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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 261806 matches for " Wu C "
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HIV treatment: mechanisms of neurotoxicity and implications for targeted therapy
Wu C, Lu Y
Neurobehavioral HIV Medicine , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NBHIV.S24914
Abstract: reatment: mechanisms of neurotoxicity and implications for targeted therapy Review (1465) Total Article Views Authors: Wu C, Lu Y Published Date September 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 75 - 98 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NBHIV.S24914 Received: 23 May 2012 Accepted: 14 August 2012 Published: 04 September 2012 Chengxiang Wu,1,2 Yuanan Lu1,2 1Department of Microbiology, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Hawai'i, Honolulu, HI, USA Abstract: The central nervous system is known to act as a unique compartment where the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can replicate independently from the plasma and as a sanctuary in which the virus is largely protected from the host immune system and combination antiretroviral therapy. Although combination antiretroviral therapy has dramatically decreased the rate of HIV-caused mortality and associated diseases, neurological complications are increasingly common. However, our knowledge of the complicated pathogenesis and clinical symptoms of HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction is limited by a lack of complete understanding of the biology of HIV and its interaction with host cells in the central nervous system. This review focuses on the mechanisms of HIV entry and replication in the central nervous system, neurotoxicity caused by viral proteins and cytokine/chemokines derived from affected host cells, their implications for targeted therapy, and advances in the development of animal models for novel therapeutics in the context of combination antiretroviral therapy regimens.
PEATBOG: a biogeochemical model for analyzing coupled carbon and nitrogen dynamics in northern peatlands
Y. Wu,C. Blodau
Geoscientific Model Development Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/gmdd-6-1599-2013
Abstract: Elevated nitrogen deposition and climate change alter the vegetation communities and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in peatlands. To address this issue we developed a new process-oriented biogeochemical model (PEATBOG) for analyzing coupled carbon and nitrogen dynamics in northern peatlands. The model consists of four submodels, which simulate: (1) daily water table depth and depth profiles of soil moisture, temperature and oxygen levels; (2) competition among three plants functional types (PFTs), production and litter production of plants; (3) decomposition of peat; and (4) production, consumption, diffusion and export of dissolved C and N species in soil water. The model is novel in the integration of the C and N cycles, the explicit spatial resolution belowground, the consistent conceptualization of movement of water and solutes, the incorporation of stoichiometric controls on elemental fluxes and a consistent conceptualization of C and N reactivity in vegetation and soil organic matter. The model was evaluated for the Mer Bleue Bog, near Ottawa, Ontario, with regards to simulation of soil moisture and temperature and the most important processes in the C and N cycles. Model sensitivity was tested for nitrogen input, precipitation, and temperature, and the choices of the most uncertain parameters were justified. A simulation of nitrogen deposition over 40 yr demonstrates the advantages of the PEATBOG model in tracking biogeochemical effects and vegetation change in the ecosystem.
CMR of microvascular obstruction and hemorrhage in myocardial infarction
Wu Katherine C
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1532-429x-14-68
Abstract: Microvascular obstruction (MO) or no-reflow phenomenon is an established complication of coronary reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction. It is increasingly recognized as a poor prognostic indicator and marker of subsequent adverse LV remodeling. Although MO can be assessed using various imaging modalities including electrocardiography, myocardial contrast echocardiography, nuclear scintigraphy, and coronary angiography, evaluation by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is particularly useful in enhancing its detection, diagnosis, and quantification, as well as following its subsequent effects on infarct evolution and healing. MO assessment has become a routine component of the CMR evaluation of acute myocardial infarction and will increasingly play a role in clinical trials of adjunctive reperfusion agents and strategies. This review will summarize the pathophysiology of MO, current CMR approaches to diagnosis, clinical implications, and future directions needed for improving our understanding of this common clinical problem.
