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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 148873 matches for " Wen-Der Wang "
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Expression of Estrogen Receptors α and β in Human Osteoblasts: Identification of Exon-2 Deletion Variant of Estrogen Receptor β in Postmenopausal Women
Fang-Ping Chen,Todd Hsu,Chin-Hwa Hu,Wen-Der Wang
Chang Gung Medical Journal , 2004,
Abstract: Background: Postmenopausal osteoporosis is associated with estrogen deficiency.Estrogens have effects on bone metabolism, which are mediated by estrogenreceptors (ERs). If estrogen responsiveness is related to the ER expressionlevel, ER expression in postmenopausal women should be different from previousstudies using osteoblast lineage. We investigated the expression ofvariant isoforms of ER messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in osteoblasts(OB) from postmenopausal women and a human osteosarcoma cell line, MG63.Methods: Osteoblast cultures were prepared from the upper femur of postmenopausalpatients or MG 63. For OB cultures at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 days, the expressionsof ERα and β mRNA were examined using reverse transcriptase-polymerasechain reaction.Results: In MG 63, ERβ mRNA was constantly and highly expressed during the25-day culture, whereas ERα mRNA was barely detected. In the primary OBcells, both ERα and β mRNA were transcribed during the 25-day culture, butexpression of ERα mRNA was much stronger than that of ERβ mRNA. Asplice variant form of ERβ mRNA that was missing the entire exon 2 (ERβ
Low Temperature Mitigates Cardia Bifida in Zebrafish Embryos
Che-Yi Lin, Cheng-Chen Huang, Wen-Der Wang, Chung-Der Hsiao, Ching-Feng Cheng, Yi-Ting Wu, Yu-Fen Lu, Sheng-Ping L. Hwang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069788
Abstract: The coordinated migration of bilateral cardiomyocytes and the formation of the cardiac cone are essential for heart tube formation. We investigated gene regulatory mechanisms involved in myocardial migration, and regulation of the timing of cardiac cone formation in zebrafish embryos. Through screening of zebrafish treated with ethylnitrosourea, we isolated a mutant with a hypomorphic allele of mil (s1pr2)/edg5, called s1pr2as10 (as10). Mutant embryos with this allele expressed less mil/edg5 mRNA and exhibited cardia bifida prior to 28 hours post-fertilization. Although the bilateral hearts of the mutants gradually fused together, the resulting formation of two atria and one tightly-packed ventricle failed to support normal blood circulation. Interestingly, cardia bifida of s1pr2as10 embryos could be rescued and normal circulation could be restored by incubating the embryos at low temperature (22.5°C). Rescue was also observed in gata5 and bon cardia bifida morphants raised at 22.5°C. The use of DNA microarrays, digital gene expression analyses, loss-of-function, as well as mRNA and protein rescue experiments, revealed that low temperature mitigates cardia bifida by regulating the expression of genes encoding components of the extracellular matrix (fibronectin 1, tenascin-c, tenascin-w). Furthermore, the addition of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, significantly decreased the effect of low temperature on mitigating cardia bifida in s1pr2as10 embryos. Our study reveals that temperature coordinates the development of the heart tube and somitogenesis, and that extracellular matrix genes (fibronectin 1, tenascin-c and tenascin-w) are involved.
Chimeras of p14ARF and p16: Functional Hybrids with the Ability to Arrest Growth
Richard T. Williams, Lisa M. Barnhill, Huan-Hsien Kuo, Wen-Der Lin, Ayse Batova, Alice L. Yu, Mitchell B. Diccianni
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088219
Abstract: The INK4A locus codes for two independent tumor suppressors, p14ARF and p16/CDKN2A, and is frequently mutated in many cancers. Here we report a novel deletion/substitution from CC to T in the shared exon 2 of p14ARF/p16 in a melanoma cell line. This mutation aligns the reading frames of p14ARF and p16 mid-transcript, producing one protein which is half p14ARF and half p16, chimera ARF (chARF), and another which is half p16 and half non-p14ARF/non-p16 amino acids, p16-Alternate Carboxyl Terminal (p16-ACT). In an effort to understand the cellular impact of this novel mutation and others like it, we expressed the two protein products in a tumor cell line and analyzed common p14ARF and p16 pathways, including the p53/p21 and CDK4/cyclin D1 pathways, as well as the influence of the two proteins on growth and the cell cycle. We report that chARF mimicked wild-type p14ARF by inducing the p53/p21 pathway, inhibiting cell growth through G2/M arrest and maintaining a certain percentage of cells in G1 during nocodazole-induced G2 arrest. chARF also demonstrated p16 activity by binding CDK4. However, rather than preventing cyclin D1 from binding CDK4, chARF stabilized this interaction through p21 which bound CDK4. p16-ACT had no p16-related function as it was unable to inhibit cyclin D1/CDK4 complex formation and was unable to arrest the cell cycle, though it did inhibit colony formation. We conclude that these novel chimeric proteins, which are very similar to predicted p16/p14ARF chimeric proteins found in other primary cancers, result in maintained p14ARF-p53-p21 signaling while p16-dependent CDK4 inhibition is lost.
