide library with the neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) A9E8 directed against the gp90. The mAb A9E8 recognized phages displaying peptides with the consensus motif SVQYHPL. Amino acid sequence of the motif exactly matched 213SVQYHPL219 of the gp90. Further identification of the displayed B cell epitope was conducted using a set of truncated peptides expressed as GST fusion proteins and the Western blot results indicated that 213SVQYHPL219 was the minimal determinant of the linear B cell epitope recognized by the mAb A9E8. Moreover, an eight amino acid peptide SVQYHPLA was proven to be the minimal unit of the epitope with the maximal binding activity to mAb A9E8. The REV-A-positive chicken serum reacted with the minimal linear epitopes in Western blot, revealing the importance of the eight amino acids of the epitope in antibody-epitope binding activity. Furthermore, we found that the epitope is a common motif shared among REV-A and other members of REV group. Conclusions and Significance We identified 213SVQYHPL219 as a gp90-specific linear B-cell epitope recognized by the neutralizing mAb A9E8. The results in this study may have potential applications in development of diagnostic techniques and epitope-based marker vaccines against REV-A and other viruses of the REV group.
Expression of HA of HPAI H5N1 Virus at US2 Gene Insertion Site of Turkey Herpesvirus Induced Better Protection than That at US10 Gene Insertion Site
Hongbo Gao, Hongyu Cui, Xianlan Cui, Xingming Shi, Yan Zhao, Xiaoyan Zhao, Yanming Quan, Shuai Yan, Weiwei Zeng, Yunfeng Wang
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022549
Abstract: Herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) is being widely used as a vector for development of recombinant vaccines and US2 and US10 genes are often chosen as insertion sites for targeted gene expression. However, the different effects of the two genes for generation of recombinant HVT vaccines were unknown. In order to compare the effects of inserted genes in the two sites on the efficacy of the recombinant vaccines, host-protective haemagglutinin (HA) gene of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 was inserted into either US2 or US10 gene locus of the HVT. The resulting US2 (rHVT-US2-HA) or US10 (rHVT-US10-HA) recombinant HVT viruses were used to infect chicken embryo fibroblasts. Plaques and the growth kinetics of rHVT-US2-HA-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts were similar to those of parental HVT whereas rHVT-US10-HA infected chicken embryo fibroblasts had different growth kinetics and plaque formation. The viremia levels in rHVT-US10-HA virus-infected chickens were significantly lower than those of rHVT-US2-HA group on 28 days post infection. The vaccine efficacy of the two recombinant viruses against H5N1 HPAIV and virulent Marek's disease virus was also evaluated in 1-day-old vaccinated chickens. rHVT-US2-HA-vaccinated chickens were better protected with reduced mortality than rHVT-US10-HA-vaccinated animals following HPAIV challenge. Furthermore, the overall hemaglutination inhibition antibody titers of rHVT-US2-HA-vaccinated chickens were higher than those of rHVT-US10-HA-vaccinated chickens. Protection levels against Marek's disease virus challenge following vaccination with either rHVT-US2-HA or rHVT-US10-HA, however, were similar to those of the parental HVT virus. These results, for the first time, indicate that US2 gene provides a favorable foreign gene insertion site for generation of recombinant HVT vaccines.
Detection of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus by Real-Time PCR in Naturally and Experimentally Infected Chickens
Yan Zhao, Congcong Kong, Xianlan Cui, Hongyu Cui, Xingming Shi, Xiaomin Zhang, Shunlei Hu, Lianwei Hao, Yunfeng Wang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067598
Abstract: Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory infectious disease of chickens. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for fast and accurate detection and quantitation of ILTV DNA of chickens experimentally infected with ILTV strain LJS09 and naturally infected chickens. The detection lower limit of the assay was 10 copies of DNA. There were no cross reactions with the DNA and RNA of infectious bursal disease virus, chicken anemia virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian reovirus, Newcastle disease virus, and Marek's disease virus. The real-time PCR was reproducible as the coefficients of variation of reproducibility of the intra-assay and the inter-assay were less than 2%. The real-time PCR was used to detect the levels of the ILTV DNA in the tissues of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens infected with ILTV at different times post infection. ILTV DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, larynx, tongue, thymus, glandular stomach, duodenum, pancreatic gland, small intestine, large intestine, cecum, cecal tonsil, bursa of Fabricius, and brain of chickens in the infection group and the contact-exposure group. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the ILTV real-time PCR assay revealed its suitability for detection and quantitation of ILTV in the samples from clinically and experimentally ILTV infected chickens.
