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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 139 matches for " Wondimagegnehu Alemu "
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Household Possession and Use of Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Nets in Sierra Leone 6 Months after a National Mass-Distribution Campaign
Adam Bennett, Samuel Juana Smith, Sahr Yambasu, Amara Jambai, Wondimagegnehu Alemu, Augustin Kabano, Thomas P. Eisele
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037927
Abstract: Background In November 2010, Sierra Leone distributed over three million long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) with the objective of providing protection from malaria to individuals in all households in the country. Methods We conducted a nationally representative survey six months after the mass distribution campaign to evaluate its impact on household insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use. We examined factors associated with household ITN possession and use with logistic regression models. Results The survey included 4,620 households with equal representation in each of the 14 districts. Six months after the campaign, 87.6% of households own at least one ITN, which represents an increase of 137% over the most recent estimate of 37% in 2008. Thirty-six percent of households possess at least one ITN per two household members; rural households were more likely than urban households to have ≥1:2 ITN to household members, but there was no difference by socio-economic status or household head education. Among individuals in households possessing ≥1 ITN, 76.5% slept under an ITN the night preceding the survey. Individuals in households where the household head had heard malaria messaging, had correct knowledge of malaria transmission, and where at least one ITN was hanging, were more likely to have slept under an ITN. Conclusions The mass distribution campaign was effective at achieving high coverage levels across the population, notably so among rural households where the malaria burden is higher. These important gains in equitable access to malaria prevention will need to be maintained to produce long-term reductions in the malaria burden.
Investigation of a Suspected Malaria Outbreak in Sokoto State, Nigeria, 2016  [PDF]
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Alemu Wondimagegnehu, Rex Mpazanje, Lynda Ozor, Sule Abdullahi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104246
Abstract:
Background: Malaria, a vector borne disease that contributes to the 17 percent of the global burden of infectious diseases, is preventable, treatable and completely curable. The disease is endemic in Nigeria, staggering at 27 percent prevalence and contributes up to 29 percent of global burden of the disease. It contributes to the high child mortality in Nigeria, attributed 30 percent of under five deaths. In October 2016, WHO team in Nigeria in collaboration with Nigerian Centre for Disease Control investigated a suspected malaria outbreak in Sokoto state of northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: We reviewed hospital records of 190 patients who presented to the health facility with febrile illness, investigated and treated from 3/10/2016 to 25/10/2016. Data used during the study included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the region of the outbreak to assess the knowledge of the community on malaria control measures. SPSS version 24 was used for the data analyses. Results: Out of the 190 cases, 168 (88.4%) tested positive for RDT and 22 (11.5%) tested negative. The age range of the cases was from three months to 70 years (median: 14 years), the sex distribution was 118 (62.1%) females and 72 (37.9%) males, and the CFR of the RDT positive cases was 2.97% (5/168) with M:F ratio of 1:4. A survey to assess the knowledge of the affected community on malaria preventive measures shows 59.5% (25/42) are aware of at least three out of four measures asked. Conclusion: Although government commitment to malaria control is commendable, this suspected outbreak has clearly brought to fore some gaps in the on-going malaria control in Sokoto state. Thus, there is a need for government to intensify health education programmes on environmental hygiene, state malaria control programme to strengthen awareness campaigns on malaria interventions as well as improve access to the available interventions especially for the more vulnerable members of the community.
Universal Access to Malaria Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment as a Strategy toward Disease Control and Elimination: A Critical Look at Northeastern Nigeria  [PDF]
Abdullahi Saddiq, Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Alemu Wondimagegnehu, Rex Mpazanje, Bala Mohammed Audu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105659
Abstract:
Background: As early as 2008 there was a call by the United Nations Secretary General to halt malaria death by ensuring universal coverage of malaria inter-ventions to be attained by 2010. This was echoed by the World Health Assem-bly in 2015 by adopting the Global Technical Strategy or malaria 2016-2030 with universal access to malaria prevention, diagnosis and treatment as one of its three pillars. This study had a critical look at the supply and distribution of Artemisin-based Combination Therapy, Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets in 2017 with a view to critique the universal coverage of these commodities in Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Taraba and Yobe States in the northeastern geopolitical region of Nigeria. Method: This is a quantitative cross-sectional study using secondary data. The research analyzed the data of malaria intervention commodities received by state malaria elimination programmes from six states across the northeast zone between January and December 2017. Results: The study result showed that RDTs were received and distributed in four of the six states and one state did not receive or distribute any. Commodities for treatment (ACTs) received and distributed showed that only one state had a significant supply and distribution of the commodity, two states had minimal supply and distribution while the other three states had insignificant quantities that did not match the RDT supply and the state that had the highest supply/distribution was the only state supported by the global fund in the northeast zone in 2017. Only one state had a significant quantity of LLINs distributed in 2017. Conclusion: The government of Nigeria and collaborating partners have made concerted efforts to improve access to ACTs, RDTs and LLINs with improvement in levels of intervention across the country. This study however clearly demonstrates the need to intensify efforts in making universal access possible in northeastern Nigeria so that the objectives of the National Malaria Strategic Plan 2014-2020 can be achieved. This comes at a time when donor funding is at cross-roads.
