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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1821 matches for " Wojciech Sobala "
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Assessment of the dermal exposure to azoxystrobin among women tending cucumbers in selected Polish greenhouses after restricted entry intervals expired — the role of the protective gloves
Joanna Jurewicz, Wojciech Hanke, , Wojciech Sobala, Danuta Ligocka
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10001-009-0026-3
Abstract: Objectives: The purpose of our study was to determine the level of skin contamination by azoxystrobin in a group of women tending cucumbers in a vegetable-growing greenhouse after restricted entry intervals expired. Methods: Exposure samples were assessed on two days during the spring: first entry on the day after spraying of azoxystrobin and second entry six days later. Dermal exposure was measured by using patches on the outside of clothing and sampling gloves underneath regular working gloves. Pesticide deposited on clothing patches and gloves as a substitute for skin deposition was determined by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results: The study has shown that workers in a Polish greenhouse are exposed to pesticides at re-entry into the greenhouse after pesticides were sprayed several days earlier. Azoxystrobin has been detected on hands, shoulders and chest. Higher levels of azoxystrobin were found on the cotton gloves of women tending the vegetables than on the patches. The levels decreased (by about 60%) on the patches and increased (by about 250%) on the cotton gloves between the two days of measurement. Conclusions: Women working in a vegetable-growing greenhouse and not directly engaged in the process of spraying experience a measurable dermal exposure to azoxystrobin. The protective gloves constitute a source of secondary exposure rather than protecting employees' hands from contact with the pesticide. More efficient personal protective gloves for proper protection of women working in vegetable greenhouses are needed.
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and newborn biometric indicators
Kinga Polańska, Wojciech Hanke, , Wojciech Sobala, S awomir Brze nicki, Danuta Ligocka
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10001-010-0028-1
Abstract: Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on foetal growth. Materials and Methods: The prospective Polish Mother and Child Cohort study was performed in 8 regions of Poland. The study population consisted of 449 mother-child pairs All women were interviewed three times during pregnancy (once in each trimester). 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) concentration in urine was chosen as the biomarker of exposure to PAH. The urine sample collected from the participant women between 20-24 weeks of pregnancy was analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The active and passive smoking exposure was verified by determination of saliva cotinine level using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry/positive electrospray ionisation (LC-ESI+MS/MS) and isotope dilution method. Results: The exposure to PAH measured by 1-HP level in urine of pregnant women was significantly associated with child birth weight (β = -158.3; p = 0.01), chest circumference (β = -0.7; p = 0.02) and cephalisation index (β = 4.2; p = 0.01) after adjustment for gestational age, child gender, pregnant woman marital status, educational level, season of last menstruation period (LMP), prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), and weight gain in pregnancy. After inclusion salivary cotinine levels into the analysis, the results were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Prenatal exposures to PAH adversely influence foetal development including child weight, length, head and chest circumference. Tobacco smoking is the important source of PAH. After controlling for active and passive smoking, the observed associations were not statistically significant.
Polish mother and child cohort study — defining the problem, the aim of the study and methodological assumptions
Kinga Polańska, Wojciech Hanke, , Jolanta Gromadzińska, Danuta Ligocka, Ewa Gulczyńska, Wojciech Sobala, Wojciech W sowicz
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10001-009-0037-0
Abstract: Objectives: Exposures during prenatal period have implications for pregnancy outcome as well as for children's health, morbidity and mortality. Prospective cohort study design allows for the identification of exposures that may influence pregnancy outcome and children's health, verification of such exposures by biomarker measurements and notification of any changes in exposure level. Materials and methods: Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL) is multicenter prospective cohort study conducted in 8 different regions of Poland. The final cohort is intended to comprise 1300 mother-child pairs to be recruited within 4-year period (2007-2011). The recruitment and all scheduled visits are conducted in maternity units or clinics in the districts included in the study. The women are followed-up 3 times in pregnancy (once in each trimester) and after delivery for the notification of pregnancy outcome. During each visit, detailed questionnaire and biological samples are collected including saliva, urine, hair, maternal blood and cord blood. About 6 weeks postpartum, breast milk from part of the women is collected. The study concentrates on the identification and evaluation of the effects of prenatal environmental exposure on pregnancy outcome and children's health. Specific research hypotheses refer to the role of heavy metals, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the aetiology of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and preterm delivery (PD). The role of oxidative stress putative mechanism and pregnant women nutritional status will be investigated. Based on questionnaire data, the impact of occupational exposures and stressful situations will be evaluated. Results: The results of the study will become available within the next few years and will help to determine levels of child prenatal exposure in several areas of Poland and its impact on course and outcome of pregnancy.
