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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4793 matches for " White Rot Fungi "
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Effect of Soya Lecithin on Solubilization and Biodegradation of Pentachlorophenol by Anthracophyllum discolor  [PDF]
Mariela Bustamante, Olga Rubilar, María Cristina Diez
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2014.51005
Abstract:

The effect of soya lecithin (SL) on solubilization and biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by Anthracophyllum discolor was evaluated. Besides, the PCP effect on critical micelle concentration (CMC) of SL and the effect of PCP and SL on the ligninolytic activity of A. discolor were evaluated. The PCP solubilization test was performed for 100, 200 and 400 mg·L-1 with SL solution varying concentrations of ranging from 0 to 0.9 g·L-1. The effect of PCP (5 to 20 mg·L-1) on CMC of SL by conductivity was evaluated. The effect of SL (0 to 0.9 g·L-1) on biodegradation of PCP (21.4 mg·L-1) in modified Kirk medium was studied. The results showed that SL addition enhanced PCP solubility in water. The solubilities of 100, 200 and 400 mg·L-1 of PCP were about 4.2, 5.0 and 2.5 times higher than their solubility in pure water when the system was added with 0.9 g·L-1 of SL. We found that the increase in PCP concentration caused a decrease in the CMC value. In the biodegradation assay, in liquid medium supplemented with 0.9 g

Biodegradation and Sugar Release from Canola Plant Biomass by Selected White Rot Fungi  [PDF]
Omoanghe S. Isikhuemhen, Nona A. Mikiashvili, Zachary N. Senwo, Elijah I. Ohimain
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2014.46045
Abstract: Canola crop is rich in plant biomass. It is considered a major cash crop in North America and a potential source for biofuel. We evaluated six strains of white rot basidiomycetes under solid state fermentation (SSF) for their potentials to secrete oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes to biodegrade canola plant biomass (CPB), and release sugars. Fuscoporia gilva and Pleurotus tuberregium produced high amount of laccase (440.86 U/L and 480.63 U/L at day 7), as well as carboxylmethylcellulase (CMCase) (4.78 U/mL at day 21 and 3.13 U/mL at day 14) and xylanase (4.48 U/mL and 7.8 U/mL at day 21), respectively. Bjerkandera adusta showed high amount of MnP (50.4 U/L) and peroxidase (64.5 U/L), relative to the other strains. Loss of organic matter peaked after 21 days of incubation in all the tested strains; however, the best result (34.0%) was shown in P. tuberregium. The highest lignin loss was observed in Coriolopsis caperata strains. Among the sugar polymers, hemicellulose was highly degraded by P. tuberregium and P. pulmonarius (4.1% - 4.6%), while cellulose (3.3% - 4.3%) was mainly degraded by F. gilva and B. adusta. Glucose was the dominant sugar released by all the fungi tested, with the highest concentration of 1.25 mg/mL produced by B. adusta at day 14 of incubation. Results indicate that selected white rot fungi can achieve significant delignification of CPB within 14 days of solid state fermentation. Their importance in low cost pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass prior to conversion into biofuels and bio-products of economic importance is discussed.
