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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5903 matches for " Weight "
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The relation between birth weight and hypertension. A study among Danish nurses  [PDF]
Rie Adser Virkus, Berit Heitmann, Erik Obel, Thomas Bergholt, Ellen L?kkegaard
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.54A003

The fetal origin hypothesis suggests that birth weight is related to several adult diseases. One hypothesis is that low birth weight is associated with increased risk of hypertension. ADDIN RW.CITE{{119 Barker,D.J. 2009}}In the present study we analyzed the association between self-reported birth weight and risk of hypertension with detailed confounder control, and the modification on this association by familial obesity and own weight history during childhood and youth. Methods: In 1999 the Danish Nurse Cohort study included 31,642 females aged 44 years or more of whom 76% replied to questions on birth weight, weight history, familial obesity disposition, parents socioeconomic status and presence of hypertension. Results: In total 14% reported birth weights below 3000 g. The univariate hazard ratio of hypertension for those born with birth weight < 3000 g was 1.24 (95% CI (1.13 - 1.36)) compared to those with birth weight > 3000 g. The association remained stable after adjustment for important confounders, as lifestyle, weight history and socioeconomic status during upbringing. Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis that low birth weight is associated with hypertension in adult life, also after considering several confounding factors and weight history later in life. Furthermore, the previous weight history might have an influence on the association between birth weight and the risk for adult hypertension.

A novel algorithm for describing population level trends in body weight  [PDF]
Azadeh Alimadad, Carrie Matteson, Warren L. Hare, Ozge Karanfil, Diane T. Finegood
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.412A217

Modeling population trends and predicting the impact of interventions to address obesity requires algorithms for predicting body weight status in the future. Predictions can be based on statistical consideration of different risk factors, or be an extrapolation of past and current trends. Despite the well known correlation between previous and future weight, individual weight history has not been used to predict future trends. We developed a novel population-level model to examine trends of different classes of body weight considering individual body weight histories from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). A subset of data used to assess the predictive ability of our proposed model with actual data. Our results confirm the importance of weight history in determining future weight status. Over 80% of individuals in a specific weight category (normal, overweight, obese) will stay in the same weight category after two years (except overweight females). The length of body weight stability was also found to be important. The probability of remaining normal weight increased with longer prior periods of being at a normal weight over 18 years (0.834 to 0.893). We demonstrate that an individual’s most probable weight class in the future is consistent with their maximal historical weight class.

A Note on a Combinatorial Conjecture  [PDF]
Guixin Deng
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2013.31010
Abstract: It is difficult to find Boolean functions achieving many good cryptographic properties. Recently, Tu and Deng obtained two classes of Boolean functions with good properties based on a combinatorial conjecture about binary strings. In this paper, using different approaches, we prove this conjecture is true in some cases. This conjecture has resisted different attempts of proof since it is hard to find a recursive method. In this paper we give a recursive formula in a special case.
Request-based Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation of Gigabit Passive Optical Network  [PDF]
Chih-Ta Chiu, Yung-Chung Wang
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2013.32B040

We propose request-based dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) of gigabit passive optical network (GPON). The optical line terminal (OLT) in GPON grants bandwidth to optical network units (ONUs). ONUs report request bandwidth which depends on queue lengths of traffic containers (TCONTs) to the OLT. In the OLT, DBA of GPON supports a request-based polling order to allocate bandwidth. Our request-based dynamic bandwidth allocation focuses on weight assignments in the request-based polling order. Weight assignments allocate bandwidth in proportion to guaranteed and request bandwidth. We use the C program to simulate results. Simulated results indicate improved performance in queueing delay when total offered loads are or are not shared uniformly to TCONTs.

