OALib Journal期刊

ISSN: 2333-9721



匹配条件: “ Winfred Nassazi” ,找到相关结果约20条。
Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Springs in Kyambogo University Propinquity  [PDF]
Timothy Omara, Winfred Nassazi, Monica Adokorach, Sarah Kagoya
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105100
The availability of usable water in an area is the first indication of its demonstrated ability to sustain life. In peri-urban areas, urbanites utilize water from springs and compete disapprovingly for it amongst themselves and with animals. The straggling populace and the compromised sanitation are deteriorating spring water sources. There is an urgent need to analyze springs to ascertain their bacteriological and physical quality for possible cross contaminations that may be of public health importance. This study evaluated the bacteriological and physical profile of water from three springs in Kyambogo University vicinity. Two weekly water samples from each spring for five weeks were obtained and analyzed. The physicochemical parameters (temperature, pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, chlorides and sulphates), total coliform and E. coli counts of the samples were determined. The mean temperature of the water samples from Katalina, Airport spring 1 and Airport spring 2 were 20.53℃ ± 1.2, 21.53 ± 0.60 and 20.33 ± 1.62 respectively. The corresponding statistical mean pH values were 5.33 ± 0.25, 6.30 ± 0.10 and 7.10 ± 0.46. All the springs were found to be microbiologically contaminated with total coliforms and E. coli above WHO permissible limits. Conclusively, water from the sampled springs are not safe for drinking and the immediate strategy is to boil or treat the water before drinking. Drainage ditches should be constructed uphill of the springs to divert torrential flowing rain water which carry contaminants washed from Kyambogo hill.
Men’s Migration, Women’s Personal Networks, and Responses to HIV/AIDS in Mozambique
Winfred Avogo,Victor Agadjanian
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10030892
Abstract: This study brings together the literature on social network approaches to social capital and health and on migration and HIV risks to examine how non-migrating wives of labor migrants use their personal networks to cope with perceived risks of HIV infection in rural southern Mozambique. Using data from a 2006 survey of 1,680 women and their dyadic interactions, we compare the composition of personal networks, HIV/AIDS communication, and preventive behavior of women married to migrants and those married to non-migrants. Results show that migrants’ wives were more likely than non-migrants’ wives to have other migrants’ wives as personal network members, to engage in HIV/AIDS communication, and to discuss HIV prevention. However, they were no more likely to talk about HIV/AIDS with migrants’ wives than with non-migrants’ wives. They were also no more likely to talk about AIDS and its prevention than non-migrants’ wives who express worry about HIV infection from their spouses. Finally, we detect that network members’ prevention behavior was similar to respondents’, although this did not depend on migration. We contextualize these findings within the literature and discuss their policy implications.
Adoption and Scaling-Up of Conservation Agriculture in Tanzania: Case of Arusha and Dodoma Regions  [PDF]
Frederick Cassian Kahimba, Khamaldin Daud Mutabazi, Siza Donald Tumbo, Kenneth Francis Masuki, Winfred Baptist Mbungu
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.54016

A study was conducted to assess the adoption and scaling-up of Conservation Agriculture in Arumeru district, Arusha region, northern Tanzania and Chamwino and Dodoma Urban districts in Dodoma region, Central Tanzania. The study employed structured questionnaire survey and key informant interviews as the main data collection methods. Data analysis was done descriptively to determine factors that influence the adoption. Results showed that farmers in Arusha have highly adopted terraces, minimum tillage and cover cropping whereas their counterparts in Dodoma have highly adopted large planting pits, minimum tillage, and rippers. The intensity of adoption in Arusha is higher for the wealthy compared to the poor while in Dodoma the wealth status was not a factor that influenced adoption of the Conservation Agriculture (CA) technologies. The process of technology adoption should include the use of various participatory methods including farmer field schools, experimental plots, farmer exchange visits, and training of trainers among others. Use of farmer groups, incentives, and support instruments such as Savings and Credit Co-operative Society (SACCOS) or warehouse receipts systems are also important to ensure that farmers realize some acceptable profits from their efforts. Involvement of various stakeholders is also very important including local governments and agricultural change agents at national, regional, district, ward and village levels. Hence, the intention to promote CA technologies should not only look at the economic importance, but also its socio-economic importance to the local people in the area. Their desire to adopt and out-scale a technology should be among the most important investment factors that the government and development partners should consider.

