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Desafios à organiza??o de programa de rastreamento do cancer do colo do útero em Manaus-AM
Corrêa, Dina Albuquerque Duarte;Villela, Wilza Vieira;Almeida, Ana Maria de;
Texto & Contexto - Enfermagem , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-07072012000200018
Abstract: the purpose was to investigate sociodemographic characteristics of women who underwent a pap smear test in manaus, amazonas, brazil, and identify the reasons why the women had the test. this exploratory study was performed with 281 women who had taken the pap smear test within the last five years in manaus. most participants were between 18 to34 years old (54%), had 5 to 11 years of education (54.4%), had a monthly income of less than three minimum wage salaries (84.3%) and were in a stable relationship (72.2%), with an onset of sexual activity between the ages of 15 to19 years (69.4%). the reasons for their taking the pap test were personal choice (66.2%), recommendation by a physician (23.5%) and gynecological symptoms (10.3%). women who received information about the pap test from health professionals had a greater chance of being tested within the last three years (p=0.008). women choosing to have the exam (personal choice) are prevalent, and the opportunistic service is provided to younger women, thus not reaching the group at greater risk for cancer. it is necessary to implement active recruitment strategies to reach women in situations of socioeconomic disadvantage.
Desafios à organiza o de programa de rastreamento do cancer do colo do útero em Manaus-AM
Dina Albuquerque Duarte Corrêa,Wilza Vieira Villela,Ana Maria de Almeida
Texto & Contexto - Enfermagem , 2012,
Abstract: El objetivo fue identificar las características sociodemográficas de las mujeres que se realizan la prueba de Papanicolau en Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil y su asociación con las razones de realizar el examen. La investigación exploratoria contó con la participación de 281 mujeres y evidenció que la mayoría de las encuestadas tenían entre 18-34 a os (54%), de 5-11 a os de escolaridad (54.4%), los ingresos mensuales de hasta tres salarios mínimos (84.3%), relación estable (72.2%) y la iniciación sexual entre los 15-19 a os (69.4%). Las razones para realizar la prueba de Papanicolau fueron demanda espontánea (66.2%), indicación médica (23.5%) y síntomas ginecológicos (10.3%). Mujeres que habían recibido información de los profesionales de la salud tenían una mayor proporción de realización de la prueba en los últimos tres a os (p=0.008). La demanda espontánea es prevalente y la atención oportuna es realizada en mujeres mas jóvenes. Es necesario implementar estrategias de reclutamiento activo para alcanzar a las mujeres en desventaja socioeconómica.
Forum on stigma, discrimination, and health: policies and research challenges. Introduction
Monteiro, Simone;Villela, Wilza Vieira;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2012000100016
Abstract: this introduction outlines the forum on stigma, discrimination, and health: policies and research challenges, including four articles and a final commentary. the first article reviews the development of international research on the relationship between discrimination and health. the second analyzes the recent brazilian research output on aids, stigma, and discrimination. the third article addresses conceptual and methodological aspects of the relations between discrimination and health from an epidemiological perspective. the forth examines the process of affirming sexual rights in brazil, involving the judiciary system, public policies, and the executive and legislative branches of government, among others. the fifth paper presents comments and questions on the contents discussed in the first four articles. the reflections aim to provide conceptual and methodological contributions for research and health policies on stigma and discrimination, given the gaps identified in the international and brazilian literature.
Discrimination, stigma, and AIDS: a review of academic literature produced in Brazil (2005-2010)
Monteiro, Simone;Villela, Wilza Vieira;Knauth, Daniela;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2012000100018
Abstract: given the implications of stigma for hiv/aids prevention and control of the epidemic, as emphasized by unaids, this study analyzes the brazilian academic production on health, aids, stigma, and discrimination, available in the scielo database from 2005 to 2010. brazilian research on the theme is modest as compared to the international literature, but the studies follow the same trend of focusing on individual experiences of discrimination as opposed to analysis of stigma and discrimination as social processes associated with power relations and domination (macro-social structures) and the characteristics of individuals and social groups that shape social interactions. the current study seeks to analyze the reasons for the scarcity of studies on the social perspective towards stigma and discrimination in the field of public health and the implications for the development of proposals to deal with hiv/aids-related discrimination.
