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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18263 matches for " William Colin Duncan "
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Using a decline in serum hCG between days 0–4 to predict ectopic pregnancy treatment success after single-dose methotrexate: a retrospective cohort study
Monika Skubisz, Philip Dutton, William Colin Duncan, Andrew W Horne, Stephen Tong
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-13-30
Abstract: We conducted a retrospective study of women (n=206) treated with single-dose methotrexate for ectopic pregnancy (pre-treatment serum hCG levels ≤3000 IU/L) at Scottish hospitals between 2006–2011. Women were divided into two cohorts based on whether their serum hCG levels rose or fell between days 0–4 after methotrexate. Treatment outcomes of women in each cohort were compared, and the test performance characteristics calculated. This methodology was repeated for the current measure (≥15% fall in serum hCG between days 4–7 of treatment) and an alternate early measure (<20% fall in serum hCG between days 0–4 of treatment), and all three measures were compared for their ability to predict medical treatment success.In our cohort, the positive predictive value of the current clinical measure was 89% (95% CI 84-94%) (121/136). A falling serum hCG between days 0–4 predicted treatment success in 85% (95% CI 79-92%) of cases (94/110) and a <20% fall in serum hCG between days 0–4 predicted treatment success in 94% (95% CI 88-100%) of cases (59/63). There was no significant difference in the ability of these tests to predict medical treatment success.We have verified that a decline in serum hCG between days 0–4 after methotrexate treatment for ectopic pregnancies, with pre-treatment serum hCG levels ≤3000 IU/L, provides an early indication of likelihood of treatment success, and performs just as well as the existing measure, which only provides prognostic information on day 7.Ectopic pregnancies occur in 1-2% of pregnancies [1]. Although potentially life threatening, the ability to non-invasively detect ectopic pregnancies before they rupture with ultrasound affords some women the option of medical management. Stovall et al.[2] first demonstrated the safety and efficacy of outpatient methotrexate to treat women with ectopic pregnancies in 1989, and today, approximately 25-30% of women presenting with this condition are eligible for such treatment [3,4].Quantification of serum
Reduction of Natural Killer but Not Effector CD8 T Lymphoyctes in Three Consecutive Cases of Severe/Lethal H1N1/09 Influenza A Virus Infection
Laura Denney,Celia Aitken,Chris Ka-Fai Li,Eleri Wilson-Davies,Wai Ling Kok,Colin Clelland,Kevin Rooney,Duncan Young,Tao Dong,Andrew J. McMichael,William F. Carman,Ling-Pei Ho
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010675
Abstract: The cause of severe disease in some patients infected with pandemic influenza A virus is unclear.
SCUBA: A common-user submillimetre camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope
Wayne S. Holland,E. I. Robson,Walter K. Gear,Colin R. Cunningham,John F. Lightfoot,Tim Jenness,Rob J. Ivison,Jason A. Stevens,Peter A. R. Ade,M. J. Griffin,William D. Duncan,J. A. Murphy,David A. Naylor
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1999.02111.x
Abstract: SCUBA, the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array, built by the Royal Observatory Edinburgh for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, is the most versatile and powerful of a new generation of submillimetre cameras. It combines a sensitive dual-waveband imaging array with a three-band photometer, and is sky-background limited by the emission from the Mauna Kea atmosphere at all observing wavelengths from 350 microns to 2 mm. The increased sensitivity and array size mean that SCUBA maps close to 10,000 times faster than its single-pixel predecessor (UKT14). SCUBA is a facility instrument, open to the world community of users, and is provided with a high level of user support. We give an overview of the instrument, describe the observing modes and user interface, performance figures on the telescope, and present a sample of the exciting new results that have revolutionised submillimetre astronomy.
