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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 805 matches for " Whitney Knapp "
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Directed DNA Shuffling of Retrovirus and Retrotransposon Integrase Protein Domains
Xiaojie Qi, Edwin Vargas, Liza Larsen, Whitney Knapp, G. Wesley Hatfield, Richard Lathrop, Suzanne Sandmeyer
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063957
Abstract: Chimeric proteins are used to study protein domain functions and to recombine protein domains for novel or optimal functions. We used a library of chimeric integrase proteins to study DNA integration specificity. The library was constructed using a directed shuffling method that we adapted from fusion PCR. This method easily and accurately shuffles multiple DNA gene sequences simultaneously at specific base-pair positions, such as protein domain boundaries. It produced all 27 properly-ordered combinations of the amino-terminal, catalytic core, and carboxyl-terminal domains of the integrase gene from human immunodeficiency virus, prototype foamy virus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae retrotransposon Ty3. Retrotransposons can display dramatic position-specific integration specificity compared to retroviruses. The yeast retrotransposon Ty3 integrase interacts with RNA polymerase III transcription factors to target integration at the transcription initiation site. In vitro assays of the native and chimeric proteins showed that human immunodeficiency virus integrase was active with heterologous substrates, whereas prototype foamy virus and Ty3 integrases were not. This observation was consistent with a lower substrate specificity for human immunodeficiency virus integrase than for other retrovirus integrases. All eight chimeras containing the Ty3 integrase carboxyl-terminal domain, a candidate targeting domain, failed to target strand transfer in the presence of the targeting protein, suggesting that multiple domains of the Ty3 integrase cooperate in this function.
Rarity, Species Richness, and the Threat of Extinction—Are Plants the Same as Animals?
Sandra Knapp
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001067
Abstract: Assessment of conservation status is done both for areas or habitats and for species (or taxa). IUCN Red List categories have been the principal method of categorising species in terms of extinction risk, and have been shown to be robust and helpful in the groups for which they have been developed. A recent study highlights properties associated with extinction risk in flowering plants, focusing on the species-rich hot spot of the Cape region of South Africa, and concludes that merely following methods derived from studies of vertebrates may not provide the best estimates of extinction risk for plants. Biology, geography, and history all are important factors in risk, and the study poses many questions about how we categorise and assess species for conservation priorities.
Four New Vining Species of Solanum (Dulcamaroid Clade) from Montane Habitats in Tropical America
Sandra Knapp
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010502
Abstract: Solanum (Solanaceae), with approximately 1500 species, is one of the largest genera of flowering plants, and has a centre of diversity in the New World tropics. The genus is divided into 13 major clades, of which two, the Dulcamaroid clade and the “African Non-Spiny” clade, exhibit vine morphology with twining petioles. I am currently preparing a worldwide monograph of these two groups, comprising some 70 species.
New species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from Peru and Ecuador
Sandra Knapp
PhytoKeys , 2010, DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.1.659
Abstract: Three new species of “non-spiny" Solanum are described from Peru and Ecuador, and a revised description for Solanum verecundum M.Nee is presented. Solanum kulliwaita S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Dulcamaroid clade) is endemic to the Department of Cuzco in southern Peru, and is most similar to the recently described Solanum sanchez-vegae S.Knapp of northern Peru. Solanum dillonii S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Brevantherum clade) is found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in the Amotape-Huancabamba phytogeographic zone, and is morphologically similar to the widespread Solanum riparium Ruiz & Pav. Solanum oxapampense S.Knapp, sp. nov., (also of the Brevantherum clade) is endemic to the Oxapampa region (Department of Pasco) of central Peru, and is similar to and segregated from Solanum verecundum M.Nee of Peru and Ecuador. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given.
