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Stochastic Orders Comparisons of Negative Binomial Distribution with Negative Binomial—Lindley Distribution  [PDF]
Chookait Pudprommarat, Winai Bodhisuwan
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2012.22025
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to compare a negative binomial distribution with a negative binomial—Lindley by using stochastic orders. We characterize the comparisons in usual stochastic order, likelihood ratio order, convex order, expectation order and uniformly more variable order based on theorem and some numerical example of comparisons between negative binomial random variable and negative binomial—Lindley random variable.
Comparison of predicted susceptibility between genotype and virtual phenotype HIV drug resistance interpretation systems among treatment-naive HIV-infected patients in Asia: TASER-M cohort analysis
Awachana Jiamsakul, Rami Kantor, Patrick CK Li, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Thira Sirisanthana, Pacharee Kantipong, Christopher KC Lee, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Winai Ratanasuwan, Rossana Ditangco, Thida Singtoroj, Somnuek Sungkanuparph, On behalf of the TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance – Monitoring Study (TASER-M)
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-582
Abstract: Sequences from 1301 ARV-naive patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance – Monitoring Study (TASER-M) were analysed by both interpreting systems. Interpretations from both Stanford HIVdb and vircoTYPE? HIV-1 were initially grouped into 2 levels: susceptible and non-susceptible. Discrepancy was defined as a discordant result between the susceptible and non-susceptible interpretations from the two systems for the same ARV. Further analysis was performed when interpretations from both systems were categorised into 3 levels: susceptible, intermediate and resistant; whereby discrepancies could be categorised as major discrepancies and minor discrepancies. Major discrepancy was defined as having a susceptible result from one system and resistant from the other. Minor discrepancy corresponded to having an intermediate interpretation in one system, with a susceptible or resistant result in the other. The level of agreement was analysed using the prevalence adjusted bias adjusted kappa (PABAK).Overall, the agreement was high, with each ARV being in “almost perfect agreement”, using Landis and Koch’s categorisation. Highest discordance was observed for efavirenz (75/1301, 5.8%), all arising from susceptible Stanford HIVdb versus non-susceptible vircoTYPE? HIV-1 predictions. Protease Inhibitors had highest level of concordance with PABAKs all above 0.99, followed by Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors with PABAKs above 0.97 and non-NRTIs with the lowest PABAK of 0.88. The 68/75 patients with discordant efavirenz results harboured the V179D/E mutations compared to 7/1226 with no efavirenz discrepancy (p-value <0.001). In the 3-level comparison, all but one of the discrepancies was minor.The two systems agreed well with lowest concordance observed for efavirenz. When interpreting HIVDR, especially in non-B subtypes, clinical correlation is crucial, in particular when efavirenz resistance is interpreted based on V179D/E.In recent years, developing
Comparisons of Primary HIV-1 Drug Resistance between Recent and Chronic HIV-1 Infection within a Sub-Regional Cohort of Asian Patients
Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Romanee Chaiwarith, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Rossana Ditangco, Awachana Jiamsakul, Patrick C. K. Li, Pacharee Kantipong, Christopher Lee, Winai Ratanasuwan, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Annette H. Sohn, Somnuek Sungkanuparph, for the TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance Surveillance and Monitoring Studies
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062057
Abstract: Background The emergence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) has raised concerns after rapid global antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up. There are limited data on the epidemiology of primary HIVDR in resource-limited settings in Asia. We aimed to determine the prevalence and compare the distribution of HIVDR in a cohort of ART-na?ve Asian patients with recent and chronic HIV-1 infection. Methods Multicenter prospective study was conducted in ART-na?ve patients between 2007 and 2010. Resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) were assessed using the World Health Organization 2009 list for surveillance of primary HIVDR. Results A total of 458 patients with recent and 1,340 patients with chronic HIV-1 infection were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of primary HIVDR was 4.6%. Recently infected patients had a higher prevalence of primary HIVDR (6.1% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.065) and frequencies of RAMs to protease inhibitors (PIs; 3.9% vs. 1.0%, p<0.001). Among those with recent infection, the most common RAMs to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) were M184I/V and T215D/E/F/I/S/Y (1.1%), to non-NRTIs was Y181C (1.3%), and to PIs was M46I (1.5%). Of patients with chronic infection, T215D/E/F/I/S/Y (0.8%; NRTI), Y181C (0.5%; non-NRTI), and M46I (0.4%; PI) were the most common RAMs. K70R (p = 0.016) and M46I (p = 0.026) were found more frequently among recently infected patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis in patients with chronic infection, heterosexual contact as a risk factor for HIV-1 infection was less likely to be associated with primary HIVDR compared to other risk categories (odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.20–0.59, p<0.001). Conclusions The prevalence of primary HIVDR was higher among patients with recent than chronic HIV-1 infection in our cohort, but of borderline statistical significance. Chronically infected patients with non-heterosexual risks for HIV were more likely to have primary HIVDR.
