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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 645627 matches for " William K. B. A. Owiredu "
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An Evaluation of Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Sphenocentrum jollyanum
Amidu Nafiu,Woode Eric,Owiredu K.B.A. William,Asare A. George
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2008,
Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the toxicity of S. jollyanum using Fischer 344 male rats and the genotoxic effect of the alcoholic extract of the roots. In experiment 1, haematological, serum biochemical and histopathological parameters were determined after 30, 60 and 90 days of oral administration. Experiment 2 involved determinations of total hepatic cytochrome P-450 content. Pentobarbitone induced sleeping times was measured in experiment 3. These are indices of organ specific toxicity or potential for drug interactions. The mutagenic potential was assessed by reverse mutation test using Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 tester strains in experiment 4. There were no significant differences found in most of the hematological, serum biochemical parameters and organ/body weight ratio. No abnormality of any organ was found during histopathological examination and no mutagenicity evidence was detected in any of the mutagenic tests. It, however, caused a significant increase in cytochrome P-450 which correlates well with the decreased pentobarbitone induced sleeping times. The results showed that the no-observed adverse- effect level (NOAEL) of S. jollyanum extract (SJE) was >1000 mg kg-1 body weight per day in rats, which can be regarded as virtually non-toxic. In conclusion, SJE had no overt organ specific toxicity but demonstrates a potential for drug interactions via cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism in the rat.
Predictive Performance of Renal Function Equations Among Ghanaians Presenting with Chronic Kidney Disease
William K.B.A. Owiredu,Richard K.D. Ephraim,N. Amidu,B.A. Eghan Jnr
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: This study specifically evaluate the predictive performance and accuracy of the six renal function equations in patients presenting with CKD in our community. The results of these predictive equations for 50 patients using stage of CKD and/or with serum creatinine >200 μmol L-1 were compared with the recommended methods (4v-MDRD and CG). Another 55 subjects with similar age group and sex distributions but without kidney pathology were studied as control. The most accurate results were obtained with the reference equations (4v-MDRD and CG) with CG having a slight edge over 4v-MDRD equation. The sensitivity and specificity of the 4v-MDRD equation to detect Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) values < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were 67.3 and 63.9%, respectively; that of CG was 62.9 and 71.3%, respectively. These results suggest that measurement of GFR with predictive equations might be a prudent strategy for the assessment of renal function among the CKD population.
Anaemia as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Richard K.D. Ephraim,William K.B.A. Owiredu,Edwin F. Laing,Nafiu Amidu
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: This study evaluated whether anaemia poses a cardiovascular risk and whether the risk is modified by the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentration ≤11.0 for both males and females. The study population included 50 individuals with various chronic kidney diseases and/or with serum creatinine ≥200 μmol L-1. Another 55 subjects with similar age and sex distribution but without kidney pathology were studied as controls. Thirty percent of the subjects had CKD with an estimated GFR (eGFR) of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, estimated with the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation and were more likely to be anaemic and nondiabetic, higher mean values for serum creatinine (CRT), lower values for haemoglobin (HB), haematocrit (HCT) and red blood cells (RBC). CKD subjects with anaemia had a higher prevalence of several cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors; age, male sex, diabetes and hypertension and lower haematological parameters and estimated GFR. However, they had higher total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) level. In persons with CKD, anaemia poses a further cardiovascular risk as it increases some of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors.
Association between Anthropometry, Dyslipidaemia and the Ten-Year Relative Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Ghanaians with Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension at the Battor Catholic Hospital  [PDF]
Sylvester Yao Lokpo, William K. B. A. Owiredu, James Osei-Yeboah, Christian Obirikorang, Margaret T. Agyei-Frempong
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103379
Disordered body fat distribution and plasma lipid levels promote atherosclerosis, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The process of atherosclerosis is vigorous and rapid in diabetes and hypertension. This study sought to determine the relationship between anthropometric and dyslipidaemic parameters as well as ascertain using the Framingham percentage risk for heart disease, the ten-year relative risk of developing CVD among type 2 diabetes and hypertensive patients attending the Battor Catholic Hospital. This hospital-based case-control study involved 125 participants with hypertension, type 2 diabetes or both and 62 age-matched healthy individuals as controls. Socio-demographic data was captured using a semi-structured questionnaire; anthropometric and biochemical variables were obtained using standard methods. The anthropometric and atherogenic dyslipidaemic parameters of the case participants were found to be significantly higher compared to the controls. Among the case group, 49 (39.2%) were observed to have a high risk and 41 (32.8%) with a moderate risk of developing coronary heart disease in ten years. Among the control group, 11.3% presented with moderate risk with none scoring a high risk of developing coronary disease within ten years. The odds of developing coronary heart disease in ten years was 4.5 times higher among the case group with a higher female preponderance.