Is Dose Adjustment Based on Several Factors of Body Size Descriptors Effective for Prevention of Thrombocytopenia by Linezolid Therapy in Hemodialysis Patients?  [PDF]
Hideo Kato, Mao Hagihara, Yuka Yamagishi, Yukihiro Hamada, Jun Hirai, Naoya Nishiyama, Yusuke Koizumi, Katsuhiko Matsuura, Hiroshige Mikamo
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2016.710049
Abstract: Previous study suggested that low body weight was one of the risk factors of thrombocytopenia induced by linezolid in non-hemodialysis patients. However, there have been little investigations for the linezolid-induced thrombocytopenia in hemodialysis patients. This study was to evaluate the association between several factors of body size descriptors and thrombocytopenia in hemodialysis-patients. No factor of body size descriptors showed significant correlation with linezolid-induced thrombocytopenia (patients with thrombocytopenia vs patients without thrombocytopenia: body weight; 60.0 kg vs 55.3 kg, p = 0.82: body mass indices; 21.1 kg/m2 vs 21.2 mg/m2, p = 0.44: ideal body weight; 61.2 kg vs 59.5 kg, p = 0.21: lean body weight; 50.1 kg vs 45.7 kg, p = 0.64: dosage amount; 20.0 mg/kg vs 21.7 mg/kg, p = 0.74: body surface area; 1.65 m2 vs 1.54 m2, p = 0.43). There were not significant differences in the body size descriptors between linezolid therapy for more than 14 days and for less than 13 days (more than 14 days vs less than 13 days: body weight; 53.5 kg vs 56.8 kg, p = 0.75: body mass indices; 20.9 kg/m2 vs 21.1 mg/m2, p = 0.47: ideal body weight; 60.3 kg vs 59.9 kg, p = 0.17: lean body weight; 44.3 kg vs 47.7 kg, p = 0.56: dosage amount; 22.4 mg/kg vs 21.1 mg/kg, p = 0.67: body surface area; 1.51 m2 vs 1.59 m2, p = 0.37). Our data suggested that dosage adjustment of linezolid based on body weight was not recommended in hemodialysis-patients.
Neonatal birth weight and related factors in south of Iran, Jahrom
Fatemeh Emamghorashi,Seyyed Taghi Heydari
Journal of Family and Reproductive Health , 2008,
Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to determinate the relationship between neonatal birth weight and related factors in Jahrom, Iran. "nMaterials and methods: All women delivering in two hospitals, in which obstetric services were presented, entered the study. In this cross sectional study, 2311 women were enrolled prospectively in a 12- month period during 2006-7. Data were collected during first three post partum days from the following sources: maternal hospital files and charts, interview with the mothers, measurement of anthropometric indices of fathers and the infants. Percentile distribution of birth weight for classified gestational age was calculated."nResults: Results showed significant correlation between neonatal birth weight with neonatal gender, maternal age, weight, education and working status. There was no relation between neonatal weight with paternal weight, maternal education and living in urban or rural areas."nConclusion: Neonatal birth weight is affected by neonatal gender, maternal age and weight; education and job.
Shoot Biomass Assessments of the Marine Phanerogam Zostera marina for Two Methods of Data Gathering  [PDF]
Elena Solana-Arellano, Héctor Echavarría-Heras, Victoria Díaz-Casta?eda, Olga Flores-Uzeta
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.311186
Abstract: In order to compare to data gathering methods for shoot biomass assessments of Zostera marina, we compare two allometric models each one representing a data gathering method, one at leaf level and the other in aggregated form. The first allometric model presented leaf dry weight in terms of leaf length as . The second model is expressed as a several-variables version of the allometric Equation (1) dry weight of each leaf in a given shoot can be considered to be a random variable therefore shoot biomass ws can be represented in the form Both models presented similar determination coefficients values of 0.85 and 0.87 respectively. We found no significant differences between parameters α (p = 0.11) and β (p = 0.50) fitted for each model, showing that both equations conduced to the same result. Moreover, both fitted models presented high Concordance Correlation Coefficients of reproducibility () (0.92 and 0.91). We concluded that for shoot weight assessments if larger samples and faster data processing is required then should model of Equation (2) be used. On the other hand, we proposed model of Equation (1) if data at leaf level is required for other endeavors.
New Formulas for the Mayer and Ree-Hoover Weights of Infinite Families of Graphs  [PDF]
Amel Kaouche
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2019.72019
The virial expansion, in statistical mechanics, makes use of the sums of the Mayer weight of all 2-connected graphs on n vertices. We study the Second Mayer weight ωM(c) and the Ree-Hoover weight ωRH(c) of a 2-connected graph c which arise from the hard-core continuum gas in one dimension. These weights are computed using signed volumes of convex polytopes naturally associated with the graph c. In the present work, we use the method of graph homomorphisms, to give new formulas of Mayer and Ree-Hoover weights for special infinite families of 2-connected graphs.
Intragastric Balloon (BIB) for the Management of Obesity, Report on the First Egyptian Experience  [PDF]
Hossam Ghoneim, Iman Hamza
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2014.48043
Abstract: Introduction: The bioenteric balloon (BIB) is widely applied in the management of obesity. Aim of the work: This is a report on the efficacy and safety of BIB®; device in the first 101 Egyptian cases. Methods: Patients referred for BIB between January 2011 till December 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. BIB was inserted for 6 months according to predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: In 101 cases, 17 cases were males (16.8%) and 84 cases were females (83.2%), mean age 33.2 (±10.44) years, mean BMI 35.9 (±4.65) kg/m2. None of the patients exhibited balloon migration or perforation. The balloon was removed upon request in 3 patients due to exaggerated intolerance (2.9%). The mean weight loss was 15.5 kg (±4.67), mean EWL 64.12% (±23.48%). The mean BMI at extraction was 29.7 kg/m2 (±4.48) with a BMI loss of 6.2 kg/m2 (±2.0). 87 patients (88.7%) achieved target EWL (32.1% of excess weight), and 87 patients lost >12.2% of their basal weight (88.7%). 70 patients achieved BMI loss >5.7 kg/m2 (71.4%). Conclusion: BIB achieves acceptable success with minimal complications. In further long term, prospective studies are needed to evaluate obesity related comorbidities when using such modality and to compare it to other available devices.
A New Statistic Approach towards Landslide Hazard Risk Assessment  [PDF]
George Gaprindashvili, Jianping Guo, Panisara Daorueang, Tian Xin, Pooyan Rahimy
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.51006

To quantitatively assess the landslide hazard in Khelvachauri, Georgia, the statistic method of hazard index was applied. A spatial database was constructed in Geographic Information System (GIS) including topographic data, geologic maps, land-use, and active landslide events (extracted from the landslide inventory). After that, causal factors of landslides (such as slope, aspect, lithology, geomorphology, land-use and soil depth) were produced to calculate the corresponding weights, and thereby we defined a relevant set of spatial criteria for the latter landslide hazard assessment. On top of that, susceptibility assessment was performed in order to classify the area to low, moderate and high susceptible regions. Results showed that NW aspect, mountain geomorphology, private land-use, laterite loam and clay, slope between 19 to 24 degrees, and soil depth between 10 - 20 cm were found to have the largest contribution to high landslide susceptibility. The high success rate (72.35%) was obtained using area under the curve from the landslide susceptibility map. Meanwhile, effect analysis was carried out to assess the accuracy of the landslide susceptibility, indicating that the factor of slope played the most important role in determining the occurring probability of landslide although it did not deviate as much as other factors. Finally, the vulnerability analyses were carried out by means of the Spatial Multi-Criteria Estimation model, which in turn, led to the risk assessment. It turned out that not so much of the number of buildings (~ 34.13%) was associated with high-risk zone and that governmental and private land-use almost accounted for the same risk (39.9% and 40.9%, respectively).

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