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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4271 matches for " Xiangang Kong "
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Can Biochar Couple with Algae to Deal with Desertification?  [PDF]
Xiangang Meng, Wenqiao Yuan
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2014.43018
Abstract: In order to improve man-made biological soil crusts (BSCs) for desertification control and develop value-added utilization of bioenergy byproducts, preliminary experiments were carried out to understand the effect of biochar addition on algae growth in sand. Microcoleus vaginatus was chosen as the model algae and cultivated in sand with various contents of biochar (0%, 2%, 5%, 8%, and 10% weight of sand) that were made by rice hull gasification. Results showed that when the content of biochar in sand was 2%, both algal biomass (indicated by chlorophyll-a content) and the fixed sand weight in the BSC were significantly higher than that of the control (without biochar addition) and other treatments (with >2% biochar additions). Results from this pioneering research indicate that appropriate amount of biochar addition could increase BSC formation in sand under dry conditions and can potentially enhance sand fixation in deserts for desertification control.
Proteomics analysis of differentially expressed proteins in chicken trachea and kidney after infection with the highly virulent and attenuated coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus in vivo
Zhongzan Cao, Zongxi Han, Yuhao Shao, Xiaoli Liu, Junfeng Sun, Demin Yu, Xiangang Kong, Shengwang Liu
Proteome Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5956-10-24
Abstract: Fifty-eight differentially expressed proteins were identified. Results demonstrated that some proteins which had functions in cytoskeleton organization, anti-oxidative stress, and stress response, showed different change patterns in abundance from chicken infected with the highly virulent ck/CH/LDL/97I P5 strain and those given the embryo-passaged, attenuated P115 stain. In addition, the dynamic transcriptional alterations of 12 selected proteins were analyzed by the real-time RT-PCR, and western blot analysis confirmed the change in abundance of heat shock proteins (HSP) beta-1, annexin A2, and annexin A5.The proteomic alterations described here may suggest that these changes to protein expression correlate with IBV virus' virulence in chicken, hence provides valuable insights into the interactions of IBV with its host and may also assist with investigations of the pathogenesis of IBV and other coronavirus infections.Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses that belong to the family Coronaviridae in the order Nidovirales. They are able to infect humans as well as other animals, including cows, pigs, mice, and chickens, they generally cause respiratory infection, gastrointestinal, and neurological disorders of varying severity. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was the first coronavirus to be discovered, and is classed among the Gamma coronaviruses on the basis of antigenic and genetic relatedness [1]. It is a major poultry pathogen and is probably endemic in all chicken-raising regions; it has a severe impact on poultry production, causing heavy economic losses. All strains of IBV are capable of infecting a large range of epithelial surfaces of chickens, such as those of the trachea, kidney, oviduct and proventriculus [2].Coronavirus infection has dramatic effects on host cell morphology, transcription and translation patterns, the cell cycle, cytoskeleton, suppression of interferon, and apoptosis pathways. Coronavirus infection
Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus
Zhongzan Cao, Zongxi Han, Yuhao Shao, Heyuan Geng, Xiangang Kong, Shengwang Liu
Proteome Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5956-9-11