Efficient Importance Sampling for Rare Event Simulation with Applications
Cheng-Der Fuh,Huei-Wen Teng,Ren-Her Wang
Quantitative Finance , 2013,
Abstract: Importance sampling has been known as a powerful tool to reduce the variance of Monte Carlo estimator for rare event simulation. Based on the criterion of minimizing the variance of Monte Carlo estimator within a parametric family, we propose a general account for finding the optimal tilting measure. To this end, when the moment generating function of the underlying distribution exists, we obtain a simple and explicit expression of the optimal alternative distribution. The proposed algorithm is quite general to cover many interesting examples, such as normal distribution, noncentral $\chi^2$ distribution, and compound Poisson processes. To illustrate the broad applicability of our method, we study value-at-risk (VaR) computation in financial risk management and bootstrap confidence regions in statistical inferences.
A Variant of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 (Fgfr2) Regulates Left-Right Asymmetry in Zebrafish
Da-Wei Liu,Chia-Hao Hsu,Su-Mei Tsai,Chung-Der Hsiao,Wen-Pin Wang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021793
Abstract: Many organs in vertebrates are left-right asymmetrical located. For example, liver is at the right side and stomach is at the left side in human. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling is important for left-right asymmetry. To investigate the roles of Fgfr2 signaling in zebrafish left-right asymmetry, we used splicing blocking morpholinos to specifically block the splicing of fgfr2b and fgfr2c variants, respectively. We found that the relative position of the liver and the pancreas were disrupted in fgfr2c morphants. Furthermore, the left-right asymmetry of the heart became random. Expression pattern of the laterality controlling genes, spaw and pitx2c, also became random in the morphants. Furthermore, lefty1 was not expressed in the posterior notochord, indicating that the molecular midline barrier had been disrupted. It was also not expressed in the brain diencephalon. Kupffer's vesicle (KV) size became smaller in fgfr2c morphants. Furthermore, KV cilia were shorter in fgfr2c morphants. We conclude that the fgfr2c isoform plays an important role in the left-right asymmetry during zebrafish development.
The Tibetan Plateau observatory of plateau scale soil moisture and soil temperature (Tibet-Obs) for quantifying uncertainties in coarse resolution satellite and model products
Z. Su, J. Wen, L. Dente, R. van der Velde, L. Wang, Y. Ma, K. Yang,Z. Hu
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2011,
Abstract: A plateau scale soil moisture and soil temperature observatory is established on the Tibetan Plateau for quantifying uncertainties in coarse resolution satellite and model products of soil moisture and soil temperature. The Tibetan Plateau observatory of plateau scale soil moisture and soil temperature (Tibet-Obs) consists of three regional scale in-situ reference networks, including the Naqu network in a cold semiarid climate, the Maqu network in a cold humid climate and the Ngari network in a cold arid climate. These networks provide a representative coverage of the different climate and land surface hydrometeorological conditions on the Tibetan plateau. In this paper the details of the Tibet-Obs are reported. To demonstrate the uniqueness of the Tibet-Obs in quantifying and explaining soil moisture uncertainties in existing coarse satellite products, an analysis is carried out to assess the reliability of several satellite products for the Naqu and the Maqu network areas. It is concluded that global coarse resolution soil moisture products are useful but exhibit till now unreported uncertainties in cold and semiarid regions – use of them would be critically enhanced if uncertainties can be quantified and reduced using in-situ measurements.
Vortex creep and critical current densities in superconducting (Ba,K)Fe$_{2}$As$_{2}$ single crystals
Marcin Konczykowski,Cornelis Jacominus van der Beek,Makariy Tanatar,Huiqian Luo,Zhaosheng Wang,Bing Shen,Haihu Wen,Ruslan Prozorov
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.024515
Abstract: The surprisingly rapid relaxation of the sustainable current density in the critical state of single crystalline Ba$_{1-x}$K$_{x}$Fe$_{2}$As$_{2}$ is investigated for magnetic fields oriented parallel to the c-axis and to the $ab$--plane respectively. Due to the inadequacy of standard analysis procedures developed for flux creep in the high temperature superconducting cuprates, we develop a simple, straightforward data treatment technique that reveals the creep mechanism and the creep exponent $\mu$. At low magnetic fields, below the second magnetization peak, $\mu$ varies only slightly as function of temperature and magnetic flux density $B$. From the data, we determine the temperature- and field dependence of the effective activation barrier for creep. At low temperatures, the measured current density approaches the zero--temperature critical current density (in the absence of creep) to within a factor 2, thus lending credence to earlier conclusions drawn with respect to the pinning mechanism. The comparable values of the experimental screening current density and the zero-temperature critical current density reveals the limited usefulness of the widely used "interpolation formula".