Lots Quality Assurance Survey (LQAS) as a Strategy to Achieving Quality LLIN Campaigns: The Nigerian Experience  [PDF]
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Akubue Augustine Uchenna, Dr. Abdullahi Saddiq, Alemu Wondimagegnehu, Rex Mpazanje, Dr. Bala Mohammed Audu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104484
Abstract:
Background: Nigeria, in its quest to scale up coverage and utilization of LLINs as a strategy for malaria control, had the first long lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) mass campaign across the country between 2009-2013. The NMEP with support from its RBM partners successfully distributed over 57.7 million LLINs during the period representing over 90% of the national target. In spite this, and to achieve universal coverage, the country maintained a continuous distribution through multiple channels and in particular the antenatal care outlets and the expanded programme on immunization. The Nigerian government, with support from the Global Fund and through the National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP), Catholic Relief Services (CRS), and the Society for Family Health (SFH) and with technical support from the World Health Organization, once again launched the LLIN replacement campaign in some states across the country. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in five states that conducted the LLIN replacement campaign using the lots quality assurance survey (LQAS) tool developed by the World Health Organization. The period of the survey across the states is between August and December 2017. The LQAS questionnaires were administered to households (HHs) by the WHO field officers trained on the use of the tool at least one week after the campaign. A total of 240 HHs were selected from 24 settlements (clusters) in 24 wards of six LGAs (lots) from each of the five (5) states that rolled out the campaign. Data collected were double entered, cleaned, crosschecked, and the results analysed using the SPSS version 24. Results: With a total of 9740 people surveyed from 1200 HHs across the five states, the average redemption rate was 95.5% (95% CI, 91.6% - 98.8%), average retention rate was 98.4% (95% CI, 97.0% - 99.8%), average hanging rate was 82.6% (95% CI, 80.0% - 85.5%), and an average card ownership of 83.5% (95% CI, 78.6% - 88.2%). While the main source of information 35.4% (95% CI, 21.8% - 49.0%) about the LLIN campaign was the health workers, the reasons for those missed out were mainly due to team performance 32.2% (95% CI, 26.8% - 37.4%) and net cards not issued 27.4% (95% CI, 23.2% - 32.0%). Similarly, the Pearson correlation (0.942, α 0.017, p < 0.05, 2-tailed test), the ANOVA test (F value of 23.751, α 0.017, p < 0.05), and Regression analysis (R-square 0.888 and Durbin-Watson 2.487), all shows significant relationships between LLIN redemption and usage with a resultant rejection of the Null Hypothesis. Conclusion: The outcome of this research underscores the need to adopt and scale up the use of the LQAS tool to assess the quality of LLIN campaigns within the shortest possible time. While the LQAS has been in use by the WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization cluster during polio campaigns, this is the first time that the tool was deployed by the WHO malaria unit as a strategy to identify post LLIN campaign gaps immediately after implementation. The scaling up of this strategy would undoubtedly improve LLIN campaigns that would be conducted in the remaining states across the country so as to ensure that Nigeria achieve LLIN universal access in line with the Global Technical Strategy (GTS) framework toward malaria elimination.