Abstract: 17 differentially expressed proteins from tracheal tissues and 19 differentially expressed proteins from kidney tissues were identified. These proteins mostly related to the cytoskeleton, binding of calcium ions, the stress response, anti-oxidative, and macromolecular metabolism. Some of these altered proteins were confirmed further at the mRNA level using real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, western blotting analysis further confirmed the changes of annexin A5 and HSPB1 during IBV infection.To the best of our knowledge, we have performed the first analysis of the proteomic changes in chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues during IBV infection in ovo. The data obtained should facilitate a better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBV infection.Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the most serious diseases of chickens. It is of economic importance in the poultry industry worldwide and is associated with respiratory disease, reduction in weight gain, poor egg production and quality, and decreased feed conversion efficiency. Its etiologic agent is the avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV), which is a Gamma coronavirus of the coronavirus genus and replicates primarily in the upper respiratory tract, kidney, and oviduct of chickens [1-3].Knowledge of the interactions between virus and host is critical in order to understand the pathogenesis of viral infection. On the one hand, the virus usurps the biological processes of the host to evade the innate immune response of the host; on the other hand, the host mounts a variety of defensive responses against the viral infection. These virus-host interactions can cause changes in the level of expression of host genes. Alteration of gene expression in the host after infection with coronavirus (CoV) has been investigated mainly with regard to infection with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) [4]. Limited studies have been performed to analyze host gene expression
Different linkages in the long and short regions of the genomes of duck enteritis virus Clone-03 and VAC Strains
Xiaoli Liu, Zongxi Han, Yuhao Shao, Yang Li, Huixin Li, Xiangang Kong, Shengwang Liu
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-200
Abstract: A 42,897-bp fragment located downstream of the LOFR11 gene was amplified from the Clone-03 strain of DEV by using 'targeted gene walking PCR'. Twenty-two open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted and determined in the following order: 5'-LORF11-RLORF1-ORF1-ICP4-S1-S2-US1-US10-SORF3-US2-MDV091.5-like-US3-US4-US5-US6-US7-US8-ORFx-US1-S2-S1-ICP4 -3'. This was different from that of the published VAC strain, both in the linkage of the L region and S region, and in the length of the US10 and US7 proteins. The MDV091.5-like gene, ORFx gene, S1 gene and S2 gene were first observed in the DEV genome. The lengths of DEV US10 and US7 were determined to be 311 and 371 amino acids, respectively, in the Clone-03 strain of DEV, and these were different from those of other strains. The comparison of genomic organization in the fragment studied herein with those of other herpesviruses showed that DEV possesses some unique characteristics, such as the duplicated US1 at each end of the US region, and the US5, which showed no homology with those of other herpesviruses. In addition, the results of phylogenetic analysis of ORFs in the represented fragment indicated that DEV is closest to its counterparts VZV (Varicellovirus) and other avian herpesviruses.The molecular characteristics of the 42,897-bp fragment of Clone-03 have been found to be different from those of the VAC strain. The phylogenetic analysis of genes in this region showed that DEV should be a separate member of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae.Herpesviruses are among the most persistent of all pathogens because they have coevolved with their hosts over a long period of time, and they are relatively harmless in immunocompetent hosts [1]. The family Herpesviridae comprises approximately 100 members; these viruses infect a range of host species from humans and other mammals to birds, amphibians, and reptiles [2]. On the basis of differences in cellular tropism, genome organization, and gene content, herpesviruses have been
Identification of a novel linear B-cell epitope in the UL26 and UL26.5 proteins of Duck Enteritis Virus
Xiaoli Liu, Zongxi Han, Yuhao Shao, Dan Yu, Huixin Li, Yu Wang, Xiangang Kong, Shengwang Liu
Virology Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-7-223