Monascuspiloin Enhances the Radiation Sensitivity of Human Prostate Cancer Cells by Stimulating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Inducing Autophagy
Hui-Wen Chiu, Wen-Hung Fang, Yen-Lin Chen, Ming-Der Wu, Gwo-Fang Yuan, Sheng-Yow Ho, Ying-Jan Wang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040462
Abstract: Prostate cancer is a very common cancer among males. Traditional treatments for prostate cancer have limited efficacy; therefore, new therapeutic strategies and/or new adjuvant drugs must be explored. Red yeast rice (RYR) is a traditional food spice made in Asia by fermenting white rice with Monascus purpureus Went yeast. Accumulating evidence indicates that RYR has antitumor activity. In this study, PC-3 cells (human prostate cancer cells) were used to investigate the anti-cancer effects of ionizing radiation (IR) combined with monascuspiloin (MP, a yellow pigment isolated from Monascus pilosus M93-fermented rice) and to determine the underlying mechanisms of these effects in vitro and in vivo. We found that IR combined with MP showed increased therapeutic efficacy when compared with either treatment alone in PC-3 cells. In addition, the combined treatment enhanced DNA damage and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The combined treatment induced primarily autophagy in PC-3 cells, and the cell death that was induced by the combined treatment was chiefly the result of inhibition of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. In an in vivo study, the combination treatment showed greater anti-tumor growth effects. These novel findings suggest that the combined treatment could be a potential therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer.
Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) Is Crucial for Brain Development and Motor Functions
De-Fen Shih, Chung-Der Hsiao, Ming-Yuan Min, Wen-Sung Lai, Chianne-Wen Yang, Wang-Tso Lee, Shyh-Jye Lee
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071741
Abstract: Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a rare pediatric neuro-metabolic disease in children. Due to the lack of an animal model, its pathogenetic mechanism is poorly understood. To study the role of AADC in brain development, a zebrafish model of AADC deficiency was generated. We identified an aadc gene homolog, dopa decarboxylase (ddc), in the zebrafish genome. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis showed that the ddc gene is expressed in the epiphysis, locus caeruleus, diencephalic catecholaminergic clusters, and raphe nuclei of 36-h post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos. Inhibition of Ddc by AADC inhibitor NSD-1015 or anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) reduced brain volume and body length. We observed increased brain cell apoptosis and loss of dipencephalic catecholaminergic cluster neurons in ddc morphants (ddc MO-injected embryos). Seizure-like activity was also detected in ddc morphants in a dose-dependent manner. ddc morphants had less sensitive touch response and impaired swimming activity that could be rescued by injection of ddc plasmids. In addition, eye movement was also significantly impaired in ddc morphants. Collectively, loss of Ddc appears to result in similar phenotypes as that of ADCC deficiency, thus zebrafish could be a good model for investigating pathogenetic mechanisms of AADC deficiency in children.
Wound infections secondary to snakebite in central Taiwan
Huang, Li-Wen;Wang, Jiaan-Der;Huang, Jin-An;Hu, Sung-Yuan;Wang, Lee-Min;Tsan, Yu-Tse;
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992012000300004
Abstract: there are very few microbiological data on wound infections following snakebites. the objective of this study was to investigate the treatment of secondary infection following snakebites in central taiwan. microbiological data and antibiotic sensitivity of wound cultures were retrospectively analyzed from december 2005 to october 2007 in a medical center in central taiwan. a total of 121 snakebite patients participated in the study. forty-nine (40.5%) subjects were bitten by cobra (naja atra); 34 of them had secondary infection, and 24 of them (70.6%) needed surgical intervention. cobra bites caused more severe bacterial infection than other snakebites. morganella morganii was the most common pathogen, followed by aeromonas hydrophila and enterococcus. gram-negative bacteria were susceptible to amikacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, cefotaxime, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin/tazobactam. enterococcus were susceptible to ampicillin, gentamicin, penicillin and vancomycin. it is reasonable to choose piperacillin/tazobactam, quinolone, second- or third-generation cephalosporin for empirical therapy following snakebite. surgical intervention should be considered for invasive soft tissue infections.
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