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Search Results: 1 - 6 of 6 matches for " Wubeante Yenet Ayen "
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Determinants of Glycemic Control among Insulin Treated Diabetic Patients in Southwest Ethiopia: Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study
Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo, Belete Habte Melese, Wubeante Yenet Ayen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061759
Abstract: Background Good glycemic control reduces the risk of diabetic complications. Despite this, achieving good glycemic control remains a challenge in diabetic patients. The objective of this study is to identify determinants of glycemic control among insulin treated diabetic patients at Jimma University Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on systematically sampled 284 insulin-treated diabetic patients with a regular follow up. Data was collected by interviewing patients during hospital visits and reviewing respective databases of September 2010 to December 2011. Data collection took place from February 20 to May 20, 2012. Poor glycemic control was defined as fasting blood sugar (FBS) ≥126 mg/dL. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of poor glycemic control. Results Patients had a mean age of 41.37 (±15.08) years, 58.5% were males, the mean duration of insulin treatment was 4.9 (±5.1) years, 18.3% achieved good glycemic control (FBS≤126 mg/dL), 95% self-reported repeated use of disposable insulin syringe-needle and 48% correctly rotating insulin injection sites. Most (83.1%) of study participants had one or more complications. On multivariable logistic regression analyses, body weight of >70 Kg (AOR = 0.21; P<0.001), total daily dose of insulin ≤35 IU/day (AOR = 0.26; P<0.001), total daily dose variation without checking glycemic level (AOR = 3.39; P = 0.020), knowledge deficit about signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia (AOR = 3.60; P = 0.004), and non-adherence to dietary management (AOR = 0.35; P = 0.005) were independent predictors of poor glycemic control. Conclusions The proportion of patients with poor glycemic control was high, which resulted in the development of one or more complications regardless of duration on insulin treatment. Hence, appropriate management of patients focusing on the relevant associated factors and independent predictors of poor glycemic control would be of great benefit in glycemic control.
Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Induced Hepatotoxicity among TB/HIV Co-Infected Patients at Jimma University Hospital, Ethiopia: Nested Case-Control Study
Alima Hassen Ali, Tefera Belachew, Alemeshet Yami, Wubeante Yenet Ayen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064622
Abstract: Background This study was carried out to determine the incidence and predictors of anti-tuberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity among TB/HIV co-infected patients at Jimma University Hospital, Ethiopia. Methods/Principal Findings A nested case-control study was conducted by reviewing charts of all TB/HIV co-infected patients who commenced anti-TB treatment from January 2008 to December 2011 at Jimma University Hospital. Patients who had developed hepatotoxicity after at least 5 days of standard doses of anti-TB drug therapy were labeled as “cases” and those without hepatotoxicity were “controls”. Each case with anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity was compared with 3 controls selected randomly from the cohort. From a cohort of 296 TB/HIV co-infected patients 8 were excluded from the study as the causality between anti-TB drugs and hepatotoxicity was not confirmed, 33 had developed hepatotoxicity. On bivariate logistic regression analysis, body mass index (BMI) <18.5 Kg/m2 [P = 0.01; OR (95%CI): 3.6 (1.4–9.5)], disseminated pulmonary TB [P = 0.00; OR (95%CI): 5.6 (2.2–14.6)], CD4 count ≤50 [P = 0.016; OR (95%CI): 3.6(1.27–10.23)] and WHO stage 4 [P = 0.004, OR (95%CI): 3.8 (1.68–8.77)] were significantly associated with anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity. Predictor variables with p-value <0.05 by bivariate analysis were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis and identified disseminated pulmonary TB [P = 0.001; AOR (95%CI) = 5.6 (2.1–15.0)] and BMI <18.5 [P = 0.014; AOR (95%CI) = 3.6 (1.3–10.1)] as independent predictors of anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity. Conclusions The incidence of anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity was 11.5%. The results suggest that in the presence of disseminated pulmonary TB and/or BMI <18.5 Kg/m2, TB/HIV co-infected patients should be closely followed for the occurrence of hepatotoxicity during the intensive phase of TB treatment to prevent morbidity and mortality.