Neuroinflammation induces glial aromatase expression in the uninjured songbird brain
Kelli A Duncan, Colin J Saldanha
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-81
Abstract: Adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were given a penetrating injury to the entopallium. At several timepoints later, expression of aromatase, IL-1β-like, and IL-6-like were examined using immunohisotchemistry. A second set of zebra birds were exposed to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), an inflammatory agent, directly on the dorsal surface of the telencephalon without creating a penetrating injury. Expression of aromatase, IL-1β-like, and IL-6-like were examined using both quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to examine mRNA expression and immunohistochemistry to determine cellular expression. Statistical significance was determined using t-test or one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey Kramers post hoc test.Following injury in the zebra finch brain, cytokine expression occurs prior to aromatase expression. This temporal pattern suggests that cytokines may induce aromatase expression in the damaged zebra finch brain. Furthermore, evoking a neuroinflammatory response characterized by an increase in cytokine expression in the uninjured brain is sufficient to induce glial aromatase expression.These studies are among the first to examine a neuroinflammatory response in the songbird brain following mechanical brain injury and to describe a novel neuroimmune signal to initiate aromatase expression in glia.Damage to the homeotherm brain increases aromatase (estrogen synthase) in reactive astroglia [1-3]. Although constitutive aromatase is abundant and neuronal in the undamaged songbird brain, glial aromatase expression is rapidly upregulated following brain damage [1,4-8]. Increased transcription and translation of glial aromatase occurs following damage to the neuropil in songbirds and to a lesser extent in mammals [2,8-10]. In songbirds, this upregulation appears more rapid and robust, since the secondary wave of degeneration characteristic of the mammalian (including human) brain following TBI is only revealed in songbirds following inhibition
Modelling stellar coronae from surface magnetograms: the role of missing magnetic flux
Colin Johnstone,Moira Jardine,Duncan Mackay
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16298.x
Abstract: Recent advances in spectropolarimetry have allowed the reconstruction of stellar coronal magnetic fields. This uses Zeeman-Doppler magnetograms of the surface magnetic field as a lower boundary condition. The ZDI maps, however, suffer from the absence of information about the magnetic field over regions of the surface due to the presence of dark starspots and portions of the surface out of view due to a tilt in the rotation axis. They also suffer from finite resolution which leads to small scale field structures being neglected. This paper explores the effects of this loss of information on the extrapolated coronal fields. For this we use simulated stellar surface magnetic maps for two hypothetical stars. Using the potential field approximation, the coronal fields and emission measures are calculated. This is repeated for the cases of missing information due to, (i) starspots, (ii) a large area of the stellar surface out of view, (iii) a finite resolution. The largest effect on the magnetic field structure arises when a significant portion of the stellar surface remains out of view. This changes the nature of the field lines that connect to this obscured hemisphere. Nonetheless, the field structure in the visible hemisphere is reliably reproduced. Thus the calculation of the locations and surface filling factors of accretion funnels is reasonably well reproduced for the observed hemisphere. The decrease with height of the magnetic pressure, which is important in calculating disc truncation radii for accreting stars, is also largely unaffected in the equatorial plane. The fraction of surface flux that is open and therefore able to supply angular momentum loss in a wind, however, is often overestimated in the presence of missing flux.
The In Utero Programming Effect of Increased Maternal Androgens and a Direct Fetal Intervention on Liver and Metabolic Function in Adult Sheep
Kirsten Hogg, Charlotte Wood, Alan S. McNeilly, W. Colin Duncan
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024877
Abstract: Epigenetic changes in response to external stimuli are fast emerging as common underlying causes for the pre-disposition to adult disease. Prenatal androgenization is one such model that results in reproductive and metabolic features that are present in conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We examined the effect of prenatal androgens on liver function and metabolism of adult sheep. As non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increased in PCOS we hypothesized that this, and other important liver pathways including metabolic function, insulin–like growth factor (IGF) and steroid receptivity, would be affected. Pregnant ewes received vehicle control (C; n = 5) or testosterone propionate (TP; n = 9) twice weekly (100 mg; i.m) from d62–102 (gestation 147 days). In a novel treatment paradigm, a second cohort received a direct C (n = 4) or TP (20 mg; n = 7) fetal injection at d62 and d82. In adults, maternal TP exposure resulted in increased insulin secretion to glucose load (P<0.05) and the histological presence of fatty liver (P<0.05) independent of central obesity. Additionally, hepatic androgen receptor (AR; P<0.05), glucocorticoid receptor (GR; P<0.05), UDP- glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG; P<0.05) and IGF1 (P<0.01) expression were upregulated. The direct fetal intervention (C and TP) led to early fatty liver changes in all animals without differential changes in insulin secretion. Furthermore, hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was up-regulated in the fetal controls (P<0.05) and this was opposed by fetal TP (P<0.05). Hepatic estrogen receptor (ERα; P<0.05) and mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4; P<0.05) were increased following fetal TP exposure. Adult liver metabolism and signaling can be altered by early exposure to sex steroids implicating epigenetic regulation of metabolic disturbances that are common in PCOS.