Avirulent Marek’s Disease Virus Type 1 Strain 814 Vectored Vaccine Expressing Avian Influenza (AI) Virus H5 Haemagglutinin Induced Better Protection Than Turkey Herpesvirus Vectored AI Vaccine
Hongyu Cui, Hongbo Gao, Xianlan Cui, Yan Zhao, Xingming Shi, Qiaoling Li, Shuai Yan, Ming Gao, Mei Wang, Changjun Liu, Yunfeng Wang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053340
Abstract: Background Herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as a vector to express the haemagglutinin (HA) of avian influenza virus (AIV) H5 was developed and its protection against lethal Marek’s disease virus (MDV) and highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) challenges was evaluated previously. It is well-known that avirulemt MDV type 1 vaccines are more effective than HVT in prevention of lethal MDV infection. To further increase protective efficacy against HPAIV and lethal MDV, a recombinant MDV type 1 strain 814 was developed to express HA gene of HPAIV H5N1. Methodology/Principal Findings A recombinant MDV-1 strain 814 expressing HA gene of HPAIV H5N1 virus A/goose/Guangdong/3/96 at the US2 site (rMDV-HA) was developed under the control of a human CMV immediate-early promoter. The HA expression in the rMDV-HA was tested by immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses, and in vitro and in vivo growth properties of rMDV-HA were also analyzed. Furthermore, we evaluated and compared the protective immunity of rMDV-HA and previously constructed rHVT-HA against HPAIV and lethal MDV. Vaccination of chickens with rMDV-HA induced 80% protection against HPAIV, which was better than the protection rate by rHVT-HA (66.7%). In the animal study with MDV challenge, chickens immunized with rMDV-HA were completely protected against virulent MDV strain J-1 whereas rHVT-HA only induced 80% protection with the same challenge dose. Conclusions/Significance The rMDV-HA vaccine was more effective than rHVT-HA vaccine for protection against lethal MDV and HPAIV challenges. Therefore, avirulent MDV type 1 vaccine is a better vector than HVT for development of a recombinant live virus vaccine against virulent MDV and HPAIV in poultry.
Preparation and Efficacy of a Live Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine Encapsulated in Chitosan Nanoparticles
Kai Zhao, Gang Chen, Xing-ming Shi, Ting-ting Gao, Wei Li, Yan Zhao, Feng-qiang Zhang, Jin Wu, Xianlan Cui, Yun-Feng Wang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053314
Abstract: Background Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious viral disease of poultry caused by pathogenic strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Live NDV vaccines are administered by drinking water, eyedrops or coarse aerosol spray. To further enhance mucosal immune responses, chitosan nanoparticles were developed for the mucosal delivery of a live NDV vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings A lentogenic live-virus vaccine (strain LaSota) against NDV encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles were developed using an ionic crosslinking method. Chitosan nanoparticles containing the lentogenic live-virus vaccine against NDV (NDV-CS-NPs) were produced with good morphology, high stability, a mean diameter of 371.1 nm, an encapsulation rate of 77% and a zeta potential of +2.84 mV. The Western blotting analysis showed that NDV structural proteins were detected in NDV-CS-NPs. The virus release assay results of NDV-CS-NPs indicated that NDV was released from NDV-CS-NPs. Chickens immunized orally or intranasally with NDV-CS-NPs were fully protected whereas one out of five chickens immunized with the LaSota live NDV vaccine and three out of five chickens immunized with the inactivated NDV vaccine were dead after challenge with the highly virulent NDV strain F48E9. Conclusions/Significance NDV-CS-NPs induced better protection of immunized specific pathogen free chickens compared to the live NDV vaccine strain LaSota and the inactivated NDV vaccine. This study lays a foundation for the further development of mucosal vaccines and drugs encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles.
Bayesian Factorized Cointegration Analysis  [PDF]
Kai Cui, Wenshan Cui
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2012.25065
Abstract: The concept of cointegration is widely used in applied non-stationary time series analysis to describe the co-movement of data measured over time. In this paper, we proposed a Bayesian model for cointegration test and analysis, based on the dynamic latent factor framework. Efficient computational algorithms are also developed based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). Performance and efficiency of the the model and approaches are assessed by simulated and real data analysis.
Spike-and-Slab Dirichlet Process Mixture Models  [PDF]
Kai Cui, Wenshan Cui
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2012.25066
Abstract: In this paper, Spike-and-Slab Dirichlet Process (SS-DP) priors are introduced and discussed for non-parametric Bayesian modeling and inference, especially in the mixture models context. Specifying a spike-and-slab base measure for DP priors combines the merits of Dirichlet process and spike-and-slab priors and serves as a flexible approach in Bayesian model selection and averaging. Computationally, Bayesian Expectation-Maximization (BEM) is utilized to obtain MAP estimates. Two simulated examples in mixture modeling and time series analysis contexts demonstrate the models and computational methodology.
Bayesian Markov Regime-Switching Models for Cointegration  [PDF]
Kai Cui, Wenshan Cui
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.312259
Abstract: This paper introduces a Bayesian Markov regime-switching model that allows the cointegration relationship between two time series to be switched on and off over time. Unlike classical approaches for testing and modeling cointegration, the Bayesian Markov switching method allows for estimation of the regime-specific model parameters via Markov Chain Monte Carlo and generates more reliable estimation. Inference of regime switching also provides important information for further analysis and decision making.
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