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Concepts and practices used to develop functional PLGA-based nanoparticulate systems
Sah H, Thoma LA, Desu HR, Sah E, Wood GC
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S40579
Abstract: ncepts and practices used to develop functional PLGA-based nanoparticulate systems Review (1669) Total Article Views Authors: Sah H, Thoma LA, Desu HR, Sah E, Wood GC Published Date February 2013 Volume 2013:8 Pages 747 - 765 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S40579 Received: 29 November 2012 Accepted: 11 January 2013 Published: 21 February 2013 Hongkee Sah,1,2 Laura A Thoma,2 Hari R Desu,2 Edel Sah,3 George C Wood2 1College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Sedaemun-gu, Seoul, South Korea; 2College of Pharmacy, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA; 3College of Science, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA Abstract: The functionality of bare polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles is limited to drug depot or drug solubilization in their hard cores. They have inherent weaknesses as a drug-delivery system. For instance, when administered intravenously, the nanoparticles undergo rapid clearance from systemic circulation before reaching the site of action. Furthermore, plain PLGA nanoparticles cannot distinguish between different cell types. Recent research shows that surface functionalization of nanoparticles and development of new nanoparticulate dosage forms help overcome these delivery challenges and improve in-vivo performance. Immense research efforts have propelled the development of diverse functional PLGA-based nanoparticulate delivery systems. Representative examples include PEGylated micelles/nanoparticles (PEG, polyethylene glycol), polyplexes, polymersomes, core-shell–type lipid-PLGA hybrids, cell-PLGA hybrids, receptor-specific ligand-PLGA conjugates, and theranostics. Each PLGA-based nanoparticulate dosage form has specific features that distinguish it from other nanoparticulate systems. This review focuses on fundamental concepts and practices that are used in the development of various functional nanoparticulate dosage forms. We describe how the attributes of these functional nanoparticulate forms might contribute to achievement of desired therapeutic effects that are not attainable using conventional therapies. Functional PLGA-based nanoparticulate systems are expected to deliver chemotherapeutic, diagnostic, and imaging agents in a highly selective and effective manner.
Fat-free weight prediction in morbidly obese females
Bucaloiu ID,Wood GC,Norfolk ER,Still CD
International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease , 2011,
Abstract: Ion D Bucaloiu1, G Craig Wood2, Evan R Norfolk1, Christopher D Still3, James E Hartle1, Robert M Perkins41Department of Nephrology, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA; 2Biostatistics and Research Data Core, Henry Hood Center for Health Research, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA; 3Center for Nutrition and Weight Management, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA; 4Department of Nephrology and Henry Hood Center for Health Research, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA, USAPurpose: Precise estimation of creatinine clearance in obese individuals relies on the appropriate assessment of lean body weight (LBW). Anthropometric methods of predicting LBW have not been validated in morbidly obese populations.Patients and methods: Using an existing dataset of anthropometric data for a female cohort with morbid obesity who had undergone measured FFW with dual energy absorptiometry, we evaluated the performance of five previously reported estimating equations for the prediction of LBW. Linear regression was used to derive a new LBW prediction formula and was then compared with the other formulae.Results: Seventy females (mean [standard deviation] age, weight, and body mass index 43.0 [11.0] years, 128.1 [13.8] kg, and 48.3 [4.8] kg/m2, respectively) were identified. LBW as estimated by the method of Garrow and Webster correlated well (r = 0.87) with measured mass while demonstrating the highest accuracy, best precision, and smallest bias (93%, 2.1 kg, and 2.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). The derived formula further improved bias, precision, and accuracy.Conclusion: Among females with morbid obesity, most previously reported estimating equations for LBW predicted FFW poorly. These findings have important clinical implications for the assessment of kidney function and for safe and effective drug dosing.Keywords: body composition, body weight, creatinine clearance, kidney function, lean body mass, obesity, pharmacokinetics
28(9) 目录
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生物工程学报 , 2012,
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生物工程学报 , 2012,
Abstract:
28(9)封面
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生物工程学报 , 2012,
Abstract:
28(9)目录
gc
生物工程学报 , 2012,
Abstract:
Fat-free weight prediction in morbidly obese females
Bucaloiu ID, Wood GC, Norfolk ER, Still CD, Hartle JE, Perkins RM
International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJNRD.S24173
Abstract: t-free weight prediction in morbidly obese females Original Research (1994) Total Article Views Authors: Bucaloiu ID, Wood GC, Norfolk ER, Still CD, Hartle JE, Perkins RM Published Date November 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 149 - 155 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJNRD.S24173 Ion D Bucaloiu1, G Craig Wood2, Evan R Norfolk1, Christopher D Still3, James E Hartle1, Robert M Perkins4 1Department of Nephrology, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA; 2Biostatistics and Research Data Core, Henry Hood Center for Health Research, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA; 3Center for Nutrition and Weight Management, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA; 4Department of Nephrology and Henry Hood Center for Health Research, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA, USA Purpose: Precise estimation of creatinine clearance in obese individuals relies on the appropriate assessment of lean body weight (LBW). Anthropometric methods of predicting LBW have not been validated in morbidly obese populations. Patients and methods: Using an existing dataset of anthropometric data for a female cohort with morbid obesity who had undergone measured FFW with dual energy absorptiometry, we evaluated the performance of five previously reported estimating equations for the prediction of LBW. Linear regression was used to derive a new LBW prediction formula and was then compared with the other formulae. Results: Seventy females (mean [standard deviation] age, weight, and body mass index 43.0 [11.0] years, 128.1 [13.8] kg, and 48.3 [4.8] kg/m2, respectively) were identified. LBW as estimated by the method of Garrow and Webster correlated well (r = 0.87) with measured mass while demonstrating the highest accuracy, best precision, and smallest bias (93%, 2.1 kg, and 2.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). The derived formula further improved bias, precision, and accuracy. Conclusion: Among females with morbid obesity, most previously reported estimating equations for LBW predicted FFW poorly. These findings have important clinical implications for the assessment of kidney function and for safe and effective drug dosing.
