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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 219620 matches for " Wilbur C Hadden "
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Prevalence of head lice and hygiene practices among women over twelve years of age in Sindh, Balochistan, and North West Frontier Province: National Health Survey of Pakistan, 1990-1994
Sadia Mahmud, Gregory Pappas, Wilbur C Hadden
Parasites & Vectors , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-11
Abstract: Overall about 7% women aged 12 years and older suffered from head lice infestation. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified factors independently associated with presence of head lice. Age less than 16 years and crowding at home were associated with higher infestation-rates. The impact of household socio-economic status on infestation rates among women was different in urban and rural settings; urban women with low socio-economic status were more vulnerable than similar women in rural settings. Bathing infrequently in summer was associated with higher prevalence rates only in Sindh, possibly due to the fact that among the three provinces Sindh has a hotter and more humid summer.The results of our analysis of NHSP indicate high levels of head lice infestation among girls and women in the three Provinces. The epidemiological profile of hygienic practices of women indicated that NWFP and Balochistan as compared to Sindh, and rural as compared to urban areas were less developed with respect to access to water supply and soap for maintaining personal hygiene. Simple and cost-effective measures such as provision of water and soap, and improving awareness regarding maintaining personal hygiene can contribute significantly towards improving public health status of the women in Pakistan.Pediculosis capitis, also known as head lice infestation, is caused by Pediculus humanus capitis an ectoparasite of man found on the hair and scalp [1]. Most of the reported studies on epidemiology of head lice are restricted to school populations. An epidemiological survey conducted in school children aged 8 -- 16 years in Peshawar, Pakistan from April -- December 1986 identified an overall prevalence of 46%, with girls having a higher prevalence rate (49%) than boys (40%) [2]. The infestation rate decreased as a linear function of age in both sexes, and increased with increasing crowding at home. A survey conducted among 6 to 15 years old urban and rural elementary school chil
Incidence, patterns and severity of reported unintentional injuries in Pakistan for persons five years and older: results of the National Health Survey of Pakistan 1990–94
Zafar Fatmi, Wilbur C Hadden, Junaid A Razzak, Huma I Qureshi, Adnan A Hyder, Gregory Pappas
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-152
Abstract: National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP 1990–94) is a nationally representative survey of the household. Through a two-stage stratified design, 18, 315 persons over 5 years of age were interviewed to estimate the overall annual incidence, patterns and severity of unintentional injuries for males and females in urban and rural areas over the preceding one year. Weighted estimates were computed adjusting for complex survey design using surveyfreq and surveylogistic option of SAS 9.1 software.The overall annual incidence of all unintentional injuries was 45.9 (CI: 39.3–52.5) per 1000 per year; 59.2 (CI: 49.2–69.2) and 33.2 (CI: 27.0–39.4) per 1000 per year among males and females over five years of age, respectively. An estimated 6.16 million unintentional injuries occur in Pakistan annually among persons over five years of age. Urban and rural injuries were 55.9 (95% CI: 48.1–63.7) and 41.2 (95% CI: 32.2–50.0) per 1000 per year, respectively. The annual incidence of injuries due to falls were 22.2 (95% CI: 18.0–26.4), poisoning 3.3 (95%CI: 0.5–6.1) and burn was 1.5 (95%CI: 0.9–2.1) per 1000 per year. The majority of injuries occurred at home 19.2 (95%CI: 16.0–22.4) or on the roads 17.0 (95%CI: 13.8–20.2). Road traffic/street, school and urban injuries were more likely to result in handicap.There is high burden of unintentional injuries among persons over five years of age in Pakistan. These results are useful to plan further studies and prioritizing prevention programs on injuries nationally and other developing countries with similar situation.Unintentional injuries are the main cause of injury deaths worldwide [1-3]. More than two-thirds of injuries occur in developing countries [4,5]. Deaths from injuries are projected to increase from 5.1 million to 8.4 million (9.2% of all global deaths) and injuries are estimated to be the third leading cause of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) by the year 2020 [6,7].Despite the high burden developing countries have just
Multilevel Modeling of Binary Outcomes with Three-Level Complex Health Survey Data  [PDF]
Shafquat Rozi, Sadia Mahmud, Gillian Lancaster, Wilbur Hadden, Gregory Pappas