Alcohol Consumption Is Associated with Hypogonadism and Decreased Sexual Function in Ghanaian Diabetics  [PDF]
Huseini Alidu, William K. B. A. Owiredu, Nafiu Amidu, Christian Kofi Gyasi-Sarpong, Peter Paul Mwinsanga Dapare, Ahmed Tijani Bawah, Arnold Togiwe Luuse, Emmanuel Barima Agyemang Prempeh
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2017.73009
Abstract: Introduction: Alcohol usage has largely been seen as a risk factor for the development of sexual dysfunction as well as erectile dysfunction. Others have reported that prolonged alcohol usage and abuse is compatible with normal sexual function in the absence of endocrinological problems as well as hepatic dysfunction. About seventy five (75) percent of alcoholics have various sexual difficulties with improvements in sexual functions occurring after treatment of alcoholism and psychosexual therapy. It is evident from the various reports over the years that mild and occasional alcohol usage is not as much implicated in the causation of SD and its other forms as heavy, addictive or dependent alcohol usage. Alcohol usage has also long been linked to hypogonadism, testicular atrophy as well as leydig cell toxicity. Alcohol induced hypogonadism has been reported to resolve after withdrawal of alcohol use. Since both diabetes and alcohol usage have been strongly associated with both hypogonadism and sexual dysfunction, it is logical to expect that diabetics who frequently consume alcohol will have a worsened hypogonadal state and sexual function. This research therefore seeks to provide evidence of an association between alcohol consumption in diabetics and a worsened sexual dysfunction in comparison to diabetics who did not consume alcohol. Methods: Type II diabetic patients attending the Diabetic Clinic at the Maamobi General Hospital between the periods of January 2010 and March 2011 were consecutively recruited for this study. Diabetics with other known endocrinological diseases and physical disabilities were excluded from the study. Sexual function was assessed using the GRISS-M. Early morning fasting samples were used in lipid and testosterone profile assays. Results: Study participants who consumed alcohol recorded higher levels of triglycerides and LDL-Cholesterol. They also recorded significantly lower levels of bioavailable testosterone. Furthermore they also recorded higher scores for impotence, premature ejaculation, non-sensuality and infrequency but lower scores for avoidance and were about six times more likely to be infrequent in their sexual activity in comparison with those who did not consume alcohol. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption among diabetic males is associated with hypogonadism and has an impact on several domains of male sexual function. Diabetic males should be advised to avoid alcohol abuse in order to facilitate the management of diabetes associated sexual
Serum Lipid Profile of Breast Cancer Patients
W.K.B.A. Owiredu,S. Donkor,B. Wiafe Addai,N. Amidu
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to carry out a comparative study to investigate the effect of lipid profile, oestradiol and obesity on the risk of a woman developing breast cancer. This study was carried out at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Peace and Love Hospital, Oduom, Kumasi and Redeemed Clinic, Nima, Accra between May 2002 and March 2003. In this study, 200 consented women comprising 100 breast cancer patients (43 pre- and 57 post-menopausal) and 100 controls (45 pre- and 55 post-menopausal) with similar age range (25 to 80 years) were assessed for lipid profile, oestradiol and BMI. There was a significant increase in Body Mass Index (BMI) (p = 0.011), Total Cholesterol (TC) (p<0.001), triglyceride (p = 0.026) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol) (p = 0.001) of the breast cancer patients compared to the controls. With the exception of oestradiol (EST) that decreased, the lipid profile generally increased with age in both subjects and controls with the subjects having a much higher value than the corresponding control. There was also a significant positive correlation between BMI and TC (r2 = 0.022; p = 0.002) and also between BMI and LDL-cholesterol (r2 = 0.031; p = 0.0003). Apart from EST and LDL-cholesterol that were increased significantly only in the postmenopausal phase in comparison to the controls, BMI, TC and TG were increased in both pre-menopausal and post menopausal phases with HDL-cholesterol remaining unchanged. This study confirms the association between dyslipidaemia, BMI and increased breast cancer risk.
Antidepressant-Like Effects of an Ethanolic Extract of Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre Roots in Mice
E. Woode,N. Amidu,W.K.B.A. Owiredu,E. Boakye-Gyasi
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2009,
Abstract: In the present study, the effect of an ethanolic extract of the roots of the plant in two animal models of depression the Forced Swimming Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) has been reported. The extract (100-1000 mg kg-1; p.o.), dose-dependently reduced the duration of immobility in both the FST (ED50: 296.20 ± 53.97 mg kg-1) and TST (203.90 ± 39.01 mg kg-1).The effect of the extract was 20-50 times less potent than imipramime and fluoxetine which were used as standards. Pretreatment with α-methydopa (400 mg kg-1; 3 h; p.o.) attenuated the anti-immobility effects of imipramime but not SJE and fluoxetine. Similarly, pretreatment with reserpine (1 mg kg-1; 24 h; s.c.) abolished the effect of imipramime and partially the effects of SJE but not fluoxetine. A concomitant treatment with α-methyldopa and reserpine attenuated the effects of all but fluoxetine. The extract, imipramime and fluoxetine did not modify motor performance on the rotarod test at all doses tested. Putting all together, present results suggest that SJE has antidepressant-like effects in the model employed and may possibly exert its effects by modifying monoamine transport and/or metabolism.