Prevalence and assessment of factors contributing to adverse drug reactions in wards of a tertiary care hospital, India
DB Haile, WY Ayen, P Tiwari
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions account for the highest proportion among the causes of morbidity and mortality in clinical wards and are posing a considerable challenge. Hence, the objective of this study was to find out the prevalence of adverse drug reactions and the factors which contribute to their prevalence. METHODS: A prospective patient record review was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in North India from August 2010- May 2011. A total of 1033 subjects admitted to hospital for any kind of treatment were included while patients admitted in the ward because of adverse drug reactions were excluded. The ward where we collected the data includes multispecialty and cardiovascular wards. The causality, severity, and preventability of adverse drug reactions were assessed using Naranjo, modified Hartwig, and Schumock and Thornton criteria, respectively. Kolmogorov–Smyrnov, chi –square and multiple logistic regression tests were used to determine adverse drug reactions ascribed to drugs. RESULTS: Out of 1033 patients whose records were assessed, 167(16.2%) experienced one or more adverse drug reactions. The metabolic systems, which accounted for 49(24.6%) were most frequently affected by adverse drug reactions, followed by gastrointestinal, 45(22.6%); hematological, 28(14.1%) and cutaneous, 21(10.6%) systems. The drug classes most frequently associated with the reactions were antibiotics 40(20.1%), diuretics 35(17.6%) and anticoagulants 30(15.1%). According to the selected preventability scale, 72(36.2%) adverse drug reactions were classified as probably or definitely preventable. About 165(83%) of the reactions were type A, which represents augmentation of the pharmacological action of a drug. Number of drugs, length of hospitalization and number of diagnosis were identified as significant predisposing factors for ADRs. CONCLUSION: The result of this study suggested that adverse drug reactions were significant causes of superimposed health problems that occur following hospitalization. The major risk factors associated with ADR include number of drugs, length of hospitalization and number of diagnosis. Based on the findings a rigorous study is recommended to determine the burden and identify the risk factors of adverse drug reactions to target interventions. KEYWORDS: Adverse drug reactions, Causality assessments, Type A reactions, Predisposing factor
Defense cells profile of cervical mucous during follicular and luteal phases of estrus cycle in river buffalo
Esmail Ayen,Shapour Hasanzadeh,Saleh Tabatabaei
Veterinary Research Forum , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the defense cells changes of cervical mucous during follicular and luteal phases of estrus cycle in river buffalo. Reproductive organs of the adult and apparently healthy female buffaloes were collected from the slaughterhouse. By visual investigation of both the ovaries for presence of corpus luteum and growing follicles, the luteal and follicular phase of each buffalo was specified. Cervical discharge samples were collected by sterile swabs and then spread over the glass slides, dried and fixed with methanol. The specimens were undergone Giemsa staining. The percentage of lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes (macrophages), eosinophils and basophils in each case (for both the follicular and luteal phases) were obtained at 20 microscopic fields. The percentage of lymphocytes, neutrophils and basophils in luteal phase were higher than the follicular phase. The percentage of eosinophils in follicular phase was higher than the luteal phase. The percentage of monocytes (macrophages) in luteal and follicular phases was nearly equal. The statistical analysis showed that the differences of all cells between follicular and luteal phase were not significant (P > 0.05). The most defense cells in discharges of external os of cervix (both follicular and luteal phases) were neutrophils and lymphocytes.
Effects of Vitamin E Addition to Chicken Semen on Sperm Quality During in Vitro Storage of Semen
Saleh Tabatabaei,Roozali Batavani,Esmail Ayen
Veterinary Research Forum , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probable effects of the vitamin E addition in different levels to the extender of chicken semen on spermatozoa quality during storage of semen at 4°C for 0, 3, 6, 10 and 24 hours. Eight young Ross broiler breeder strain 308 roosters were used in this experiment. The collected semen from all roosters was mixed together and diluted with modified a Ringer’s solution. The diluted pooled semen was divided into 5 treatments (T). T1 was a control group without any vitamin E addition. For T2 to T5 groups 0.5 %, 1 %, 2 % and 3 % vitamin E (w/v), were added respectively. Treatments were evaluated for sperm motility, sperm viability and probable morphological defects after 0, 3, 6, 10 and 24 hours of incubation at 4°C. The evaluations of spermatozoa immediately after semen collection, were revealed no significant differences among values of treatment groups, whereas after incubating the treatments for different spans of time, the sperm progressive motility and viability rates for groups supplemented with vitamin E were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of the control group. In addition, morphological defect rates of chicken spermatozoa in the groups supplemented with different levels of vitamin E were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that in control group. According to the results of this study we conclude that, the most excellent level of vitamin E for supplementation to the extended semen of chicken in order to improve the sperm motility and viability plus to reduce the morphological defect rates of the spermatozoa up to 24 hours storage time at 4°C is 2 % (w/v).
Study on Alterations in the Distribution of Epithelial and Inflammatory Cells at the External Os Region of the Uterine Cervix in the Different Stages of River Buffaloes` Gestational Period
Mojtaba Goli Torbehbar,Esmail Ayen,Shapour Hasanzadeh,Mohammad Hassan Khadem Anssari
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The changes in the kinds and percentages of the epithelial and inflammatory cells of the external os region of the uterine cervices of the river buffaloes during three different stages of pregnancy were studied by microscopic evaluation of mucus smears which had been prepared by wet swab sampling of mucus from the external os of the pregnant buffaloes uterine cervices. The mucus smears were stained by Giemsa s staining method. The present study revealed evidence that changes in the percentages of the vacuolated and unvacuolated epithelial cells, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were not significant statistically, but changes in the numbers and percentages of neutrophils in the three different stages of pregnancy period were statistically significant. We also found that changes in the number and percentage of monocytes (macrophages) between the second and third stage of pregnancy was not significant, but the difference between the first stage of pregnancy and the two other stages was statistically significant. We concluded that the numbers and percentages of neutrophils and monocytes (macrophages) increase significantly as the pregnancy progresses.
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