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Performance of Hydra Probe and MPS-1 Soil Water Sensors in Topsoil Tested in Lab and Field  [PDF]
Gerhard Kammerer, Reinhard Nolz, Marek Rodny, Willibald Loiskandl
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.613110
Abstract: Soil water sensors are commonly used to monitor water content and matric potential in order to study hydrological processes such as evaporation. Finding a proper sensor is sometimes difficult, especially for measurements in topsoil, where changes of temperature and soil water dynamics occur generally with greater intensity compared to deeper soil layers. We assessed the perfor-mance of Hydra Probe water content sensors and MPS-1 matric potential sensors in topsoil in the laboratory and in the field. A common soil-specific calibration function was determined for the Hydra Probes. Measurement accuracy and sensor-to-sensor variation were within the manufacturer specification of ±0.03 m3·m-3. Hydra Probes can operate from dry to saturated conditions. Sensor-specific calibrations from a previous study were used to reduce sensor-to-sensor variation of MPS-1. Measurement accuracy can be expressed by a mean relative error of 10%. According to the manufacturer, the application range of matric potential readings is from -10 kPa to -500 kPa. MPS-1 delivered also values beyond this range, but they were not reliable. Sensor electronics of the MPS-1 were sensitive to ambient temperature changes. Beyond instrument effects, field measurements showed substantial temperature-driven fluctuations of soil water content and matric potential, which complicated data interpretation.
Spatial root distribution and water uptake of maize grown on field with subsoil compaction
Margarita L. Himmelbauer, Willibald Loiskandl, Svetla Rousseva
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10098-010-0015-z
Abstract: Soil compaction in agricultural areas inhibits plant root growth through increased mechanical resistance, altered water and nutrient supply. The main objective of this study was to evaluate spatial distribution of roots and its effect on water uptake of maize grown on field with subsoil compaction. Two treatments were examined: complex melioration consisting of deep loosening in combination with drainage and control without applied meliorations. Root observations were conducted on vertical and superposed horizontal planes covered with a 2 cm grid short after silking. Root distributions expressed as index of density and/or dry mass density were estimated down to 1 m soil depth and with a distance to a plant base. For analysis of root distribution pattern on the horizontal planes, a Variance to Mean Ratio (VMR) test was applied. Soil water monitoring were conducted during the vegetation period. On the vertical planes, root densities were similar in the topsoil of both treatments, but the results were significantly higher in the subsoil of the meliorated one showing deeper allocation of root density. In contrast, the control had more squares with lots of roots (i.e. higher indexes) just at the top- subsoil boundary owing to bunching of roots in macropores. The horizontal planes in the control generally consisted larger areas without visible roots and thus great distances for water and nutrient transmission, especially in the subsoil. The estimated VMR also pointed toward different levels of root clustering. Consequently, an inhibited water extraction from the subsoil in the control, a delay in crop ontogenesis and a less biomass production was established during the observed period.
Adaptation of Soil Physical Measurement Techniques for the Delineation of Mud and Lakebed Sediments at Neusiedler See
Ilse Kogelbauer,Erwin Heine,Christopher D'Amboise,Christoph Müllebner,Wolfgang Sokol,Willibald Loiskandl
Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/s131217067
Abstract: For many water management issues of shallow lakes with non-consolidated sediments hydrographic surveys of the open water area and reed belt areas are required. In the frame of water management strategy for the steppe lake Neusiedler See, located between Austria and Hungary, a hydrographic survey was conducted. In the open water area (water depth ≥1 m) a sediment echosounder was used. To validate these measurements and to distinguish between water, mud, and sediment layers in the shallow lake and reed belt area additional measurements were needed. As no common standard methods are available yet, we developed a measurement system based on two commonly applied soil physical measurement techniques providing reproducible physical values: a capacitive sensor and a cone penetrometer combined with GNSS-positioning enable dynamic measurements of georeferenced vertical water-mud-bedsediments profiles. The system bases on site-specific calibrated sensors and allows instantaneous, in situ measurements. The measurements manifest a sharp water-mud interface by a sudden decline to smaller water content which is a function of the dielectric permittivity. A second decline indicates the transition to compacted mud. That is concurrently the density where the penetrometer starts registering significant penetration resistance. The penetrometer detects shallow lakebed-sediment layers. Within the lake survey this measurement system was successfully tested.
Marco Estrada Saavedra, La comunidad armada rebelde y el EZLN: un estudio histórico y sociológico sobre las bases de apoyo zapatistas en las ca adas tojolabales de la Selva Lacandona
Willibald Sonnleitner
Revista mexicana de sociología , 2008,
Gelotophobia and age: Do disposition towards ridicule and being laughed at predict coping with age-related vulnerabilities?