Levels of Consciousness  [PDF]
Wojciech Pisula
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2016.61006
Abstract: Consciousness attracts the attention of researchers representing various disciplines. Hence, there is a demand for a theoretical tool that could integrate data and theoretical concepts originating from distinct fields. The paper proposes to use the framework of the theory of integrative levels. The development and the definitions of the concept of levels are briefly discussed. The final part of the paper presents a proposal for incorporating the levels of consciousness into the framework of the integrative levels theory.
Smoking cessation intervention during pregnancy in a Polish urban community – what is the target population?
Polańska K,Hanke W,Sobala W,Broszkiewicz M
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-1-2-121
Abstract: The aim of this project was to evaluate the effect of intensive individual anti-smoking counselling among pregnant women from a Polish urban community with a large representation of socially underprivileged women. The study was conducted between 1 December 2000 and 31 December 2001. Out of 204 women who were asked to take part in a midwives-assisted program of educational counselling to stop smoking, 152 (74.5%) agreed to participate. The intervention program included four visits of a midwife trained in smoking cessation techniques to the home of a smoking pregnant woman. The control group were 145 pregnant women who on the first visit to a maternity unit received only a standard written information on the health risk from maternal smoking to the foetus. The percentage of pregnant women who quitted smoking during the project was 46.1% in the intervention group and 23.4% among the controls (p < 0.001). After combining the intervention group with the women who refused to participate in the project, the rate of quitting was 36.3%, still significantly higher than in controls (p = 0.01). The strongest influence of the intervention was found among women smoking more than 5 cigarettes/day. Women covered by the intervention programme, who reported smoking in previous pregnancies, were found to quit smoking to a much higher extent than the controls with a similar background. Such pattern was also observed for women whose husbands were smokers. The benefits of the intervention, especially for the socially underprivileged women, seem to result from an increased proportion of subjects who undertook a quitting attempt, rather than the effectiveness of these attempts. In the intervention group, among the subjects who did not manage to quit smoking during pregnancy, the number of women who at least slightly reduced their smoking rate was twice as high as in the controls.
Smoking cessation intervention during pregnancy in a Polish urban community – what is the target population?
Polańska K,Hanke W,Sobala W,Broszkiewicz M
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-1-9
Abstract: The aim of this project was to evaluate the effect of intensive individual anti-smoking counselling among pregnant women from a Polish urban community with a large representation of socially underprivileged women. The study was conducted between 1 December 2000 and 31 December 2001. Out of 204 women who were asked to take part in a midwives-assisted program of educational counselling to stop smoking, 152 (74.5%) agreed to participate. The intervention program included four visits of a midwife trained in smoking cessation techniques to the home of a smoking pregnant woman. The control group were 145 pregnant women who on the first visit to a maternity unit received only a standard written information on the health risk from maternal smoking to the foetus. The percentage of pregnant women who quitted smoking during the project was 46.1% in the intervention group and 23.4% among the controls (p < 0.001). After combining the intervention group with the women who refused to participate in the project, the rate of quitting was 36.3%, still significantly higher than in controls (p = 0.01). The strongest influence of the intervention was found among women smoking more than 5 cigarettes/day. Women covered by the intervention programme, who reported smoking in previous pregnancies, were found to quit smoking to a much higher extent than the controls with a similar background. Such pattern was also observed for women whose husbands were smokers. The benefits of the intervention, especially for the socially underprivileged women, seem to result from an increased proportion of subjects who undertook a quitting attempt, rather than the effectiveness of these attempts. In the intervention group, among the subjects who did not manage to quit smoking during pregnancy, the number of women who at least slightly reduced their smoking rate was twice as high as in the controls.