HIV treatment: mechanisms of neurotoxicity and implications for targeted therapy
Wu C,Lu Y
Neurobehavioral HIV Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Chengxiang Wu,1,2 Yuanan Lu1,21Department of Microbiology, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Hawai'i, Honolulu, HI, USAAbstract: The central nervous system is known to act as a unique compartment where the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can replicate independently from the plasma and as a sanctuary in which the virus is largely protected from the host immune system and combination antiretroviral therapy. Although combination antiretroviral therapy has dramatically decreased the rate of HIV-caused mortality and associated diseases, neurological complications are increasingly common. However, our knowledge of the complicated pathogenesis and clinical symptoms of HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction is limited by a lack of complete understanding of the biology of HIV and its interaction with host cells in the central nervous system. This review focuses on the mechanisms of HIV entry and replication in the central nervous system, neurotoxicity caused by viral proteins and cytokine/chemokines derived from affected host cells, their implications for targeted therapy, and advances in the development of animal models for novel therapeutics in the context of combination antiretroviral therapy regimens.Keywords: HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction, neurotoxin, cytokines, chemokines, animal model
Preparation and characterization of an aromatic polyester/polyaniline composite and its improved counterpart
C. S. Wu
eXPRESS Polymer Letters , 2012, DOI: 10.3144/expresspolymlett.2012.49
Abstract: Poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) composites containing polyaniline (PANI) were prepared using a melt-blending process. Maleic anhydride-grafted PBT (PBT-g-MA) and PANI were used to improve the compatibility of PANI within the PBT matrix. PBT-g-MA/PANI composites exhibited noticeably superior mechanical properties compared with those of PBT/PANI due to greater compatibility with the added PANI. The antibacterial and antistatic properties of the composites were also evaluated. Escherichia coli were chosen as the standard bacteria for determining the antibacterial properties of the composite materials. The PBT-g-MA/PANI composites showed markedly enhanced antibacterial and antistatic properties compared to PBT/PANI composites due to the formation of imide bonds from condensation of the anhydride carboxyl acid groups of PBT-g-MA with the amino groups of PANI. The optimal level of PANI in the composites was 9 wt%, as excess PANI led to separation of the two organic phases, lowering their compatibility.
Correlaction Effects on the Band Gap of Conducting Polymers
C. Q. Wu
Physics , 1992, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.47.4204
Abstract: By applying the projection technique to the computation of excitation energies, we study the correlation effects on the band gap of conducting polymers. In the presence of an additional electron or hole, the correlation induces a polarization cloud around the addi- tional particle, which forms a polaron. For the excitation energy of a polaron,there is a competition between a {\it loss} of the correla- tion energy in the ground state and a {\it gain} of polarization energy. For the Hubbard interaction, the {\it loss} of correlation energy is dominant and correlations increase the band gap.However,for long-range interactions, the {\it gain} of polarization energy is dominant and correlations decrease the band gap. Screening the long- range interaction suppresses the {\it gain}of the polarization energy so that correlations again increase the band gap.A small dimerization is always favorable to the correlation effects. For {\it trans}-poly- acetylene, we obtain the on-site repulsion $U=4.4$eV and the nearest- neighbor interaction $V=0.8$ eV. The screening of $\pi$ electrons due to the polarizability of $\sigma$ electrons is quite strong. ** to be published in Phys. Rev. B
Real Tunneling and Black Hole Creation
Z. C. Wu
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1142/S0218271898000115
Abstract: The concept of constrained gravitational instanton is introduced. It is used to study black hole creation. We discussed the global aspects of the scenario and the alternative tunnelings.
Pulse Shape Discrimination Techniques in Scintillating CsI(Tl) Crystals
S. C. Wu
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2003.12.024
Abstract: There are recent interests with CsI(Tl) scintillating crystals for Dark Matter experiments. The key merit is the capability to differentiate nuclear recoil (nr) signatures from the background $\beta / \gamma$-events due to ambient radioactivity on the basis of their different pulse shapes. One of the major experimental challenges is to perform such pulse shape analysis in the statistics-limited domain where the light output is close to the detection threshold. Using data derived from measurements with low energy $\gamma$'s and nuclear recoils due to neutron elastic scatterings, it was verified that the pulse shapes between $\beta / \gamma$-events are different. Several methods of pulse shape discrimination are studied, and their relative merits are compared. Full digitization of the pulse shapes is crucial to achieve good discrimination. Advanced software techniques with mean time, neural network and likelihood ratios give rise to satisfactory performance, and are superior to the conventional Double Charge method commonly applied at higher energies. Pulse shape discrimination becomes effective starting at a light yield of about 20 photo-electrons. This corresponds to a detection threshold of about 5 keV electron-equivalence energy, or 40$-$50 keV recoil kinetic energy, in realistic experiments.
Creation of Closed or Open Universe from Constrained Instanton
Z. C. Wu
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: In the no-boundary univers e the universe is created from an instanton. However, there does not exist any instanton for the ``realistic'' $FRW$ universe with a scalar field. The ``instanton'' leading to its quantum creation may be modified and reinterpreted as a constrained gravitational instanton.
Interlayer pair tunneling and gap anisotropy in YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{7-δ}$
W. C. Wu
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.65.052508
Abstract: Recent ARPES measurement observed a large $ab$-axis gap anisotropy, $\Delta(0,\pi)/\Delta(\pi,0)=1.5$, in clean YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{7-\delta}$. This indicates that some sub-dominant component may exist in the $d_{x^2-y^2}$-wave dominant gap. We propose that the interlayer pairing tunneling contribution can be determined through the investigation of the order parameter anisotropy. Their potentially observable features in transport and spin dynamics are also studied.
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