Tracey Platt,Willibald Ruch
Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling , 2010,
Abstract: The present study examines how dispositions to ridicule and being laughed at (gelotophobic, gelotophilic or katagelasticistic) assist, or hinder, coping with age-related problems or vulnerabilities. A sample of 131 adult participants completed the PhoPhiKat-30, the PPK-Vulnerability Statement Comparison (PPK-VSC), and the Third Age Vulnerabilities Anxiety Survey (TAVAS). Results showed that the PhoPhiKat-30 is a reliable self-report instrument in its English language form. The dispositions to ridicule and being laughed at (as measured by the PhoPhiKat-30) together with education level and amount of worry about actual or potential problems predicted the nature of the response to the age-related vulnerabilities. People of low education, who generally fear being laughed at but who also ridicule others, and have not experienced many age-related vulnerabilities but worry about them, indicate that they would act gelotophobicly when facing such problems. Gelotophilia, higher education and not experiencing worrying vulnerabilities are predictive of a tendency to make others laugh at ones problems. Katagelasticistism, increased age, no education above compulsory schooling, and a higher number of problems encountered but not worried about relates to laughing at the misfortunes of others. The implications of the results for those interacting with older people are discussed.
The Relationship between Vocational Personalities and Character Strengths in Adults  [PDF]
Hadassah Littman-Ovadia, Yotam Potok, Willibald Ruch
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.412142

The relationship between vocational personalities and character strengths, and the contribution of both to life satisfaction were tested in an online sample of 302 Israeli adults. Hierarchical regressions indicated that love of learning explained 9.8% of the investigative personality, creativity and appreciation of beauty explained 19.6% of the artistic personality, zest and spirituality explained 14% of the social personality, and creativity explained 7.9% of enterprising personality. A bootstrapping procedure revealed that hope and gratitude fully mediated the association of social personality with life satisfaction. The theoretical and practical implications of the study findings for career counseling and development are discussed.

Editorial: Dispositions towards ridicule and being laughed at: Current re-search on gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism
René T. Proyer,Willibald Ruch
Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling , 2010,
Enjoying and fearing laughter: Personality characteristics of gelotophobes, gelotophiles, and katagelasticists
René T. Proyer,Willibald Ruch
Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling , 2010,
Abstract: People differ in the way they deal with ridicule. The study examines the personality correlates of those who fear being laughed at (gelotophobes), those who enjoy being laughed at (gelotophiles) and those who enjoy laughing at others (katagelasticists). Gelotophobes do not interpret laughter by others as something positive but more as a mean to put them down. Gelotophiles enjoy being laughed at and interpret the laughter by others positively, as a sign of appreciation. Katagelasticists enjoy laughing at others and do not feel that there is anything wrong in doing so. In an empirical study (N = 394), gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism were related to the PEN-model. Gelotophobes were found to be introverted neurotics. Gelotophilia was primarily related to extraversion and in a multiple regression analysis gender (higher among males) turned out to be predictive as well. Katagelasticists were found to be younger males with higher scores in extraversion and psychoticism. Overall, in a regression analysis the content scales of the short form of the EPQ-R predicted gelotophobia best, but gelotophilia and katagelasticism also yielded robust relations.
The relationship of teasing in childhood to the expression of gelotophobia in adults
Willibald Ruch,René T. Proyer,Larry Ventis
Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling , 2010,
Abstract: In observations from clinical practice, the origin of gelotophobia, the fear of being laughed at, was traced back to traumatizing experiences of being laughed at in childhood. Because gelotophobia is assumed to be mediated by a personal sense of shame, this hypothesis was tested using a group of gelotophobes (N = 99), a shame-based clinical group (N = 103), a non shame-based clinical group (N = 166), and normal controls (N = 495). While gelotophobes and the shame-based group reported having had more traumatizing experiences than the normal controls and the non shame-based group, their intensity and frequency did not explain individual differences in the fear of being laughed at for gelotophobes and the shame-based group.
Gelotophobia and bullying: The assessment of the fear of being laughed at and its application among bullying victims
Psychology Science Quarterly , 2009,
Abstract: Within the framework of social interaction this paper relates experiences of being bullied to the fear of being laughed at (gelotophobia) in two empirical studies. Study 1 (N = 252) describes the adaptation of a German-language instrument for the assessment of gelotophobia into English (the GELOPH<15>). The translation yielded good psychometric properties (high reliability; α = .90). The one-factor solution of the original version could be replicated. Gelotophobia existed independently of age and gender but was more prevalent among those who were single. 13% exceeded a cut-off score, indicating a slight expression of gelotophobic symptoms. Study 2 (N = 102) used the English GELOPH<15> together with an instrument for assessing emotional reactions in mean-spirited ridicule and good-natured teasing situations (the Ridicule Teasing Scenario questionnaire; Platt, 2008). Results indicated that being a victim of bullying yielded higher shame responses to teasing scenarios, and lower happiness and higher fear in response to both types of laughter situations. Stepwise multiple regression showed that self-reported experiences of having been a victim of bullying were best predicted by low happiness during teasing and high fear in response to ridicule, but gelotophobia accounted for most of these effects. Results are discussed within the context of future studies on gelotophobia-bullying social relationships.
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