Abstract: A mAb (designated 1C8) was generated against the DEV UL26c protein, and a series of 17 partially overlapping fragments that spanned the DEV UL26c were expressed with GST tags. These peptides were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting analysis using mAb 1C8 to identify the epitope. A linear motif, 520IYYPGE525, which was located at the C-terminus of the DEV UL26 and UL26.5 proteins, was identified by mAb 1C8. The result of the ELISA showed that this epitope could be recognized by DEV-positive serum from mice. The 520IYYPGE525 motif was the minimal requirement for reactivity, as demonstrated by analysis of the reactivity of 1C8 with several truncated peptides derived from the motif. Alignment and comparison of the 1C8-defined epitope sequence with those of other alphaherpesviruses indicated that the motif 521YYPGE525 in the epitope sequence was conserved among the alphaherpesviruses.A mAb, 1C8, was generated against DEV UL26c and the epitope-defined minimal sequence obtained using mAb 1C8 was 520IYYPGE525. The mAb and the identified epitope may be useful for further study of the design of diagnostic reagents for DEV.Herpesviruses exist widely in nature. The genomes of herpesviruses consist of linear double-stranded DNA; they differ in size (from approximately 124 to 235 kb), sequence arrangement and base composition [1], and vary significantly with respect to the presence and arrangement of inverted and directly repeated sequences. The genomes of most of the alphaherpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) [2] and Marek's disease virus 1 (MDV-1) [3], encode more than 70 proteins; some of these proteins are not essential for the replication of the viruses. Only limited information is available about the structures and functions of these 70 proteins, although some studies of the antigenic determinants of the glycoproteins have been reported [4,5]. Three types of capsid, named A-, B-, and C-capsids, are needed in the assemb
Identification of a spliced gene from duck enteritis virus encoding a protein homologous to UL15 of herpes simplex virus 1
Hongwei Zhu, Huixin Li, Zongxi Han, Yuhao Shao, Yu Wang, Xiangang Kong
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-156
Abstract: DEV UL15 consists of two exons with a 3.5 kilobases (kb) inron and transcribes into two transcripts: the full-length UL15 and an N-terminally truncated UL15.5. The 2.9 kb UL15 transcript encodes a protein of 739 amino acids with an approximate molecular mass of 82 kiloDaltons (kDa), whereas the UL15.5 transcript is 1.3 kb in length, containing a putative 888 base pairs (bp) ORF that encodes a 32 kDa product. We also demonstrated that UL15 gene belonged to the late kinetic class as its expression was sensitive to cycloheximide and phosphonoacetic acid. UL15 is highly conserved within the Herpesviridae, and contains Walker A and B motifs homologous to the catalytic subunit of the bacteriophage terminase as revealed by sequence analysis. Phylogenetic tree constructed with the amino acid sequences of 23 herpesvirus UL15 homologues suggests a close relationship of DEV to the Mardivirus genus within the Alphaherpesvirinae. Further, the UL15 and UL15.5 proteins can be detected in the infected cell lysate but not in the sucrose density gradient-purified virion when reacting with the antiserum against UL15. Within the CEF cells, the UL15 and/or UL15.5 localize(s) in the cytoplasm at 6 h post infection (h p. i.) and mainly in the nucleus at 12 h p. i. and at 24 h p. i., while accumulate(s) in the cytoplasm in the absence of any other viral protein.DEV UL15 is a spliced gene that encodes two products encoded by 2.9 and 1.3 kb transcripts respectively. The UL15 is expressed late during infection. The coding sequences of DEV UL15 are very similar to those of alphaherpesviruses and most similar to the genus Mardivirus. The UL15 and/or UL15.5 accumulate(s) in the cytoplasm during early times post-infection and then are translocated to the nucleus at late times.Duck enteritis virus (DEV), also known as Anatid herpesvirus-1 (AHV-1), is an important pathogen of birds of the order Anseriformes, including ducks, geese and swans, causing the acute contagious disease duck viral enteritis
Comparative analysis of the genes UL1 through UL7 of the duck enteritis virus and other herpesviruses of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae
Li, Huixin;Liu, Shengwang;Han, Zongxi;Shao, Yuhao;Chen, Shuhong;Kong, Xiangang;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572009005000003
Abstract: keywords : duck enteritis virus; ul1-ul7 genes; phylogenetic analysis.
