Abstract:
Celiac disease (CD) in children and celiac sprue in adults are probably the same disorder with the same pathogenesis. The synonyms are: Coeliac disease (British spelling) – Celiac sprue – Nontropical sprue-Gluten-sensitive enteropathy – Idiopathic steatorrheaCeliac disease is a chronic intestinal disease mostly associated with malabsorption caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy (villous flattening), resulting in maldigestion and malabsorption. Clinical and histological improvement can be obtained after withdrawal of dietary gluten.Celiac disease is characterized by malabsorption and villous atrophy. However, diseases other than CD can cause marked villous flattening and increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) [1]. Differential diagnosis is of special importance for subjects in whom CD is suspected and who have negative serology. The following diseases, which can have similar features, must be ruled out [1-4]:？ Tropical sprue？ Collagenous colitis？ Whipple's disease？ Giardiasis？ Viral enteritis？ AIDS？ Crohn's disease of the small intestine？ Small intestinal lymphoma？ Carbohydrate intolerance, cow's milk intolerance？ Autoimmune enteropathy？ Graft-vs-host disease？ Radiation damagePrevalence of clinically overt celiac disease varies from 1/270 in Finland to 1/5,000 in North America. However, since celiac disease can be asymptomatic, most subjects are not diagnosed or they can present with atypical symptoms. In epidemiological studies aimed to assess CD prevalence, large cohorts in North America and Europe were screened for highly-sensitive endomysium or tissue transglutaminase antibodies. Besides, they underwent subsequent small intestinal biopsies when antibody testing was positive. The CD prevalence was found to be much higher than expected. Approximately 1/100 to 1/500 were found positive for antibodies and had villous atrophy of the small intestine [5-10]. Thus, up to 1% of a western population tests positive for celi

Abstract:
Since being functionally linked to the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway, primary cilia have sparked enormous interest. The initial connection came from an unbiased forward genetic mouse screen in which a number of the mutations disrupted genes important for cilia; the resulting mutant embryos showed abnormal patterning of the neural tube [1,2]. Shh signaling controls neural tube patterning [3,4], and double mutant analysis showed cilia are critical for Shh signal transduction [1,2]. Previously, the focus of most research was on the function of motile cilia, which have a 9？+？2 microtubule structure, but the past decade has witnessed an explosion of interest in primary cilia, which lack the inner doublet and instead have a 9？+？0 axonemal arrangement. These cilia have now been implicated in many biological processes, from obesity to cancer to learning and memory [5-8]. Indeed, the widespread role of cilia in various systems is made clear by the range of phenotypes present in the ciliopathies, which are human diseases that arise from mutations in cilia genes [9-13]. In this review, we return to the beginning and the source of all the excitement - the embryonic neural tube.Core progress has been made towards understanding the mechanistic details behind the abnormal neural patterning of mouse mutants with disrupted cilia [1,2,14,15], but other roles for cilia in the neural tube have yet to be explored. Proper positioning of cilia in several developmental contexts is linked to the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, raising the possibility that the placement of cilia in the neural tube may be critical [16-21]. Additionally, specialized ependymal cilia control circulation and mechanosensation of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain [22-25], which is derived from the anterior neural tube. Taken together, these data give us a glimpse of what the cilia in the neural tube are really doing there.Following the specification of the germ layers, the neur

Abstract:
In the framework of instantaneous approximations to the Bethe-Salpeter formalism for the description of bound states within quantum field theories, depending on the Lorentz structure of the Bethe-Salpeter interaction kernel the solutions of the full Salpeter equation with some confining interaction may exhibit certain instabilities, which are possibly related to the Klein paradox and signal the decay of states assumed to be bound by the confining interactions. They are observed in numerical (variational) studies of the Salpeter equation. The presumably simplest scenario allowing for the fully analytic investigation of this problem is set by the reduced Salpeter equation with harmonic-oscillator interaction. In this case, Salpeter's integral equation simplifies to either an algebraic relation or a second-order homogeneous linear ordinary differential equation, immediately accessible to standard techniques. There one may hope to be able to decide unambiguously whether this setting poses a well-defined eigenvalue problem the solutions of which correspond to stable bound states associated to real energy eigenvalues bounded from below. By analytical spectral analysis the bound-state solutions of this "harmonic-oscillator reduced Salpeter equation" can be shown to be free of such instabilities.

Abstract:
For two bound-state equations derived as simplified forms of the Bethe-Salpeter equation with confining interaction, stability of all solutions is rigorously shown.

Abstract:
At the end of 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will come into operation and the two experiments ATLAS and CMS will start taking data from proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of \sqrt{s}=14 TeV. In preparation for the data taking period, the discovery potential for Higgs bosons beyond the Standard Model has been updated by both experiments and is reviewed here. In addition, the prospects for measuring the properties of a Higgs boson like its mass and width, its CP eigenvalues and its couplings to fermions and gauge bosons are discussed.

Abstract:
For two bound-state equations derived as simplified forms of the Bethe-Salpeter equation with confining interaction, stability of all solutions is rigorously shown.

Abstract:
Consequent application of the instantaneous approximation to both the interaction and all propagators of the bound-state constituents allows us to forge, within the framework of the Bethe-Salpeter formalism for the description of bound states, an instantaneous form of the Bethe-Salpeter equation with exact (i.e., full) propagators of the bound-state constituents. This instantaneous equation generalizes the well-known Salpeter equation the derivation of which needs the additional assumption of free propagation of the bound-state constituents.

Abstract:
Motivated by the recent surprising discovery of two new meson states with c s-bar quark content but unexpectedly low masses and narrow total decay widths, we work out, in a nonrelativistic potential-model approach developed already some two decades ago, the predictions for the energy levels of the corresponding charm-antistrange quark bound states. In spite of the fact that this simple quark model reproduces the mass spectrum of the previously observed hadrons remarkably well, we are led to the conclusion that, without considerable modifications, both the new states do not fit into this framework.