Potential for carbon sequestration in reclaimed mine soil on reforested surface mining areas in Poland  [PDF]
Marcin Pietrzykowski, Wojciech Krzaklewski
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.29124
Abstract: Reclaimed mine soils (RMS) which develop on post-mining sites play significant role in Carbon sequestration in new ecosystems, especially in local range on areas disturbed by human activity. This study presents the potential for Carbon sequestration in RMS developing on 3 post sur- face mining areas in Poland (Central Europe) reforested with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L). Research was conducted on waste heaps and quarry which accompany open cast lignite, sul- fur, and sand mining. Control plots were arrang- ed in managed pine forests on natural sites in the surrounding area. The results shows high Carbon accumulation in RMS, estimated on 16.77 Mg?ha-1 in poor (oligotrofic) soils on Quaternary sands on sand quarry and up to 65.03 Mg?ha-1 on external waste heap after Sulfur sur- face mining exploitation on Quaternary sands mixed with Tertiary clays. These results were very similar to natural forest soils on control plots. Potential rate of Carbon sequestration in RMS was estimated on 0.73 (on the poorest sa- ndy soils on quarry) to 2.17 Mg?ha-1?yr-1 (on potentially abundant sandy-clayish soils on Sulfur waste heap), and 5.26 Mg?ha-1?yr-1 (on Tertiary sands substrate soils on lignite mining waste heap). In conslusion the average Carbon accu- mulation in RMS was estimated on 41 Mg?ha-1 and Carbon sequestration rate was 1.45 Mg? ha-1?yr-1. According to the result of this study and range of post-mining areas reclaimed to forestry in Poland (ca 15000 ha) total Carbon accumulation in RMS was estimated on 615 × 103 Mg and potential Carbon sequestration rate in new ecosystems on 21.75 × 103 Mg?ha-1?yr-1. However, the main factors affecting Carbon sequestration and protection in RMS under tree stand were substrate, percentage of clay and silt sized fraction, in order to formulate guidelines for sustainable management of post-mining ec- osystem, further study must be continue for be- tter understanding.
Simultaneous Gravitational and Refractive Lensing  [PDF]
Wojciech T. Chyla
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2012.22011
Abstract: The principal testing ground for general relativity is the observable Universe. Gravitational lensing is the leading observational technique that gives insight into the distribution of baryonic matter in the stellar, galactic and cosmological scale, as well as the distribution of dark matter and dark energy, due to their gravitational interaction. Interpretation of ever more precise observational data requires increasingly subtle analytical techniques. In this paper, I discuss a formalism that can handle a nonlinear superposition of gravitational and refractive lensing by a grouping of baryonic matter, dark matter and dark energy for a given distribution of those entities (i.e. for a given spacetime metric) and their refractive properties. The role of refraction in gravitational lensing is exemplified in the case of a microlensing event and a signature of such an effect is discussed.
Potential for carbon sequestration in reclaimed mine soil on reforested surface mining areas in Poland  [PDF]
Marcin Pietrzykowski,Wojciech Krzaklewski
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2009.29124
Abstract: Reclaimed mine soils (RMS) which develop on post-mining sites play significant role in Carbon sequestration in new ecosystems, especially in local range on areas disturbed by human activity. This study presents the potential for Carbon sequestration in RMS developing on 3 post sur- face mining areas in Poland (Central Europe) reforested with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L). Research was conducted on waste heaps and quarry which accompany open cast lignite, sul- fur, and sand mining. Control plots were arrang- ed in managed pine forests on natural sites in the surrounding area. The results shows high Carbon accumulation in RMS, estimated on 16.77 Mg?ha-1 in poor (oligotrofic) soils on Quaternary sands on sand quarry and up to 65.03 Mg?ha-1 on external waste heap after Sulfur sur- face mining exploitation on Quaternary sands mixed with Tertiary clays. These results were very similar to natural forest soils on control plots. Potential rate of Carbon sequestration in RMS was estimated on 0.73 (on the poorest sa- ndy soils on quarry) to 2.17 Mg?ha-1?yr-1 (on potentially abundant sandy-clayish soils on Sulfur waste heap), and 5.26 Mg?ha-1?yr-1 (on Tertiary sands substrate soils on lignite mining waste heap). In conslusion the average Carbon accu- mulation in RMS was estimated on 41 Mg?ha-1 and Carbon sequestration rate was 1.45 Mg? ha-1?yr-1. According to the result of this study and range of post-mining areas reclaimed to forestry in Poland (ca 15000 ha) total Carbon accumulation in RMS was estimated on 615 × 103 Mg and potential Carbon sequestration rate in new ecosystems on 21.75 × 103 Mg?ha-1?yr-1. However, the main factors affecting Carbon sequestration and protection in RMS under tree stand were substrate, percentage of clay and silt sized fraction, in order to formulate guidelines for sustainable management of post-mining ec- osystem, further study must be continue for be- tter understanding.
rho-omega mixing in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Wojciech Broniowski,Wojciech Florkowski
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(98)01037-5
Abstract: We show that even moderate excess of neutrons over protons in nuclear matter, such as in ${}^{208} Pb$, can lead to large $\rho$-$\omega$ mixing at densities of the order of twice the nuclear saturation density and higher. The typical mixing angle is of the order of $10^o$. The mixing may result in noticeable shifts of the positions and widths of resonances. We also analyze temperature effects and find that temperatures up to 50 MeV have practically no effect on the mixing.
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