Proviral genomic sequence analysis of Chinese donkey leukocyte attenuated equine infectious anemia virus vaccine and its parental virus strain Liaoning
Liu Wang,Guangzhi Tong,Hongquan Liu,Zhibiao Yang,Huaji Qiu,Xiangang Kong,Mei Wang
Science China Life Sciences , 2002, DOI: 10.1360/02yc9007
Abstract: Proviral DNA was extracted from donkey leukocyte infected with Chinese donkey leukocyte attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (DLA-EIAV), and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from a horse infected with the virulent EIAV strain Liaoning (EIAV L). The entire proviral DNA from both viruses was cloned and sequenced. The lengths of complete genomic sequences of DLA-EIAV and EIAV L provirus were 8266 bp and 8235 bp, respectively. Sequence comparison indicated that DLA-EIAV shares 97.0% and 97.5% in sequence homology with EIAV L and donkey-adapted EIAV (DA-EIAV), respectively. Lots of variations occurred in long terminal repeat (LTR, consisting of U3, R, U5), ORF S2, and env regions between DLA-EIAV and EIAV L. The nucleotide sequence differences of the two viruses in U3, R, U5, ORF S2, and env are 13.2%, 7.5%, 5.1%, 3.9%, and 2.7%, respectively, and predicted amino acid sequence differences in env and S2 coding regions are 4.4% and 8.8%, respectively. Six conserved regions are characterized in Gp90. There is a cis-activating GATA motif in ENH of DLA-EIAV and EIAV L. Two N-linked glycosylation sites disappeared in DLA-EIAV Gp90 in comparison with that of EIAV L. A bHLH transcription factor binding consensus sequence was found in LTR of DLA-EIAV but not in EIAV L. Furthermore, there is a mutation in the stem of DLA-EIAV TAR resulting in formation of a uridine tuber. Further study is needed to uncover the relationship between sequence changes and their biological functions of DLA-EIAV and L.
Related factors of dilated cardiomyopathy

Guangyong Huang,Hang Gao,Xiangang Meng,Zhonghua Yan,Xiangquan Kong,Lexin Wang,

老年心脏病学杂志(英文版) , 2009,
Abstract: Objective To investigate the etiology and relative factors of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in Chinese patients. Methods A case-control study was conducted to compare 233 patients with DCM in high-incidence areas (case group) and 150 patients with stable angina pectoris (control group). Life styles and history of diseases information was collected by questionaire; human anti-myocardial antibody IgG (AMA- IgG), human Coxsackie B virus IgG (CBV- IgG) and human adenovirus antibody IgG (ADV- lgG) were measured with ELISA. General chemical and toxicological indicators in drink water from high and low prevalence areas and serum trace elements also were compared. Results 1 ) Compared with the control group, the case group had more farmers (P < 0.01), with low average incomes (P < 0.01), higher alcohol consumption (P < 0.01) and higher incidence of the history of myocarditis (P < 0.01 ). 2) AMA-IgG, CBV-IgG and ADV-IgG levels were low and the positive rates ofAMA-IgG, CBV-IgG and ADV-IgG of patients with DCM were respectively 7.78%, 6.67% and 6.67%, no statistical significance comparing with those in the control group. 3) The content of iron (1.36±2.18 vs 0.39±0.67 mg/L, P<0.05) and manganese (0.384±0.35 vs 0.15±0.14, P<0.01 ) in drinking water of high-incidence areas was significantly higher than that in low-incidence areas. 4) The content of serum iron (69.14±57.8 vs 20.04±17.5 μ mol/L, P<0.01 ) and copper (25.74±4.2 vs 19.7±4.5 μmol/L, P<0.01) in the case group evidently exceeded the normal range and obviously higher than that in the control group. Conclusions 1) The incidence of some DCM is related with low incomes, high alcohol consumption and myocarditis. 2) These data do not support that DCM is related with persistent virus infection and autoimmunization; 3) Iron and manganese contents exceeding standards in drinking water and the high content of serum iron and copper is comparatively related with the incidence of DCM.
Constructing Long Short-Term Memory based Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition
Xiangang Li,Xihong Wu
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Long short-term memory (LSTM) based acoustic modeling methods have recently been shown to give state-of-the-art performance on some speech recognition tasks. To achieve a further performance improvement, in this research, deep extensions on LSTM are investigated considering that deep hierarchical model has turned out to be more efficient than a shallow one. Motivated by previous research on constructing deep recurrent neural networks (RNNs), alternative deep LSTM architectures are proposed and empirically evaluated on a large vocabulary conversational telephone speech recognition task. Meanwhile, regarding to multi-GPU devices, the training process for LSTM networks is introduced and discussed. Experimental results demonstrate that the deep LSTM networks benefit from the depth and yield the state-of-the-art performance on this task.
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