The Effects of Countdown Signals on Intersection Capacity
Winai Raksuntorn
International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies , 2012,
Abstract: This study presents the effects of countdown signals on the total start-up lost time of automobiles at signalized intersections based on the data collected at intersections in Bangkok, Thailand. This countdown signal is used to warn motorists in queue at the stop line during any red phase on when the green phase will be started. The data indicated that the countdown signals did not have any effects on the saturation headway of automobiles, but on the total start-up lost time. With the use of the countdown signals, the total start-up lost time was decreased from 4.3 seconds to 2.9 seconds, or was reduced by thirty-three percent. Therefore, the countdown signals may be used to increase the capacity of signalized intersections.
A Statistical Analysis of Intensities Estimation on the Modeling of Non-Life Insurance Claim Counting Process  [PDF]
Uraiwan Jaroengeratikun, Winai Bodhisuwan, Ampai Thongteeraparp
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.31016
Abstract: This study presents an estimation approach to non-life insurance claim counts relating to a specified time. The objective of this study is to estimate the parameters in non-life insurance claim counting process, including the homogeneous Poisson process (HPP) and the non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) with a bell-shaped intensity. We use the estimating function, the zero mean martingale (ZMM) as a procedure of parameter estimation in the insurance claim counting process. Then, Λ(t) , the compensator of is proposed for the number of claims in the time interval . We present situations through a simulation study of both processes on the time interval . Some examples of the situations in the simulation study are depicted by a sample path relating to its compensator Λ(t). In addition, an example of the claim counting process illustrates the result of the compensator estimate misspecification.
A Bayesian Inference of Non-Life Insurance Based on Claim Counting Process with Periodic Claim Intensity  [PDF]
Uraiwan Jaroengeratikun, Winai Bodhisuwan, Ampai Thongteeraparp
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2012.22020
Abstract: The aim of this study is to propose an estimation approach to non-life insurance claim counts related to the insurance claim counting process, including the non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) with a bell-shaped intensity and a beta-shaped intensity. The estimating function, such as the zero mean martingale (ZMM), is used as a procedure for parameter estimation of the insurance claim counting process, and the parameters of model claim intensity are estimated by the Bayesian method. Then,Λ(t), the compensator of N(t) is proposed for the number of claims in a time interval (0,t]. Given the process over the time interval (0,t]., the situations are presented through a simulation study and some examples of these situations are also depicted by a sample path relating N(t) to its compensatorΛ(t).
An Active-Only Temperature-Insensitive Current-Mode Biquad Filter Based on Differentiator Structures Employing CCCCTAs  [PDF]
Supawat Lawanwisut, Montree Siripruchyanun, Winai Jaikla
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2013.43038
Abstract: This article presents an active-only current-mode universal biquad filter performing three standard functions: low-pass, high-pass and band-pass function, which can be readily modified to achieve the rest functions (band-stop and all-pass). The circuit principle is based on active-only circuit designed by using differentiators which are constructed from current controlled current conveyor transconductance amplifier (CCCCTA) cooperating with an internally frequency compensated operational amplifier (OA). The features of the circuit are that: the pole frequency and quality factor can be independently tuned via the input bias currents and it is ideally temperature-insensitive, its circuit description is very simple, consisting of 3 CCCCTAs and 2 operational amplifiers, and the proposed circuit is very appropriate for further developing into integrated circuit architecture. The PSpice simulation results are shown. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation.