Professionalism and Work Ethic among U. S. and Asian University Students in a Global Classroom: A Multi-Cultural Comparison
William Swart,Steve Duncan,Rosina Chia
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2009,
Abstract: Professionalism and work ethic, as reflected by selfregulation, has been and continues to be an important attribute of a competitive work force. This paper compared the academic self-regulation of U.S. vs. Asian students enrolled in a Global Classroom course at a large southeastern university. Students were asked to respond to 10 specific pro-academic behaviors in regard to what they were actually doing (actual engagement) and what they felt they should be doing (intended engagement) specific to achieving academic success. The results indicated that students from both the U.S. and Asia exhibited limited self-regulation in the pursuit of behaviors leading to academic success in comparison to what they reported they should be doing. There was not a significant difference between U.S. and Asian students in self-reported actual engagement in pro-academic behaviors. However, Asian students presented less of a discrepancy between actual and intended engagement in proacademic behaviors in comparison to their U.S. counterparts. This was based on Asian students' rating of intended behaviors lower than U.S. students. A notable difference was also found in that the Asian students self-regulated better than their U.S. counterparts in terms of pro-academic behaviors that were not directly observable. For Asian students there was not a discrepancy in self-reported engagement of observable vs. non-observable behaviors The U.S. students, however, appeared to be more amenable to external motivation (e.g. having the instructor be able to observe their behavior) and less likely to engage in non-observable behaviors leading to academic success.
Laminar-Turbulent Boundary Layer Transition Imaging Using IR Thermography  [PDF]
Brian K. Crawford, Glen T. Duncan Jr., David E. West, William S. Saric
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2013.33038
Abstract:

Experimental techniques for imaging laminar-turbulent transition of boundary layers using IR thermography are presented for both flight and wind tunnel test environments. A brief overview of other transition detection techniques is discussed as motivation. A direct comparison is made between IR thermography and naphthalene flow visualization. A technique for obtaining quantitative transition location is presented.

(4S,5S)-2,2-Dimethyl-4,5-bis(3-methyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolane
Colin Marshall,William T. A. Harrison
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2008, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536807055948
Abstract: In the chiral title compound, C15H22N4O2S2, there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit with distinctly different conformations, as quantified by torsion angles. The dihedral angles between the thioimidazole rings are 81.59 (5) and 67.04 (4)°. One molecule exhibits local twofold rotation symmetry, while the other displays no local symmetry. Intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...S interactions are observed.
Glucocorticoid Regulation of SLIT/ROBO Tumour Suppressor Genes in the Ovarian Surface Epithelium and Ovarian Cancer Cells
Rachel E. Dickinson, K. Scott Fegan, Xia Ren, Stephen G. Hillier, W. Colin Duncan
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027792
Abstract: The three SLIT ligands and their four ROBO receptors have fundamental roles in mammalian development by promoting apoptosis and repulsing aberrant cell migration. SLITs and ROBOs have emerged as candidate tumour suppressor genes whose expression is inhibited in a variety of epithelial tumours. We demonstrated that their expression could be negatively regulated by cortisol in normal ovarian luteal cells. We hypothesised that after ovulation the locally produced cortisol would inhibit SLIT/ROBO expression in the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) to facilitate its repair and that this regulatory pathway was still present, and could be manipulated, in ovarian epithelial cancer cells. Here we examined the expression and regulation of the SLIT/ROBO pathway in OSE, ovarian cancer epithelial cells and ovarian tumour cell lines. Basal SLIT2, SLIT3, ROBO1, ROBO2 and ROBO4 expression was lower in primary cultures of ovarian cancer epithelial cells when compared to normal OSE (P<0.05) and in poorly differentiated SKOV-3 cells compared to the more differentiated PEO-14 cells (P<0.05). Cortisol reduced the expression of certain SLITs and ROBOs in normal OSE and PEO-14 cells (P<0.05). Furthermore blocking SLIT/ROBO activity reduced apoptosis in both PEO-14 and SKOV-3 tumour cells (P<0.05). Interestingly SLIT/ROBO expression could be increased by reducing the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor using siRNA (P<0.05). Overall our findings indicate that in the post-ovulatory phase one role of cortisol may be to temporarily inhibit SLIT/ROBO expression to facilitate regeneration of the OSE. Therefore this pathway may be a target to develop strategies to manipulate the SLIT/ROBO system in ovarian cancer.
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