Assessing the Hydrology of a Data-Scarce Tropical Watershed Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool: Case of the Little Ruaha River Watershed in Iringa, Tanzania  [PDF]
Winfred B. Mbungu, Japhet J. Kashaigili
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2017.72004
Abstract: The hydrology of the Little Ruaha River which is a major catchment of the Ihemi Cluster in the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SA-GCOT) has been studied. The study focused on the hydrological assessment through analysis of the available data and developing a model that could be used for assessing impacts of environmental change. Pressures on land and water resources in the watershed are increasing mainly as a result of human activities, and understanding the hydrological regime is deemed necessary. In this study, modeling was conducted using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in which meteorological and streamflow data were used in the simulation, calibration and evaluation. Calibration and evaluation was done at three gauging stations and the results were deemed plausible with NSE ranging between 0.64 and 0.80 for the two stages. The simulated flows were used for gap filling the missing data and generation of complete daily time series of streamflow at three gauging stations of Makalala, Ihimbu and Mawande. Results of statistical trends and flow duration curves, revealed decline in magnitudes of seasonal and annual flows indicating that streamflows are changing with time and may have implications on envisioned development and the water dependent ecosystems.
Adopting the system of rice intensification (SRI) in Tanzania: A review  [PDF]
Zacharia Katambara, Frederick C. Kahimba, Henry F. Mahoo, Winfred B. Mbungu, Fikiri Mhenga, Paul Reuben, Muyenjwa Maugo, Anthony Nyarubamba
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.48053

The demand of water for irrigation purposes in Tanzania outstrips the amount of water available for irrigation and other demands. On the other hand, the demand for more food to feed the growing population is increasing, calling for the need to have technologies and farming practices that ensure more food production while minimizing water uses. Rice is among cereal crops grown in Tanzania, and it can assist in meeting the food demand for the nation. Majority of rice producers in Tanzania and Sub-Saharan Africa(SSA) are subsistence farmers and they practice continuous flooding, a technique that requires much water. In addition to using large amounts of water, the conventional practices of growing paddy using local varieties transplanting process are implemented when seedlings are more than 21 days old, and 3-4 seedlings are transplanted in one hole. This practice results in low yields, and low water productivity and water use efficiency. The system of rice intensification (SRI) on the other hand, is a promising new practice of growing paddy rice that has proven to be very effective in saving water and increasing rice yields in many parts of the world. SRI practice is spreading fast and it has been adopted in many countries. The SRI practice has been introduced in Tanzania during the last 3 years as such it is not widely practiced. This paper reviews SRI practice at global, regional and country (Tanzania) level, and evaluates the challenges, opportunities and implications for its adoption in Tanzania. Knowledge gaps at each level have been identified and discussed as well as suggestions for researchable areas.