The gender approach in community AIDS projects in Mozambique: agreement and disagreement between government and civil society
Villela, Wilza Vieira;Barber-Madden, Rosemary;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2009000300025
Abstract: this article discusses some areas where government and civil society converge and clash in their gender approaches in community hiv/aids projects in mozambique, based on an evaluative study conducted in 2006 encompassing 160 of the 1,124 ngo projects undertaken with the support of the country's national aids council, known as the conselho nacional de combate ao sida (cncs). an analysis of projects and official documents shows that, for the cncs, the term "gender" represents a way of underscoring the epidemic's impact on women. in community projects, the gender approach often times finds expression in initiatives to mitigate the economic impact of the epidemic on widows. initiatives aimed at men and at the population as a whole generally pay little attention to power relations between men and women or their affect on the epidemic. this suggests that any endeavor to transfer western analytical techniques or forms of intervention for coping with the hiv/aids epidemic to other regions of the world demands painstaking efforts to translate these and adapt them to local cultural standards.
Sobre a experiência sexual dos jovens
Villela, Wilza Vieira;Doreto, Daniella Tech;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2006001100021
Abstract: the rise in teenage pregnancy and young people's vulnerability to hiv have been a serious problem. this paper is intended to confront this statement based on its structural concepts (adolescence, youth, teenage pregnancy, and vulnerability) and by a non-exhaustive review of the relevant literature. the current paper discusses the ideas of youth and adolescence to approach the sexuality of young people and adolescents from the perspective of inequalities between different social groups and their access to health and resources for the prevention of diseases like hiv/aids as well as contraception. there are multiple paths leading young people to having unprotected sexual relations, and the numbers that surface on pregnancy, stds, and hiv infection are doubtless lower than the real figures. the data presented herein indicate that the safe-sex approach is still necessary among youth, requiring efforts to produce creative strategies that make sense in different socio-cultural contexts in which young people experience sex.
O assédio moral na perspectiva de bancários
Soares, Lena Rodrigues;Villela, Wilza Vieira;
Revista Brasileira de Saúde Ocupacional , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0303-76572012000200003
Abstract: this paper discusses bullying in banks. it is based on a conceptual discussion of the topic and on an empirical study conducted with employees of a bank from the northern region of brazil. based on a theoretical and conceptual delineation and on the work of renowned scholars, it presents a brief historical discussion of the phenomenon, definitions and characteristics that distinguish bullying from other recurring conflicts in the workplace. it also discusses the role of work organizations regarding bullying. the paper presents the results of a research carried out in bank agencies from july to september 2010, through individual semi-structured interviews conducted with thirty-seven volunteers who occupied different positions in these agencies. it was possible to identify that bullying at work, as a type of violence, is a phenomenon identified by bank workers in their work environment. in general, they associate bullying to management by pressure, which is focused on goals, production and competitiveness. the results encourage the reflection on the necessity to deal with bullying at work as social problem, in a collective perspective, not just as an individual question.