Six Segments on Military Ministry
Kathryn Knapp
Theological Librarianship , 2010,
Abstract:
Musik in Konzentrationslagern The Role of Music in Concentration Camps
Gabriele Knapp
querelles-net , 2002,
Abstract: Die Holocaust-Forschung hat sich jahrzehntelang vorwiegend mit den Verbrechen in den Konzentrationslagern besch ftigt, w hrend Fragen nach dem Alltag“ der H ftlinge und ihren Strategien des überlebens nebens chlich erschienen. Untersuchungen zum (über)Leben im KZ k nnen aber gerade die Brutalit t des Systems deutlich machen. So war Musik ein integraler Bestandteil des Lageralltags und diente keineswegs nur der Erbauung der H ftlinge, sondern bedeutete für sie h ufig eine zus tzliche Tortur, wie Forschungsarbeiten für die Zeit von 1939 bis 1945 bereits belegt haben. Inwieweit dies für die frühen Lager von 1933 bis 1936 zutraf, untersucht Guido Fackler in seiner Studie. Darüber hinaus versucht er, musikalische Kontinuit tslinien von den frühen Lagern bis in die sp te Phase (1937–1945) zu zeichnen. Eine Gesamtdarstellung zu KZ-Musik von 1933 bis 1945 konnte dem Autor indes nicht gelingen, wenn er auch einzelne Zusammenh nge zwischen musikalischen Ph nomenen in unterschiedlichen Lagern aufzeigt. Facklers Buch l sst sich eher als Quellensammlung für Musik in unterschiedlichsten Konzentrationslagern verstehen und gebrauchen – wenn auch fast ausschlie lich begrenzt auf M nnerlager. In the past decades, Holocaust studies have focused on researching the annihilating structures of concentration camps, while the study of the inmates’ everyday lives and their strategies for survival was not included in this field of work. However, studying aspects of daily life and survival in the concentration camps can serve to truly bring out the brutality of the Holocaust. Music, for example, was an integral part of everyday life in the camps and did not solely serve to entertain the inmates, but also represented an additional form of torture for them, as previous studies for the time period between 1939 and 1945 have documented. Fackler’s study investigates the extent to which this was the case in the early concentration camps between 1933 and 1936. Furthermore, he attempts to document continuities in the role music, beginning from the early camps till the later phase between 1937 and 1945. However, while Fackler succeeds at pointing out various connections between musical phenomena in different camps, he does not succeed at offering an overview of the role of music in concentration camps between 1933 and 1945. Fackler’s work serves as a useful anthology for researching music in different concentration camps, although his analysis is limited to the study of men’s camps.
Lectotypification of Ruiz and Pavón's names in Solanum (Solanaceae)
Knapp, Sandra
Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid , 2008,
Abstract: Lectotypes or neotypes are confirmed or designated here for the 41 names coined by Hipólito Ruiz and José Pavón in the Flora peruviana et chilensis that were either described, or today recognised as, members of the large genus Solanum (Solanaceae): Solanum acuminatum, S. acutifolium, S. anceps, S. angulatum, S. angustifolium, S. asperolanatum, S. biformifolium, S. calygnaphalum, S. conicum, S. crispum, S. cymosum, S. dichotomum, S. diffusum, S. filiforme, S. foetidum, S. glandulosum, S. grandiflorum, S. incanum, S. incarceratum, S. incurvum, S. laciniatum, S. lanceolatum, S. lineatum, S. mite, S. multifidum, S. nitidum, S. nutans. S. obliquum, S. oblongum, S. oppositifolium, S. pendulum, S. pinnatifidum, S. pubescens, S. runcinatum, S. scabrum, S. sericeum, S. sessile, S. stellatum, S. ternatum, S. variegatum and S. viridiflorum. A introduction assesses the importance of Ruiz and Pavón to the botany of their time, and identifies difficulties in lectotypifying names coined by them. The currently accepted name for each taxon is given. Each typification is accompanied by a discussion of the reasoning behind the choice of specimen, and all types are illustrated. Se confirman o designan los lectótipos o neótipos de 41 nombres acu ados por Hipólito Ruiz y José Pavón en la Flora peruviana et chilensis que fueron descritos dentro del género Solanum (Solanaceae) o son actualmente reconocidos como parte del mismo): Solanum acuminatum, S. acutifolium, S. anceps, S. angulatum, S. angustifolium, S. asperolanatum, S. biformifolium, S. calygnaphalum, S. conicum, S. crispum, S. cymosum, S. dichotomum, S. diffusum, S. filiforme, S. foetidum, S. glandulosum, S. grandiflorum, S. incanum, S. incarceratum, S. incurvum, S. laciniatum, S. lanceolatum, S. lineatum, S. mite, S. multifidum, S. nitidum, S. nutans. S. obliquum, S. oblongum, S. oppositifolium, S. pendulum, S. pinnatifidum, S. pubescens, S. runcinatum, S. scabrum, S. sericeum, S. sessile, S. stellatum, S. ternatum, S. variegatum y S. viridiflorum. Se incluye una introducción explicando la importancia de Ruiz y Pavón para la botánica de su tiempo, así como las dificultades que entra a lectotipificar los nombres de estos autores. Para cada especie se incluye el nombre aceptado actualmente. Cada tipificación se acompa a de una discusión explicando la elección de los especímenes. Todos los tipos están ilustrados.