Lipid Profile and Lipid Peroxidation among Ghanaian Pregnancy-Induced Hypertensives
L. Ahenkorah,W.K. B.A. Owiredu,E. F. Laing,N. Amidu
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: This study was aimed at investigating oxidative stress among Ghanaian women with Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension (PIH). One hundred Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension women: Thirty with preeclampsia, seventy with gestational hypertension and fifty normotensive pregnant women (controls) in the second half of pregnancy were recruited for this study. There was a significant increase in triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol in the subject groups compared to the control. Malondialdehyde (MDA), the lipid peroxidation marker among the PIH subjects was significantly increased as compared to the normotensive pregnant women (controls). A significant positive correlation between MDA and blood pressure (Systolic and Diastolic blood pressure) was also observed. This study clearly indicates that Ghanaian women presenting with PIH are very prone to dyslipidemia as well as lipid peroxidation, this might in part explain the oxidative stress and endothelial vascular dysfunction observed in these group of women.
Precision and Accuracy of Three Blood Glucose Meters: Accu-Chek Advantage, One Touch Horizon and Sensocard
W.K.B.A. Owiredu,G. Amegatcher,N. Amidu
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This study evaluated the accuracy and precision associated with the use of three popular alternative-site blood glucose monitors, Accu-chek Advantage, Onetouch Horizon and Sensocard, using forearm venous blood samples and capillary blood samples. The study was conducted from January to March, 2009 at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi. One hundred and ninety consenting subjects were included in the study. The blood glucose levels were analyzed on glucose meters; Accu-chek Advantage, Sensocard and Onetouch Horizon by finger stick, using amperometry Technology. At the same time venous blood glucose was analyzed using the WHO reference Glucose Oxidase Method (GOD). The mean value generated by the WHO reference method (7.91±0.35) was not significantly different (p = 0.2816) from that produced by the Accu-chek Advantage (8.46±0.36), Sensocard (7.72±0.35; p = 0.7028) and Onetouch Horizon (7.97±0.35; p = 0.9044). Bland-Altman analysis indicates that Onetouch Horizon and Accu-chek Advantage have the tendency of overestimating blood glucose with a bias of -0.1 and -0.5, respectively. Sensocard could under-estimate with a bias of 0.2. In terms of rating, while all the glucose meters gave precisions at about the same level (i.e., 1.0), Onetouch Horizon is generating the closest value to the reference method with a difference between mean of -0.06, followed by Sensocard of 0.19 and Accu-chek Advantage with a value of -0.55. The precision of the Accu-chek Advantage, Onetouch Horizon and Sensocard for blood glucose monitoring from about 3.1-33.3 mmol L-1 is good. However, the Accu-chek Advantage has the tendency to overestimate at the hypoglycaemic levels. The Accu-chek Advantage is capable of estimating both capillary and venous blood glucose to the same level of accuracy. The Onetouch Horizon and Sensocard are however incapable of efficiently estimating venous blood glucose.
Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Pentecostal Population in Kumasi-Ghana
W. K.B.A. Owiredu,M. S. Adamu,N. Amidu,E. Woode
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the risk associations between indices of obesity [Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR) and Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR)], cardiovascular risk factors [plasma glucose and cholesterol and blood pressure] and morbidity conditions (Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia) among Penteco-Charismatic Ghanaians. Three hundred and eighty three Penteco-Charismatic Ghanaian subjects (18-85 years of age) were recruited from Pentecost Church, Santasi (101), Assembly of God Bantama (192) and, Assembly of God, Old Tafo (90) in Kumasi, Ghana. The mean BMI were 25.72±5.97 kg m-2, 22.61±3.48 and 27.10±6.33 kg m-2 for the study population, male and female subjects, respectively. The mean WC measurement for the subjects was 90.21±12.29 cm and 85.91±8.77 and 92.10±13.13 cm in male and females, respectively. There were increasing trends between indices of obesity and the severity of cardiovascular risk factors and the prevalence of morbidity conditions (all p-values for trend <0.05). Patients with a greater number of comorbidities also had higher BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR measurements (all p-values for the trend were <0.05 with adjustment for age and gender). Despite Penteco-Charismatic Ghanaian subjects being less obese than subjects from Caucasians countries, the intimate relationships among obesity, cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity conditions remain. This study support using lower BMI and WC levels to define obesity and its associated health risks rather than using the criteria established for Caucasians who generally have larger body frames. Obesity is becoming increasingly common among Ghanaian adults. There is, therefore, the need for broad-based programs that facilitate healthy eating and activity patterns for all age groups. Health professionals should incorporate measurement of BMI and WHR into the routine examinations of patients to enhance their evaluation of the health status of their patients.
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