A acupuntura na rede pública de saúde em Uberlandia-MG
Cristina Fernandes Pereira,Wilza Vieira Villela
Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade , 2012, DOI: 10.5712/rbmfc7(1)554
Abstract: Introdu o: A Medicina Tradicional Chinesa (MTC) consiste num conjunto complexo de técnicas terapêuticas que buscam tratar o indivíduo como um todo, através da estimula o de mecanismos naturais para gerar equilíbrio energético do corpo e proporcionar saúde. Dentre os recursos da MTC, a acupuntura é um dos mais reconhecidos e utilizados no país. é uma técnica com baixo custo de aplica o e de recursos materiais; ausência de efeitos colaterais significativos; e alta resolutibilidade. Em 2006, sua oferta na rede pública de saúde foi normatizada pela Política Nacional de Práticas Integrativas e Complementares (PNPIC). Em Minas Gerais esta normatiza o foi reafirmada pela Política Estadual de Práticas Integrativas e Complementares (PEPIC), em 2009. Objetivos: Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever a organiza o, funcionamento do servi o e o perfil do usuário da acupuntura na unidade de referência em saúde em Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. Método: Foi realizado um estudo de caso, cuja coleta dos dados incluiu observa o do fluxo de atendimento, levantamento e análise de dados dos prontuários dos usuários e entrevistas com profissionais e gestores envolvidos com a atividade. Resultados: O servi o de acupuntura é ofertado desde 2010 por um profissional especializado. Os critérios de entrada no servi o foram embasados na eficácia da técnica, respaldada em documentos divulgados pela Organiza o Mundial da Saúde. Os dados apontam para boa aceita o do servi o por parte dos profissionais de saúde e usuários. Deste último, prevalecem o atendimento ao sexo feminino na faixa etária entre 40 e 59 anos, com diagnóstico de patologias cr nicas. De acordo com a PNPIC e PEPIC/MG, o município cumpre parcialmente as recomenda es de implanta o dos servi os na rede pública de saúde, n o definindo claramente a destina o or amentária e as formas de gest o. Conclus o: Uma maior institucionaliza o da atividade é importante para que possa se constituir em mais uma alternativa terapêutica para os usuários. Para isso, é importante conhecer a demanda e analisar sua viabilidade, bem como construir de indicadores para monitorar seus impactos à popula o.
Evaluation of civil society projects in countries with high HIV prevalence: a methodological discussion - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v1i2.82en
Wilza Vieira Villela,Rosemary Barden Maarden
RECIIS : Electronic Journal of Communication, Information & Innovation in Health , 2007,
Abstract: This article approaches methodological aspects of the evaluation of community projects in countries where HIV/AIDS prevalence is high, from the assumption that these countries need to adjust epidemic reduction actions to development initiatives. It originates from work carried out in the Republic of Mozambique in 2006 , in which 160 of the 1124 civil society projects supported by the government were evaluated, with a focus on their relevance, design quality, efficiency, intervention quality, coverage, supervision, organizational capacity, and support received from the government. In order to set a value for the performance of each project, with an eye to the differences in each of the various organizations and of the context in which they were developed, a system of variables and indicators, composed of quantitative and qualitative information, collected by means of questionnaires, interviews, visits to the projects and document analysis was designed, which proved adequate for the purposes of the work. It is considered that the evaluation of the civil society interventions in poor countries, and other places where the epidemics are disseminated, must be guided by tools capable of intercepting the challenges generated from the combination of AIDS, poverty, and culture, so as to build an operational understanding of the socio-cultural and economic factors which contribute to the success or failure of community initiatives for combating the epidemics.
Entre a vontade e a necessidade: negocia??o sexual em tempos de AIDS
Barbosa, Regina Maria;Villela, Wilza Vieira;Uziel, Anna Paula;
Physis: Revista de Saúde Coletiva , 1995, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-73311995000100005
Abstract: the growth of the use af contraceptive, of the number of women as head of families, and of their levei of education, together with their impoverishment are combined to the poor estate in which the health in brazil is. we noticed that, enlarging this picture, a quick advancing of hiv/aids epidemics among the feminine population, infected, mainly, by way of sexual transmission. up to now, the inexistence of a method, determined by women, to prevent the sexual transmission of the virus make urgent the discussion of the inequal relations between the genders, that keep women in an inferior position in the social and individual levels, and interfere in the process of decision taking related to their health and physical integrity protection. with this article we intend to discuss the complexity of the relation between gender and power that permeates the sexual encounters between men and women, delimitating and shaping, among other things, the possibilities of safer sexual practices negotiation.
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