Comparative Studies on Biodegradative Abilities of Pleurotus ostreatus and P. pulmonarius in Soils Contaminated with Crude and Used Engine Oils  [PDF]
Fatuyi Olanipekun Ekundayo
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.412094
Abstract: Crude and used engine oil degrading ability of two white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and P. pulmonarius were investigated for six months. One hundred grams of sterilized soil moistened with 75% distilled water (w/v) were weighed into 9 × 9 × 4 cm (350 cm3) jam bottles and mixed thoroughly with bonny light crude oil and used engine oil at different concentrations (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25% and 30%), separately. Each bottle was then inoculated with two agar plugs of a vigorously grown mycelium of P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius using a sterile cork borer. The bottles were incubated at room temperature for 6 months. The mycelia-ramified waste was separated from soils and analysed for physicochemical parameters such as organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, pH and total hydrocarbon content, (THC) after drying. The organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents in contaminated and inoculated soils were increased after six months. However, decrease in potassium, pH and THC occurred in these soils after the period of investigation. P. ostreatus
Sustainable Discoloration of Textile Chromo-Baths by Spent Mushroom Substrate from the Industrial Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus  [PDF]
Simona Di Gregorio, Francesco Balestri, Maria Basile, Valentina Matteini, Francesco Gini, Stefania Giansanti, Maria Grazia Tozzi, Riccardo Basosi, Roberto Lorenzi
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2010.12011
Abstract: Synthetic dyes are recalcitrant to degradation and toxic to different organisms. Physical-chemical treatments of textile wastewaters are not sustainable in terms of costs. Biological treatments can be more convenient and the lig-nin-degrading extracellular enzymatic battery of basidiomycetes are capable to discolor synthetic dyes. Many basidi-omycetes are edible mushrooms whose industrial production generates significant amount of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) with residual high levels of lignin-degrading extracellular enzymatic activities. We have demon-strated that the low cost organic substrate, the SMS deriving from the cultivation of the basidiomycetes Pleurotus ostreatus, is able to discolor anthraquinonic, diazo and monoazo-dyes when incubated in dying chromo-reactive and chromo-acid baths containing surfactants and anti-foams, where the concentrations of the different dyes are exceeding the one recovered in the corresponding wastewaters. Laccase was the lignin-degrading extracellular enzyme involved in the discolouring process. The exploitation of the low cost SMS in the treatment of textile wastewaters is proposed. Accordingly, a toxicological assessment, based on a cyto-toxicity test on a human amnion epithelial cell line (WISH) and the estimation of the germination index (GI%) of Lactuca sativa, Cucumis sativus and Sorghum bicolor, has been performed, showing the loss of toxicity of the chromo-baths after being discoloured by the SMS.
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS INVOLVED IN THE DEGRADATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS
Diez,M.C;
Journal of soil science and plant nutrition , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-95162010000100004
Abstract: worldwide use of pesticide has increased dramatically during the last two decades. as a consequence, pesticide residues and their transformation products are frequently found in groundwater and surface waters. this review summarizes information about polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs), polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), some chlorophenols; it mainly empathizes on pesticides, their incorporation into the environment, microorganisms involved in their degradation and, some physico-chemical aspects of pesticides behavior in soils. details about residues of pesticides in groundwater and superficial water found in some foreign countries and in chile are reported, as well. the fungal degradation of organic pollutants (xenobiotics) is considered as an effective method to remove these pollutants from the environment by a process which is currently known as bioremediation. therefore, the degradation of pesticides by soil microorganisms with particular attention to white-rot fungi is also addressed. finally, a simple and effective system (biobed) to minimize environmental contamination from pesticide manipulation, especially when filling the spraying equipment, a typical point source of contamination, is presented here.
Relación entre degradación de colorantes y oxidación de lignina residual causados por Ganoderma applanatum y Pycnoporus sanguineus en el licor negro kraft
Shimizu,Ernesto; Velez Rueda,Jorge O.; Zapata,Pedro D.; Villalba,Laura L.;
Revista de ciencia y tecnolog?-a , 2009,
Abstract: kraft pulping for paper production has a significant impact on the environment with the generation of highly colored and toxic effluents. because white rot fungi (wrf) have a distinctive capacity for efficiently degrading wood lignin by the extracellular enzymes action, they are considered as a growing alternative in biotechnology. the growing and degrading ability of two wrf, ganoderma applanatum and pycnoporus sanguineus from misiones (argentina) in dyes and kraft black liquor was analyzed as a prospective application on bioremediation processes. black liquor is a kraft pulping process effluent containing solubilized lignin, the primary organic by-product from the chemical digestion of lignocellulosic raw materials. dye decolorization experiments (solid culture) and black liquor degrading studies (solid and liquid cultures) were conducted. decolorization experiments in solid culture were conducted with bromophenol blue, malacchite green and black liquor at acid and alkaline ph. liquid culture studies were quantified by uv spectrometric measurements. residual lignin degradation was confirmed as a result of the change in absorbance by spectral scanning over the wavelength range from 200 to 400 nm decolorization and degrading experiments validated the dye and lignin degrading ability of both fungi in solid and liquid cultures.