Study on Empathy among Undergraduate Students of the Medical Profession in Nepal  [PDF]
Krishna Bahadur GC, Sudarshan Paudel
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2017.511007
Abstract: Background: The incumbent of medical professional is expected to be socially responsible and emotionally empathetic along with good communication propensity to fasten the doctor-patient relationship. Whilst doctor’s proficiency to recognize a patient’s perspectives, and convey such an understanding back to the patient; in our case, the empathy and compassion level of promising medical professional is unknown in Nepal. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the compassion and empathy score of final year’s undergraduate students of four medical colleges in Nepal. Methods: Self-reported empathy measures were obtained using the Jefferson Scale of Physician-Student version. Results: The degree of empathy for the participants was 97.28 (SD = 14.44) with a median score of 96.00 and a range of 44 (min) to 133 (max). There was a significant difference on scores of the Jefferson scale of physician empathy between NMC Nepalgunj and BPKIHS (p = 0.00) and between NMC Nepalgunj and Manipal Pokhara (p = 0.00), as well as between UCMS and Manipal Pokhara (p = 0.044). These results were significant at the 95% confidence interval. Conclusions: The mean empathy score for the Nepali students is lower than medical students from developed countries but almost similar to medical students from other Asian medical students. The female Nepali medical students scored slightly higher than their male counterparts. Thus colleges have to develop academic programs to improve empathy and compassion among medical students through providing adequate time to consult with patient and faculties.
Microbiological quality of poultry meat: a review
Mead, GC;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2004000300001
Abstract: poultry meat can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms, including those capable of spoiling the product during chill storage, and certain foodborne pathogens. human illness may follow from handling of raw meat, undercooking or mishandling of the cooked product. while salmonella and campylobacter spp. remain the organisms of greatest global concern in this respect, others present include the more recently reported arcobacter and helicobacter spp. and, occasionally, verotoxigenic escherichia coli. also considered here is the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance among poultry-associated pathogens. because of the need for a systematic and universally applicable approach to food safety control, the hazard analysis critical control point (haccp) concept is increasingly being introduced into the poultry industry, and quantitative risk assessment (qra) is being applied to microbial hazards. among a number of completed and on-going studies on qra are those undertaken by fao/who on salmonella and campylobacter in broilers. in the case of campylobacter, however, any qra must assume at present that all strains have the same pathogenic potential for humans and comparable survival capabilities, even though this is unlikely to be the case. implementation of the haccp system in poultry processing plants addresses zoonotic agents that are not detectable by conventional meat inspection procedures and can help to control contamination of carcasses with spoilage organisms. the system brings obvious benefits in optimising plant hygiene, ensuring compliance with legislation and providing evidence of 'due diligence' on the part of the processor. it is now being applied globally in two different situations: in one, such as that occurring in the usa, carcass contamination is clearly reduced as carcasses pass through the process and are finally chilled in super-chlorinated water. there is also the option to use a chemical-rinse treatment for further reduction of microbial c
Effective Information Provision as a Panacea for The Resolution Of Conflict In Autonomous Communities: A Case Study Of Amiyi Akah Community
GC Umunnakwe
Information Manager (The) , 2009,
Abstract: The paper studied the Amiyi Akah Community, a village in Umuaka Autonomous Community in Njaba Local Government area of Imo State, Nigeria. The paper adopted a survey method and used questionnaire complemented with unstructured interviews and observation to elicit the desired responses. In all, the target population was 10% of the entire population. Since it runs in thousands only 1480 were used. Data collected were analyzed using tables and graphic representations. In conclusion, it was observed that autonomous community creation is a welcome venture if the government would strictly stipulate guideline be used in Ezeship election of which has been the major source of conflict. Communities should work towards establishing rural libraries and information centres to help in keeping the populace educated and informed on the on-goings in the society.
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