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2017.71004
Abstract: Complex survey designs often involve unequal selection probabilities of clus-ters or units within clusters. When estimating models for complex survey data, scaled weights are incorporated into the likelihood, producing a pseudo likeli-hood. In a 3-level weighted analysis for a binary outcome, we implemented two methods for scaling the sampling weights in the National Health Survey of Pa-kistan (NHSP). For NHSP with health care utilization as a binary outcome we found age, gender, household (HH) goods, urban/rural status, community de-velopment index, province and marital status as significant predictors of health care utilization (p-value < 0.05). The variance of the random intercepts using scaling method 1 is estimated as 0.0961 (standard error 0.0339) for PSU level, and 0.2726 (standard error 0.0995) for household level respectively. Both esti-mates are significantly different from zero (p-value < 0.05) and indicate consid-erable heterogeneity in health care utilization with respect to households and PSUs. The results of the NHSP data analysis showed that all three analyses, weighted (two scaling methods) and un-weighted, converged to almost identical results with few exceptions. This may have occurred because of the large num-ber of 3rd and 2nd level clusters and relatively small ICC. We performed a sim-ulation study to assess the effect of varying prevalence and intra-class correla-tion coefficients (ICCs) on bias of fixed effect parameters and variance components of a multilevel pseudo maximum likelihood (weighted) analysis. The simulation results showed that the performance of the scaled weighted estimators is satisfactory for both scaling methods. Incorporating simulation into the analysis of complex multilevel surveys allows the integrity of the results to be tested and is recommended as good practice.
Following severe injury, hypocholesterolemia improves with convalescence but persists with organ failure or onset of infection
C Michael Dunham, Michael H Fealk, Wilbur E Sever
Critical Care , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/cc2382
Abstract: During 676 surgical intensive care unit (SICU) days, 28 ventilated trauma patients underwent daily measurement of white blood cell (WBC) count and differential, cholesterol, arterial oxygen tension/fractional inspired oxygen, bilirubin, glucose, creatinine, and bicarbonate. With the onset of infection, WBC response was considered positive if the WBC count was 16.0 or greater, immature neutrophils were 10% or greater, or WBC count increased by 20%. Cholesterol response was considered positive if cholesterol decreased or failed to increase by 10%.Injury Severity Score was 30.6 ± 8.6 and there were 48 infections. Initial cholesterol was decreased (119 ± 44 mg/dl) compared with expected values from a database (201 ± 17 mg/dl; P < 0.0001). The 25 survivors had higher cholesterol at SICU discharge (143 ± 35 mg/dl) relative to admission (112 ± 37 mg/dl; P < 0.0001). In the three patients who died, the admission cholesterol was 175 ± 62 mg/dl and the cholesterol at death was 117 ± 27 mg/dl. The change in percentage of expected cholesterol (observed value divided by expected value) from admission to discharge was different for patients surviving (16 ± 19%) and dying (-29 ± 19%; P = 0.0005). With onset of infection, the WBC response was positive in 61% and cholesterol response was positive in 91% (P = 0.001). Percentage of expected cholesterol was decreased with each system dysfunction: arterial oxygen tension/fractional inspired oxygen < 350, creatinine > 2.0 mg/dl, glucose > 120 mg/dl, bilirubin > 2.5 mg/dl, and bicarbonate ≥ 28 or ≤ 23 (P < 0.01). Percentage of expected cholesterol decreased as the number of dysfunctions increased (P = 0.0001).Hypocholesterolemia is seen following severe injury. Convalescing patients (ready for SICU discharge) have improved cholesterol levels, whereas dying patients appear to have progressive hypocholesterolemia. Decreasing or fixed cholesterol levels suggest the development of infection or organ/metabolic dysfunction. Cholesterol response
Abbreviation definition identification based on automatic precision estimates
Sunghwan Sohn, Donald C Comeau, Won Kim, W John Wilbur
BMC Bioinformatics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-9-402