Influence of pH on the growth, laccase activity and RBBR decolorization by tropical basidiomycetes
Moreira Neto, Sérgio Luiz;Matheus, Dácio Roberto;Machado, Kátia Maria Gomes;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132009000500003
Abstract: the basidiomycete fungi lentinus crinitus and psilocybe castanella are being evaluated in a bioremediation process of soils contaminated with organochlorine industrial residues in the baixada santista, s?o paulo. the aim of the present study was to determine the influence of ph on the fungal growth, in vitro decolorization of anthraquinonic dye remazol brilliant blue r (rbbr) and laccase activity. the ph of the culture medium influenced the growth of l. crinitus and p. castanella, which presented less growth at ph 5.9 and ph 2.7, respectively. the fungi were able to modify the ph of the culture medium, adjusting it to the optimum ph for growth which was close to 4.5. decolorization of the rbbr was maximal at a ph of 2.5 to 3.5. higher laccase activity was observed at ph 3.5 and ph 4.5 for l. crinitus and p. castanella, respectively. ph was found to be an important parameter for both the growth of these fungi and the enzymatic system involved in rbbr decolorization.
REVISIóN: DEGRADACIóN DE PLAGUICIDAS MEDIANTE HONGOS DE LA PUDRICIóN BLANCA DE LA MADERA
Quintero Díaz,Juan Carlos;
Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía, Medellín , 2011,
Abstract: wood white rot fungi are characterized by their capacity of degradation and mineralization of lignin by means of an enzymatic extracellular system, which mainly consists of lignin peroxidase (lip), manganese peroxidase (mnp) and laccase. during the last twenty years, these fungi and their enzymatic ligninolytic system have been the focus of attention to study the degradation capacity of a wide range of xenobiotics as pesticides, dyes, explosives, etc. however, a large number of xenobiotics are not responding to ligninolytic enzymes biodegradation process. this situation has permitted the discovering of new mechanisms used by fungi as citochrome p-450 monooxygenases oxidation system, and transferases? reductive system, widely identified in phase i and ii of superior animals? metabolism. the tree types of known degradation mechanisms used by fungi in environmental contaminants degradation and some other examples of degradation mechanisms in pesticides will be described and analyzed in this review.
BIODEGRADATION OF DIAZINON AND METHOMYL PESTICIDES BY WHITE ROT FUNGI FROM SELECTED HORTICULTURAL FARMS IN RIFT VALLEY AND CENTRAL KENYA
W.O. NYAKUNDI,G. MAGOMA,J. OCHORA,A.B. NYENDE
Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation , 2011,
Abstract: The aim was to investigate the potential for biodegradation of methomyl and diazinon (pesticides) by white rot fungi through enrichment and isolation of methomyl and diazinon biodegraders from horticultural soils. Five white rot fungal isolates labeled WR1, WR2, WR4, WR9 and WR15 were cultured in a medium containing methomyl and diazinon pesticides as the only carbon source and incubated at 280C and monitored for biodegradation at intervals of 10 days for a period of 100 days. Gilson HPLC system was used for the separation and quantification of the pesticides. The pesticide methomyl was detected at 4.9 minutes while the methomyl metabolite was detected at 4.1 minutes. Diazinon was detected at 11 minutes while the diazinon metabolites; diazoxon and oxypyrimidine were detected at 2.3 and 2.6 minutes. The rate of biodegradation of pesticides was much higher for mixtures of fungi (approximately 50 days) compared to individual isolates (60- 100 days) for diazinon while methomyl was 22-25 days. This shows that fungal mixtures in soil fasten the rate of biodegradation of pollutants compared to individual isolates. The isolates are good biodegraders due to their ability to degrade methomyl or diazinon hence making the isolates good agents for bioremediation. The authors recommend more studies to be done in the fields before their potential application by farmers.
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS INVOLVED IN THE DEGRADATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS
M.C Diez
Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: Worldwide use of pesticide has increased dramatically during the last two decades. As a consequence, pesticide residues and their transformation products are frequently found in groundwater and surface waters. This review summarizes information about polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), some chlorophenols; it mainly empathizes on pesticides, their incorporation into the environment, microorganisms involved in their degradation and, some physico-chemical aspects of pesticides behavior in soils. Details about residues of pesticides in groundwater and superficial water found in some foreign countries and in Chile are reported, as well. The fungal degradation of organic pollutants (xenobiotics) is considered as an effective method to remove these pollutants from the environment by a process which is currently known as bioremediation. Therefore, the degradation of pesticides by soil microorganisms with particular attention to white-rot fungi is also addressed. Finally, a simple and effective system (biobed) to minimize environmental contamination from pesticide manipulation, especially when filling the spraying equipment, a typical point source of contamination, is presented here.
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