SMS for Life: a pilot project to improve anti-malarial drug supply management in rural Tanzania using standard technology
Jim Barrington, Olympia Wereko-Brobby, Peter Ward, Winfred Mwafongo, Seif Kungulwe
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-298
Abstract: A 21-week pilot study, 'SMS for Life', was undertaken during 2009-2010 in three districts of rural Tanzania, involving 129 health facilities. Undertaken through a collaborative partnership of public and private institutions, SMS for Life used mobile telephones, SMS messages and electronic mapping technology to facilitate provision of comprehensive and accurate stock counts from all health facilities to each district management team on a weekly basis. The system covered stocks of the four different dosage packs of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and quinine injectable.Stock count data was provided in 95% of cases, on average. A high response rate (≥ 93%) was maintained throughout the pilot. The error rate for composition of SMS responses averaged 7.5% throughout the study; almost all errors were corrected and messages re-sent. Data accuracy, based on surveillance visits to health facilities, was 94%. District stock reports were accessed on average once a day. The proportion of health facilities with no stock of one or more anti-malarial medicine (i.e. any of the four dosages of AL or quinine injectable) fell from 78% at week 1 to 26% at week 21. In Lindi Rural district, stock-outs were eliminated by week 8 with virtually no stock-outs thereafter. During the study, AL stocks increased by 64% and quinine stock increased 36% across the three districts.The SMS for Life pilot provided visibility of anti-malarial stock levels to support more efficient stock management using simple and widely available SMS technology, via a public-private partnership model that worked highly effectively. The SMS for Life system has the potential to alleviate restricted availability of anti-malarial drugs or other medicines in rural or under-resourced areas.Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by WHO for first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria [1], in recognition of the superior efficacy and faster symptomatic improvement observed with ACT comp
Electrospun eri silk fibroin scaffold coated with hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering applications
Muthumanickkam Andiappan, Subramanian Sundaramoorthy, Niladrinath Panda, Gowri Meiyazhaban, Sofi Beaula Winfred, Ganesh Venkataraman and Pramanik Krishna
Progress in Biomaterials , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2194-0517-2-6
Abstract: Natural biomaterials such as collagen, silk fibroin, and chitosan, and synthetic biopolymers such as polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, polyglycolic acid, and their copolymers are being used as scaffold for tissue engineering applications. In the present work, a fibrous mat was electrospun from eri silk fibroin (ESF). A composite of hydroxyapatite (Hap) and the ESF scaffold was prepared by soaking the ESF scaffold in a solution of calcium chloride and then in sodium diammonium phosphate. The average tensile stress of the pure ESF and hydroxyapatite-coated ESF scaffold (ESF-Hap) was found to be 1.84 and 0.378 MPa, respectively. Pure ESF and ESF-Hap scaffolds were evaluated for their characteristics by a themogravimetric analyzer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope. The crystallinity and thermal stability of the ESF-Hap scaffold were found to be more than that of uncoated eri silk nanofiber scaffold. The water uptake of the pure ESF and ESF-Hap scaffolds was found to be 69% and 340%, respectively, in distilled water as well as phosphate buffer saline. The hemolysis percentage of both scaffolds was less than 5%, which indicate their good blood compatibility. The cytocompatibility studied by 3-(4,5-dimethyl) thiazol-2-yl-2,5-dimethyl tetrazolium bromide assay showed that the scaffold is biocompatible. To assess cell attachment and growth on the scaffold, human mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on the scaffolds. The results from scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent microscopy showed a notable cellular growth and favorable morphological features. Hence, the ESF-Hap scaffold is better suited for cell growth than the pure ESF scaffold.
Integration of Sensory Force Feedback Is Disturbed in CRPS-Related Dystonia
Winfred Mugge, Frans C. T. van der Helm, Alfred C. Schouten
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060293
Abstract: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by pain and disturbed blood flow, temperature regulation and motor control. Approximately 25% of cases develop fixed dystonia. The origin of this movement disorder is poorly understood, although recent insights suggest involvement of disturbed force feedback. Assessment of sensorimotor integration may provide insight into the pathophysiology of fixed dystonia. Sensory weighting is the process of integrating and weighting sensory feedback channels in the central nervous system to improve the state estimate. It was hypothesized that patients with CRPS-related dystonia bias sensory weighting of force and position toward position due to the unreliability of force feedback. The current study provides experimental evidence for dysfunctional sensory integration in fixed dystonia, showing that CRPS-patients with fixed dystonia weight force and position feedback differently than controls do. The study shows reduced force feedback weights in CRPS-patients with fixed dystonia, making it the first to demonstrate disturbed integration of force feedback in fixed dystonia, an important step towards understanding the pathophysiology of fixed dystonia.
Collisional losses, decoherence, and frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks with bosons
Ch. Lisdat,J. S. R. Vellore Winfred,T. Middelmann,F. Riehle,U. Sterr
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.090801
Abstract: We have quantified collisional losses, decoherence and the collision shift in a one-dimensional optical lattice clock with bosonic 88Sr. The lattice clock is referenced to the highly forbidden transition 1S0 - 3P0 at 698 nm, which becomes weakly allowed due to state mixing in a homogeneous magnetic field. We were able to quantify three decoherence coefficients, which are due to dephasing collisions, inelastic collisions between atoms in the upper and lower clock state, and atoms in the upper clock state only. Based on the measured coefficients, we determine the operation parameters at which a 1D-lattice clock with 88Sr shows no degradation due to collisions on the relative accuracy level of 10-16.
Tackling the blackbody shift in a strontium optical lattice clock
Thomas Middelmann,Christian Lisdat,Stephan Falke,Joseph S. R. Vellore Winfred,Fritz Riehle,Uwe Sterr
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: A major obstacle for optical clocks is the frequency shift due to black body radiation. We discuss how one can tackle this problem in an optical lattice clock; in our case 87-Sr: firstly, by a measurement of the dc Stark shift of the clock transition and, secondly, by interrogating the atoms in a cryogenic environment. Both approaches rely on transporting ultracold atoms over several cm within a probe cycle. We evaluate this approach of mechanically moving the optical lattice and conclude that it is feasible to transport the atoms over 50 mm within 300 ms. With this transport a dc Stark shift measurement will allow to reduce the contribution of the blackbody radiation to the fractional uncertainty below 2 * 10^-17 at room temperature by improving the shift coefficient known only from atomic structure calculations up to now. We propose a cryogenic environment at 77 K that will reduce this contribution to few parts in 10^-18.

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