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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1159 matches for " Willem "
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Empowering Representative Voters: A Rationale and a Model for the Practice of Weighting Votes  [PDF]
Willem K. B. Hofstee
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2017.71011
Abstract: In practice, votes cast in parliamentary and related elections receive more weight as they are more representative. That practice is difficult to rationalize either from a juridical constitutional-democratic, or an economist preferential-choice point of view. On an applied-psychometric basis, the author presents a rationale by which voters are conceived as evaluators of political parties’ programs, candidates, and past performance. That conception leads to a general weighting model, of which both strict proportionality (unit weighting) and strict plurality (dichotomous weighting) appear to be special cases. The model appears to develop its full potential in a combination with an otherwise impractical dual ballot structure, by which voters can indicate a desired coalition partner, as illustrated by a fictive example. Reservations with respect to the model and its rationale are discussed.
Risk-Adjusted Control Charts for Health Care Monitoring
Willem Albers
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/895273
Abstract: Attribute data from high-quality processes can be monitored effectively by deciding on whether or not to stop at each time where failures have occurred. The smaller the degree of change in failure rate during out of control one wants to be optimally protected against, the larger the r should be. Under homogeneity, the distribution involved is negative binomial. However, in health care monitoring, (groups of) patients will often belong to different risk categories. In the present paper, we will show how information about category membership can be used to adjust the basic negative binomial charts to the actual risk incurred. Attention is also devoted to comparing such conditional charts to their unconditional counterparts. The latter do take possible heterogeneity into account but refrain from risk-adjustment. Note that in the risk adjusted case several parameters are involved, which will all be typically unknown. Hence, the potentially considerable estimation effects of the new charts will be investigated as well. 1. Introduction We are interested in processes which exhibit only a (very) small proportion of defectives. Due to ever increasing efforts and standards, such high-quality processes become more and more common in industrial setups. Moreover, for the quite different field of health care monitoring, they are in fact the rule: errors, such as malfunctioning equipment, fatally delayed help, or surgical failures, should occur only (very) rarely. Now review papers on health care monitoring (see, e.g., [1–3] and Sonesson and Bock [4]) strongly suggest to apply SPC methods, in particular control charts, and we shall follow that line here. The common starting point for monitoring such attribute data is to watch the number of failures in a series of given sampling intervals. However, for high-quality processes, this -chart may not be the best choice. A first improvement is to switch to a “time-between-events” or “geometric” chart, which uses the number of successes between failures to judge whether the process has remained in control ( ). See, for example, Liu et al. [5], Yang et al. [6], Xie et al. [7], Ohta et al. [8] and Wu et al. [9], for details. When the process goes out of control ( ), such geometric charts quickly react to substantial increases of the failure rate from but are admittedly rather slow in detecting moderate changes. Especially in health care applications, this is undesirable, and several of the authors mentioned above have suggested a second improvement step. Here a decision whether or not to stop is no longer made after each
Improved binomial charts for high-quality processes
Albers, Willem;
Produ??o , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-65132011005000017
Abstract: for processes concerning attribute data with (very) small failure rate p, often negative binomial control charts are used. the decision whether to stop or continue is made each time r failures have occurred, for some r >1. finding the optimal r for detecting a given increase of p first requires alignment of the charts in terms of in-control behavior. in the present paper binomial charts are subjected to this same requirement. subsequent study reveals that the resulting charts are quite attractive in several aspects, such as detection power. for the case of unknown p, an estimated version of the chart is derived and studied.
Da psicologia social à psicologia societal
Doise, Willem;
Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-37722002000100004
Abstract: the main factor that diferenciates social psychologists beyond the different scientific paradigms is their position in relation to the legitimacy and the necessity of a societal psychology. its objective was and continuess to be articulate explanationss at the individual level and explanationss of social order, showing howw individuals dispose process that allow them to function in society, and complementarily how social dinamics, particularly interacionists, positionaals or of values general belief systems, guide the working of these processes.
Direitos humanos: significado comum e diferen?as na tomada de posi??o
Doise, Willem;
Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-37722003000300002
Abstract: human rights are defined as normative social representations embedded in institutional juridical definitions. research findings show that human rights can be studied as normative social representations implying a degree of common understanding across cultures together with organized differences within and between cultures. important factors in modulating individual positioning in the realm of human rights are experiences of social conflict and injustice, beliefs about the efficiency of various social actors to have rights enforced and attitudes of liberalism or collectivism. on the other hand, an ethnocentric use of human rights is well documented and has been experimentally studied. generally, concerns about these rights expressed by citizens of western countries become much stronger when non-western countries are involved, whereas violations of these rights in their own country are often not severely condemned.