Genetic parameter estimates for weaning weight and Kleiber ratio in goats
China Supakorn,Winai Pralomkarn
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: The research was conducted to evaluate the factors affecting on weaning weight (WW) and Kleiber ratio (KR) and toestimate genetic parameters for two traits in goats. The fixed factors affecting both traits indicated that year-season of birth,sex, birth type and regression of the Thai Native (TN), Boer (BO) and Saanen (SA) influenced on WW and KR (P<0.05). Malesin this population were heavier (P<0.05) than females. Weaning weights and KR of single kid were significantly higher (P<0.05) than other birth rearing types. Bivariate analysis of three models (Model 1: without maternal genetic effect, Model 2:with maternal genetic effect and am = 0, and Model 3: with maternal genetic effect and am 0) were used to estimate geneticparameters for this research. Estimated direct heritabilities from all models were 0.26 to 0.38 for WW, and 0.22 to 0.35 for KR.Estimated maternal heritabilities from Model 2 and 3 were 0.09 and 0.12 for WW and 0.08 and 0.11 for KR, respectively. Thedirect genetic and phenotypic correlations between WW and KR were positive and moderate values. Maternal genetic correlationsbetween them were positive and of low values. An antagonistic direct-maternal correlations from Model 3 withintraits and between traits indicated that offspring of does with superior maternal abilities probably may provide an inferiordirect genetic effect in the same trait and between traits. It was therefore possible to rapidly improve WW and KR in thisgoat population through selection, while the adverse effects of direct-maternal correlation within and between traits shouldbe considered. The best fit model would be a model including maternal genetic effect without a direct-maternal genetic covariance.
Winai Ieawsuwan,Michael Bolte
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2011, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536811038232
Abstract: The title compound, C15H15BrO2, was synthesized by a Br nsted acid-catalysed domino electrocyclization-halogenation reaction. The five-membered ring is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation 0.006 ) and forms a dihedral angle of 72.7 (3)° with the attached phenyl ring. The six-membered heterocycle adopts a half-chair conformation. The crystal packing is stabilized by a C—H...O contact.
Strength and reliability of Oriented Strand Lumber made from heat-treated Parawood strands
Veerapong Chotchuay,Buhnnum Kyokong,Winai Ouypornprasert
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate engineering properties of one type of wood composites known as Oriented Strand Lumber (OSL). Heat-treated Parawood strands were used for producing OSL specimens (HOSL) and compared to a control one (nonheat-treated or NOSL). The structural application as beams was selected to determine the effect of sheared volume to longitudinal shear strength since shear failure is a critical mode of OSL. The reliability concept was then employedto analyze the data to ensure that OSL structural members can be used for construction safely and economically. The results indicated that mean values of strength of HOSL subjected to axial loading, i.e., compression (39 MPa) and tension (36 MPa) parallel to the grain as well as bending in the flatwise (59 MPa) and edgewise (61 MPa) directions were significantly higher than those of NOSL. However, the differences between HOSL and NOSL subjected to normal loading, i.e., compression perpendicular to the grain (26 vs 25 MPa), shear parallel to the grain (4 vs 3 MPa) and internal bonding (0.48 vs 0.47 MPa) were non-significant. The results of shear strength studies showed that the shear strength ofHOSL beams was higher than that of NOSL beams and regression analysis revealed that the shear strength depended on sheared volume. It showed that shear strength decreased with increasing sheared volume. The results of the reliability analysis indicated that the fitted distribution of the flexural rigidity (EI) could be represented well as normal. The coefficient of variation of the fitted EI distribution was found to be within the serviceability limit state required by the building codes. This implies that OSL beams can be used safely as an alternative structural material for wood construction. The safetyfactor and recommended allowable design stresses are also presented.
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