Quality Assurance (QA) Tool in Public Health Campaigns: A Look at the 2017 LLIN Replacement Campaign in Nigeria  [PDF]
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Wondimagegnehu Alemu, Akubue Augustine Uchenna, Abdullahi Saddiq, Rex Mpazanje, Bala Mohammed Audu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104701
Abstract:
Background: Although there are various malaria intervention measures, the long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) are considered as the most cost-effective intervention measure for malaria endemic countries. In line with the Global Technical Strategies, and as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), the other available malaria preventive measures to achieve malaria control and elimination in especially the malaria endemic countries include the intermittent prophylactic treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), intermittent prophylactic treatment in infants (IPTi), indoor residual spray (IRS), seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis (SMC), and recently the use of malaria vaccine. This study examines the role of quality assurance (QA) tool as deployed by WHO in the 2017 LLIN replacement campaigns in the states that implemented the campaign in Nigeria—Adamawa, Edo, Imo, Kwara, and Ondo. For the purpose of this study, the QA tool examined four components during the campaign—logistics, strategies, technical, and demand creation. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using the QA checklist developed and applied by the WHO professional officers intra campaign between April and December 2017. In each of the states, a total of six LGAs were randomly selected using the EPI risk status (AFP performance indicators and the routine immunization coverage). The findings from the QA checklist tool were analyzed using the SPSS version 24 and the results discussed accordingly. Results: The results looked at general and specific issues across the five states. While the general issues are more in Kwara state in comparison to the other four states—logistics (15%), strategies (12%), technical (13%), and demand creation (7%), the specific issues are almost same across the five states; these specific issues are poor crowd control (12%), early closure of distribution sites (14%), mix-up of data at the distribution sites (15%), poor communication medium between supervisors and teams at the field (11%), safety concerns by the recipients (10%), lack of adequate knowledge on the LLIN usage (9%), inadequate LLIN storage sites (13%), and inadequate plans for LLIN movement between the distribution points (16%). In spite this; all the five states had at least 80% in the area of programme ownership. Conclusion: On the overall, the study further underscores the importance of using quality assurance checklists in public health campaigns as they help ensure that campaigns meet the minimum required standard.
Cost analysis of an integrated disease surveillance and response system: case of Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali
Zana C Somda, Martin I Meltzer, Helen N Perry, Nancy E Messonnier, Usman Abdulmumini, Goitom Mebrahtu, Massambou Sacko, Kandioura Touré, Salimata Ki, Tuoyo Okorosobo, Wondimagegnehu Alemu, Idrissa Sow
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7547-7-1
Abstract: We collected cost data for IDSR activities at central, regional, district, and primary health care center levels from Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali, countries where IDSR is being fully implemented. These cost data included personnel, transportation items, office consumable goods, media campaigns, laboratory and response materials and supplies, and annual depreciation of buildings, equipment, and vehicles.Over the period studied (2002–2005), the average cost to implement the IDSR program in Eritrea was $0.16 per capita, $0.04 in Burkina Faso and $0.02 in Mali. In each country, the mean annual cost of IDSR was dependent on the health structure level, ranging from $35,899 to $69,920 at the region level, $10,790 to $13,941 at the district level, and $1,181 to $1,240 at the primary health care center level. The proportions spent on each IDSR activity varied due to demand for special items (e.g., equipment, supplies, drugs and vaccines), service availability, distance, and the epidemiological profile of the country.This study demonstrates that the IDSR strategy can be considered a low cost public health system although the benefits have yet to be quantified. These data can also be used in future studies of the cost-effectiveness of IDSR.Communicable diseases remain the most common causes of death, illness and disability in African countries. Lopez et al. (2006) reported that one-third of the deaths in low-and-middle income countries in 2001 were from communicable and parasitic diseases and maternal and nutritional conditions [1,2]. In addition, the economic cost in terms of prevention, treatment, and loss of productivity is enormous [3-5]. Although a number of studies on economic evaluation of interventions against communicable diseases have been reported in the literature [6,7], most of these studies in sub-Saharan Africa have focused on individual disease-specific intervention programs, such as prevention or treatment of malaria, measles, meningitis, tuberculosis and
Strengthening systems for communicable disease surveillance: creating a laboratory network in Rwanda
Senait Kebede, John B Gatabazi, Pierre Rugimbanya, Therese Mukankwiro, Helen N Perry, Wondimagegnehu Alemu, Jean B Ndihokubwayo, Michael H Kramer, Odette Mukabayire
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-9-27