Typification of Solanum (Solanaceae) species described by Martín de Sessé y Lacasta and José Mariano Moci o
Knapp, Sandra
Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid , 2008,
Abstract: Lectotypes, neotypes or epitypes are confirmed or designated here for 16 of the 22 names coined by Martín Sessé y Lacasta and José Mariano Moci o that were described as members of the large genus Solanum (Solanaceae): Solanum bifidum, S. cordovense, S. declinatum, S. dichotomum, S. diphyllum, S. lanceifolium, S. lanceolatum, S. lineatum (both homonyms), S. longifolium, S. mexicanum, S. nutans, S. sarmentosum, S. scandens, S. tlacotalpense and S. uniflorum. A brief introduction assesses the importance of the Sessé & Moci o expedition (the Real Expedición Botánica a Nueva Espa a) to the botany of their time, and identifies difficulties in identifying and neotypifying or lectotypifying names coined by them. More than half of the names coined by Sessé and Moci o have no material associated with them. The currently accepted name for each taxon is given, and taxa of uncertain status are indicated. Each typification is accompanied by a discussion of the reasoning behind the choice of specimen, and all newly designated types are illustrated. Se confirman o designan los lectótipos, neótipos o epítipos de 16 de los 22 nombres acu ados por Martín de Sessé y Lacasta y José Mariano Moci o que o bien fueron descritos dentro del género Solanum (Solanaceae) o son actualmente reconocidos como parte del mismo): Solanum bifidum, S. cordovense, S. declinatum, S. dichotomum, S. diphyllum, S. lanceifolium, S. lanceolatum, S. lineatum (ambos homónimos), S. longifolium, S. mexicanum, S. nutans, S. sarmentosum, S. scandens, S. tlacotalpense y S. uniflorum. Se incluye una breve introducción explicando la importancia de la Real Expedición Botánica a Nueva Espa a (expedición de Sessé y Moci o) para la botánica de su tiempo, así como las dificultades que entra a neotipificar o lectotipificar los nombres acu ados por éllos. Se incluye el nombre aceptado para cada taxon cuando es posible y cada tipificación se acompa a de una discusión explicando la elección de los especímenes. Todos los tipos nuevos se acompa an de una foto.
Synopsis and lectotypification of Solanum (Solanaceae) species endemic in the West Indies
Knapp, Sandra
Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid , 2009,
Abstract: The West Indies (Bahamas, Greater and Lesser Antilles) is an area of high species richness and more importantly, species-level endemism in many groups. Solanum (Solanaceae) is diverse in the region with 25 endemic species (S. bahamense is near-endemic, bringing number to 26). Nineteen of these taxa are single-island endemics, and some have not been re-collected since the early 20th century. A synopsis of the species endemic to the West Indies is presented, with full synonymy and distribution; a single representative specimen is cited for each. All accepted names and synonyms are lectotypified where necessary; many of these taxa were described from collections in Berlin (B) that are no longer extant. Lectotypes newly designated here are illustrated. Las Antillas (Bahamas, Grandes Antillas y Peque as Antillas) es un área con gran riqueza florística y, lo que es más importante, con alto nivel de endemicidad en muchos grupos. Solanum (Solanaceae) es un género muy diverso en la región, que tiene 25 especies endémicas (S. bahamense es casi endémica, con lo que el número se elevaría a 26). Diecinueve de estos táxones son endemismos de una sola isla, y algunos no se han vuelto a colectar desde principios del siglo XX. Se presenta ahora una sinopsis de las especies endémicas de las Antillas, con todos los sinónimos y su distribución y con cita de un espécimen representativo de cada especie. Todos los nombres aceptados y sinónimos se han lectotipificado cuando ha sido necesario; muchos de estos táxones fueron descritos a partir de colecciones que se conservaban en Berlín (B) pero que han desaparecido. Los lectótipos designados aquí están ilustrados.
Lectotypification of Cavanilles' names in Solanum (Solanaceae)
Knapp, Sandra
Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid , 2007,
Abstract: Lectotypes are confirmed or designated here for the 13 names coined by Antonio José Cavanilles that were either described, or today are recognised as, members of the large genus Solanum (Solanaceae): Solanum betaceum, S. elaeagnifolium, S. fructotecto, S. lanceolatum, S. lentum, S. parviflorum, S. phyllanthum, S. pinnatum, S. pomiferum, S. pygmaeum, S. triquetrum, Triguera ambrosiaca and T. inodora. A brief introduction assesses the importance of Cavanilles to the botany of his time, and identifies difficulties in lectotypifying names coined by him. The currently accepted name for each taxon is given. Each typification is accompanied by a discussion of the reasoning behind the choice of specimen, and all lectotypes are illustrated. Se confirman o designan los lectótipos de 13 nombres de Antonio José Cavanilles que o bien fueron descritos dentro del género Solanum (Solanaceae) o son actualmente reconocidos como parte del mismo: Solanum betaceum, S. elaeagnifolium, S. fructo- tecto, S. lanceolatum, S. lentum, S. parviflorum, S. phyllanthum, S. pinnatum, S. pomiferum, S. pygmaeum, S. triquetrum, Triguera ambrosiaca y T. inodora. Se incluye una breve introducción explicando la importancia de Cavanilles para la botánica de su tiempo, así como las dificultades que entra a lectotipificar las especies de este autor. Se indica el nombre aceptado para cada especie. Las tipificaciones se acompa an de una discusión, explicando la elección de los especímenes. Todos los lectótipos están ilustrados.
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