Abstract: On the Medstract corpus our algorithm produced 97% precision and 85% recall which is higher than previously reported results. We also annotated 1250 randomly selected MEDLINE records as a gold standard. On this set we achieved 96.5% precision and 83.2% recall. This compares favourably with the well known Schwartz and Hearst algorithm.We developed an algorithm for abbreviation identification that uses a variety of strategies to identify the most probable definition for an abbreviation and also produces an estimated accuracy of the result. This process is purely automatic.Abbreviations are widely used in biomedical text. The amount of biomedical text is growing faster than ever. In early 2007, MEDLINE included about 17 million references. For common technical terms in biomedical text, people tend to use an abbreviation rather than using the full term [1,2]. In this paper we interchangeably use the term short form (SF) for an abbreviation and long form (LF) for its definition. Along with the growing volume of biomedical texts the number of resulting SF-LF pairs will also increase. The presence of unrecognized words in text affects information retrieval and information extraction in the biomedical domain [3-5]. This creates the continual need to keep up with new information, such as new SF-LF pairs. A robust method to identify the SFs and their corresponding LFs within the same article can resolve the meaning of the SF later in the article. In addition, an automatic method enables one to construct an abbreviation and definition database from a large data set.Another challenging issue is how to evaluate the pairs found by an automatic abbreviation identification algorithm, especially when dealing with a large and growing database such as MEDLINE. It is impractical to manually annotate the whole database to evaluate the accuracy of pairs found by the algorithm. An automatic way to estimate the accuracy of extracted SF-LF pairs is helpful to save human labor and to accompl
Finding biomedical categories in Medline
Yeganova Lana,Kim Won,Comeau Donald C,Wilbur W John
Journal of Biomedical Semantics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2041-1480-3-s3-s3
Abstract: Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text.
Densities and Eccentricities of 139 Kepler Planets from Transit Time Variations
Sam Hadden,Yoram Lithwick
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/787/1/80
Abstract: We extract densities and eccentricities of 139 sub-Jovian planets by analyzing transit time variations (TTVs) obtained by the Kepler mission through Quarter 12. We partially circumvent the degeneracies that plague TTV inversion with the help of an analytical formula for the TTV. From the observed TTV phases, we find that most of these planets have eccentricities of order a few percent. More precisely, the r.m.s. eccentricity is 0.018^{+0.005}_{-0.004}, and planets smaller than 2.5R_\earth are around twice as eccentric as those bigger than 2.5R_\earth. We also find a best-fit density-radius relationship \rho ~3 g/cm^3 \times (R/3R_\earth)^{-2.3} for the 56 planets that likely have small eccentricity and hence small statistical correction to their masses. Many planets larger than 2.5R_\earth are less dense than water, implying that their radii are largely set by a massive hydrogen atmosphere.
Numerical and Analytical Modelling of Transit Time Variations
Sam Hadden,Yoram Lithwick
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We develop and apply methods to extract planet masses and eccentricities from observed transit time variations (TTVs). First, we derive simple analytic expressions for the TTV that include the effects of both first- and second-order resonances. Second, we use N-body Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations, as well as the analytic formulae, to measure the masses and eccentricities of ten planets discovered by Kepler that have not previously been analyzed. Most of the ten planets have low densities. Using the analytic expressions to partially circumvent degeneracies, we measure small eccentricities of a few percent or less.
Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in one dimension
Maxim Lyutikov,Samuel Hadden
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.026401
Abstract: We derive a number of solution for one-dimensional dynamics of relativistic magnetized plasma that can be used as benchmark estimates in relativistic hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic numerical codes. First, we analyze the properties of simple waves of fast modes propagating orthogonally to the magnetic field in relativistically hot plasma. The magnetic and kinetic pressures obey different equations of state, so that the system behaves as a mixture of gases with different polytropic indices. We find the self-similar solutions for the expansion of hot strongly magnetized plasma into vacuum. Second, we derive linear hodograph and Darboux equations for the relativistic Khalatnikov potential, which describe arbitrary one-dimensional isentropic relativistic motion of cold magnetized plasma and find their general and particular solutions. The obtained hodograph and Darboux equations are very powerful: system of highly non-linear, relativistic, time dependent equations describing arbitrary (not necessarily self-similar) dynamics of highly magnetized plasma reduces to a single linear differential equation.
MGH Whole Slide Imaging Teleconsultation Practice in Dermatopathology
Nicholas C. Jones,Rosalynn M. Nazarian,Lyn M. Duncan,David C. Wilbur
Analytical Cellular Pathology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/347147
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