Die impak van kritiek op die samestelling van die Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (WAT)
Willem Botha
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/14--680
Abstract: Opsomming: Die WAT se sensitiwiteit vir kritiek blyk duidelik uit die feit dat geeneen vandie hoofpunte van kritiek ten opsigte van die eerste ag dele in die kritiek op dele IX en X herhaalword nie. Ensiklopediese behandeling van leksikale items, die ingewikkeldheid of onverstaanbaarheidvan betekenisverklarings, die ondeurdagte aanwending van voorbeeldmateriaal, stadige alfabetiesevordering en die afwesigheid van volledige uitspraakleiding figureer derhalwe nie in diekritiek op dele IX en X nie. Die artikel gee 'n oorsig van die hoofpunte van kritek op dele IX en X enbespreek hoe die WAT in daaropvolgende dele op die kritiek gereageer het. In gevalle waar daarnie op geldige kritiek ag geslaan is nie, of waar die kritiek nie met praktiese voorstelle gepaardgegaanhet nie, word aanpassings aan die hand gedoen. Sodoende word die wisselwerking tussenleksikografiese teorie en praktyk 'n dinamiese proses. Sleutelwoorde: HOOFPUNTE VAN KRITIEK, OMGANGSTAAL, VOLGORDE VANSITATE, UITSPRAAKLEIDING, ONBEREIKBARE VERWYSINGS, MISLEIDENDE SINONIEMVERWYSINGS,WISSELWERKING TUSSEN LEKSIKOGRAFIESE TEORIE EN PRAKTYK Abstract: The Impact of Criticism on the Compilation of the Woordeboekvan die Afrikaanse Taal (WAT). The WAT's sensitivity to criticism is evident from the factthat none of the main points of criticism against the first eight volumes is repeated in the criticismof volumes IX and X. Encyclopedic treatment of lexical items, complexity or incomprehensibility ofmeaning descriptions, ill-judged use of citations, slow alphabetic progress and the absence of fullpronunciation guidance therefore do not feature in the criticism on volumes IX and X. The articlegives an overview of the main points of criticism against the ninth and tenth volumes and discussesthe way in which the WAT reacted to the criticism in subsequent volumes. In instanceswhere valid critique was disregarded, or where the critique was not accompanied by practicalsolutions, adaptations are suggested. In this way, the interaction between lexicographic theory andpractice becomes a dynamic process. Keywords: MAIN POINTS OF CRITICISM, COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE, ORDER OF CITATIONS,PRONUNCIATION GUIDANCE, REFERENCES THAT CANNOT BE REACHED, MISLEADING SYNONYM REFERENCES, INTERACTION BETWEEN LEXICOGRAPHIC THEORYAND PRACTICE
Enkele metodologiese implikasies van hedendaagse vakfilosofiese kwessies rondom die Historiese Opvoedkunde
Willem Postma
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 1992, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v57i2.784
Abstract: Contemporary topical historico-educational issues force the educational historian to reflect repeatedly on both the study method and the subject philosophy underlying the choice and application of the latter method. It is argued that a thorough knowledge of and insight into certain historico-educational subject philosophical bases which determine the choice and application of the method of history of education can lead to more valid and reliable conclusions and findings in the field of the history of education.
Hoe de hel durf ons vertel? Oorlogsliteratuur, Christendom en persoonlike geskiedenis
Willem Boshoff
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 1996, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v61i1.587
Abstract: How the hell dare we tell? War literature, Christianity and personal history This article looks into aspects of the experience of the South African Border War during the seventies and the eighties. The very fact that there was a war was denied at some stages; often it was presented as a 'battle between the powers of light and the powers of darkness ’. Almost always this war was underestimated in terms of its influence on the lives of common people. A vast corpus of ‘Border literature’ has developed and three of these narrative texts are used as the basis for a personal account of experiences as a National Service chaplain during the war. The relevant narrative texts are ’n Wêreld sonder grense (A world without borders) by Alexander Strachan, Wie de hel het jou vertel? (Who the hell told you?) and Swart sendelinge (Black missionaries) by Gawie Kellerman.
Dr. J.C.M.D. du Plessis Redakteur van Lexikos 1997 tot 2010 Dr J.C.M.D. du Plessis Editor of Lexikos 1997 to 2010
Willem Botha
Lexikos , 2012, DOI: 10.5788/21-1-48
Abstract: Huldeblyk vir die redakteur van Lexikos 7 tot 20 Tibute to the editor of Lexikos 7 to 20.
Indigenous peoples and their demands in political systems
Willem Assies
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2009,
Abstract: During the last two decades of the 20th century, indigenous groups mobilised themselves in many countries in Latin America with the aim of calling for various rights based on their ethnic status. This phenomenon is the subject that the author tackles in this article. To this end, he places the emergence of these movements in context, describes their characteristics, analyses their proposals and discusses the prominence that indigenous movements have acquired in different national political arenas. He also presents the impact that certain indigenous demands have had –such as those of the self-determination of land, the use of their own resources and the implementation of ethno-development– on the way in which politics is carried out (and understood) in Latin American countries. Finally, the text analyses how indigenous movements have become important social actors for the new left, and the ways in which they have developed new ways of organisation and mobilisation through networks, alternative discourses and new repertories of collective action. In view of all of this, the author concludes that Latin America has become, once again, a fascinating laboratory that is deserving of the attention of scholars, both in the region itself and in other parts of the planet.
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