Abstract: We reviewed the development of Rwanda's National Reference Laboratory (NRL) to understand essential structures involved in creating a national public health laboratory network. We reviewed documents describing the NRL's organization and record of test results, conducted site visits, and interviewed health staff in the Ministry of Health and in partner agencies. Findings were developed by organizing thematic categories and grouping examples within them. We purposefully sought to identify success factors as well as challenges inherent in developing a national public health laboratory system.Among the identified success factors were: a structured governing framework for public health surveillance; political commitment to promote leadership for stronger laboratory capacities in Rwanda; defined roles and responsibilities for each level; coordinated approaches between technical and funding partners; collaboration with external laboratories; and use of performance results in advocacy with national stakeholders. Major challenges involved general infrastructure, human resources, and budgetary constraints.Rwanda's experience with collaborative partnerships contributed to creation of a functional public health laboratory network.Communicable diseases remain the leading cause of illness, death and disability in African countries [1,2]. Even though well-known, efficacious responses are available for the control and prevention of these diseases, the capacity for timely detection, confirmation and response actions needs reliable public health systems. To address the demand from countries for improved surveillance systems that provide relevant and accurate epidemiologic and laboratory information, the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Headquarters for Africa (AFRO) adopted a strategy in 1998 called Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) [2]. A major goal of IDSR is to strengthen district-level surveillance capacities for detecting, confirmin
Planning an integrated disease surveillance and response system: a matrix of skills and activities
Helen N Perry, Sharon M McDonnell, Wondimagegnehu Alemu, Peter Nsubuga, Stella Chungong, Mac W Otten, Paul S Lusamba-dikassa, Stephen B Thacker
BMC Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-5-24
Abstract: We conducted a systematic task analysis to identify and standardize surveillance objectives, surveillance case definitions, action thresholds, and recommendations for 19 priority infectious diseases. We grouped the findings according to surveillance and response functions and related them to community, health facility, district, national and international levels.The outcome of our analysis is a matrix of generic skills and activities essential for an integrated system. We documented how planners used the matrix to assist in finding gaps in current systems, prioritizing plans of action, clarifying indicators for monitoring progress, and developing instructional goals for applied epidemiology and in-service training programs.The matrix for Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) in the African region made clear the linkage between public health surveillance functions and participation across all levels of national health systems. The matrix framework is adaptable to requirements for new programs and strategies. This framework makes explicit the essential tasks and activities that are required for strengthening or expanding existing surveillance systems that will be able to adapt to current and emerging public health threats.Effective and timely public health responses depend upon the ability of health systems to provide reliable and timely information for action [1]. The global smallpox and polio eradication programs provide examples of the critical role that surveillance plays in linking surveillance data to targeted public health responses [2-4]. The value of surveillance today is also evident in the World Health Organization (WHO) call for influenza surveillance for early detection of human disease caused by a potential pandemic strain [5]. There are WHO recommendations that detail what countries need to do to prepare for pandemic influenza and that urge countries to invest their own resources to improve their national capacities for surveillance and re
External quality assessment of national public health laboratories in Africa, 2002-2009
Frean,John; Perovic,Olga; Fensham,Vivian; McCarthy,Kerrigan; Gottberg,Anne von; Gouveia,Linda de; Poonsamy,Bhavani; Dini,Leigh; Rossouw,Jenny; Keddy,Karen; Alemu,Wondimagegnehu; Yahaya,Ali; Pierson,Antoine; Dolmazon,Virginie; Cognat,Sébastien; Ndihokubwayo,Jean Bosco;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862012000300011
Abstract: objective: to describe findings from an external quality assessment programme involving laboratories in africa that routinely investigate epidemic-prone diseases. methods: beginning in 2002, the regional office for africa of the world health organization (who) invited national public health laboratories and related facilities in africa to participate in the programme. three surveys comprising specimens and questionnaires associated with bacterial enteric diseases, bacterial meningitis, plague, tuberculosis and malaria were sent annually to test participants' diagnostic proficiency. identical surveys were sent to referee laboratories for quality control. materials were prepared, packaged and shipped in accordance with standard protocols. findings and reports were due within 30 days. key methodological decisions and test results were categorized as acceptable or unacceptable on the basis of consensus feedback from referees, using established grading schemes. findings: between 2002 and 2009, participation increased from 30 to 48 member states of the who and from 39 to 78 laboratories. each survey was returned by 64-93% of participants. mean turnaround time was 25.9 days. for bacterial enteric diseases and meningitis components, bacterial identification was acceptable in 65% and 69% of challenges, respectively, but serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility testing and reporting were frequently unacceptable. microscopy was acceptable for 73% of plague challenges. tuberculosis microscopy was satisfactorily performed, with 87% of responses receiving acceptable scores. in the malaria component, 82% of responses received acceptable scores for species identification but only 51% of parasite quantitation scores were acceptable. conclusion: the external quality assessment programme consistently identified certain functional deficiencies requiring strengthening that were present in african public health microbiology laboratories.
Dysfunctional Organization: The Leadership Factor  [PDF]
Daniel S. Alemu
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2016.51001
Abstract: In an extension of studies on dysfunctional organizations, vis-à-vis leadership, the current research examines leaders of dysfunctional and functional organizations in view of the functions of leadership. Sixteen variables related to leadership functions were tested to examine the relationship between leadership and organizational level of functionality and the differences between the characteristics of leaders of functional and dysfunctional organizations. A strong positive correlation was found between effective leadership and organizational level of functionality and a statistically significant difference was found between the characteristics of leaders of functional and dysfunctional organizations.
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