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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 76932 matches for " Wei-Chia Lee "
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Sensory Dysfunction of Bladder Mucosa and Bladder Oversensitivity in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome
Wei-Chia Lee, Po-Hui Chiang, You-Lin Tain, Chia-Ching Wu, Yao-Chi Chuang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045578
Abstract: Purpose To study the role of sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa in bladder oversensitivity of rats with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods Female Wistar rats were fed a fructose-rich diet (60%) or a normal diet for 3 months. Based on cystometry, the fructose-fed rats (FFRs) were divided into a group with normal detrusor function or detrusor overactivity (DO). Acidic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) solution (5mM, pH 3.3) was used to elicit reflex micturition. Cystometric parameters were evaluated before and after drug administration. Functional proteins of the bladder mucosa were assessed by western blotting. Results Compared to the controls, intravesical acidic ATP solution instillation induced a significant increase in provoked phasic contractions in both FFR groups and a significant decrease in the mean functional bladder capacity of group DO. Pretreatment with capsaicin for C-fiber desentization, intravesical liposome for mucosal protection, or intravenous pyridoxal 5-phosphate 6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulfonic acid for antagonized purinergic receptors can interfere with the urodynamic effects of intravesical ATP in FFRs and controls. Over-expression of TRPV1, P2X3, and iNOS proteins, and down-regulation of eNOS proteins were observed in the bladder mucosa of both fructose-fed groups. Conclusions Alterations of sensory receptors and enzymes in the bladder mucosa, including over-expression of TRPV1, P2X3, and iNOS proteins, can precipitate the emergence of bladder phasic contractions and oversensitivity through the activation of C-afferents during acidic ATP solution stimulation in FFRs. The down-regulation of eNOS protein in the bladder mucosa of FFRs may lead to a failure to suppress bladder oversensitivity and phasic contractions. Sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa and DO causing by metabolic syndrome are easier to elicit bladder oversensitivity to certain urothelium stimuli.
Hyposensitivity of C-fiber Afferents at the Distal Extremities as an Indicator of Early Stages Diabetic Bladder Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Women
Wei-Chia Lee, Han-Ching Wu, Kuo-How Huang, Huey-Peir Wu, Hong-Jeng Yu, Chia-Ching Wu
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086463
Abstract: Purpose To investigate the relationship between distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy and early stages of autonomic bladder dysfunction in type 2 diabetic women. Materials and Methods A total of 137 diabetic women with minimal coexisting confounders of voiding dysfunction followed at a diabetes clinic were subject to the following evaluations: current perception threshold (CPT) tests on myelinated and unmyelinated nerves at the big toe for peroneal nerve and middle finger for median nerve, uroflowmetry, post-void residual urine volume, and overactive bladder (OAB) symptom score questionnaire. Patients presenting with voiding difficulty also underwent urodynamic studies and intravesical CPT tests. Results Based on the OAB symptom score and urodynamic studies, 19% of diabetic women had the OAB syndrome while 24.8% had unrecognized urodynamic bladder dysfunction (UBD). The OAB group had a significantly greater mean 5 Hz CPT test value at the big toe by comparison to those without OAB. When compared to diabetic women without UBD, those with UBD showed greater mean 5 Hz CPT test values at the middle finger and big toe. The diabetic women categorized as C-fiber hyposensitivity at the middle finger or big toe by using CPT test also had higher odds ratios of UBD. Among diabetic women with UBD, the 5 Hz CPT test values at the big toe and middle finger were significantly associated with intravesical 5 Hz CPT test values. Conclusions Using electrophysiological evidence, our study revealed that hyposensitivity of unmyelinated C fiber afferents at the distal extremities is an indicator of early stages diabetic bladder dysfunction in type 2 diabetic women. The C fiber dysfunction at the distal extremities seems concurrent with vesical C-fiber neuropathy and may be a sentinel for developing early diabetic bladder dysfunction among female patients.
Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Is Associated with Developmental Programming of Adult Kidney Disease and Hypertension in Offspring of Streptozotocin-Treated Mothers
You-Lin Tain, Wen-Chin Lee, Chien-Ning Hsu, Wei-Chia Lee, Li-Tung Huang, Chien-Te Lee, Ching-Yuang Lin
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055420
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus complicates pregnancies, leading to diseases in adult life in the offspring. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is increased in diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, and hypertension. We tested whether maternal diabetes causes increased ADMA in rats, resulting in kidney disease and hypertension in the adult offspring, and whether these can be prevented by maternal citrulline supplementation. Newborn female and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ), which made up the nSTZ and STZ models, respectively. For the STZ model, 4 groups of male offspring were killed at age 3 months: the control, STZ, and Cit and STZ+Cit (control and STZ rats treated with 0.25% l-citrulline solution, respectively) groups. The nSTZ rats had lower nephron numbers. The renal level of ADMA was higher in the nSTZ rats than in controls. The STZ group developed kidney injury, renal hypertrophy, and elevated blood pressure at the age of 12 weeks. These conditions were found to be associated with increased ADMA levels, decreased nitric oxide (NO) production, and decreased dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) activity in the kidney. In addition, ADMA caused a nephron deficit in cultured rat metanephroi. Maternal citrulline supplementation prevented hypertension and kidney injury, increased the renal DDAH-2 protein level, and restored the levels of ADMA and NO in the STZ+Cit group. Reduced nephron number and increased ADMA contribute to adult kidney disease and hypertension in offspring of mothers with STZ-induced diabetes. Manipulation of the ADMA-NO pathway by citrulline supplementation may be a potential approach to prevent these conditions.
Functional and Molecular Characterization of Hyposensitive Underactive Bladder Tissue and Urine in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat
Jayabalan Nirmal, Pradeep Tyagi, Yao-Chi Chuang, Wei-Chia Lee, Naoki Yoshimura, Chao-Cheng Huang, Bharathi Rajaganapathy, Michael B. Chancellor
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102644
Abstract: Background The functional and molecular alterations of nerve growth factor (NGF) and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its receptors were studied in bladder and urine in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Diabetes mellitus was induced with a single dose of 45 mg/kg STZ Intraperitoneally (i.p) in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Continuous cystometrogram were performed on control rats and STZ treated rats at week 4 or 12 under urethane anesthesia. Bladder was then harvested for histology, expression of EP receptors and NGF by western blotting, PGE2 levels by ELISA, and detection of apoptosis by TUNEL staining. In addition, 4-hr urine was collected from all groups for urine levels of PGE2, and NGF assay. DM induced progressive increase of bladder weight, urine production, intercontraction interval (ICI) and residual urine in a time dependent fashion. Upregulation of Prostaglandin E receptor (EP)1 and EP3 receptors and downregulation of NGF expression, increase in urine NGF and decrease levels of urine PGE2 at week 12 was observed. The decrease in ICI by intravesical instillation of PGE2 was by 51% in control rats and 31.4% in DM group at week 12. Conclusions/Significance DM induced hyposensitive underactive bladder which is characterized by increased inflammatory reaction, apoptosis, urine NGF levels, upregulation of EP1 and EP3 receptors and decreased bladder NGF and urine PGE2. The data suggest that EP3 receptor are potential targets in the treatment of diabetes induced underactive bladder.
Searching for isovector signatures in the neutron-rich oxygen and calcium isotopes
Wei-Chia Chen,J. Piekarewicz
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2015.07.020
Abstract: We search for potential isovector signatures in the neutron-rich oxygen and calcium isotopes within the framework of a relativistic mean-field theory with an exact treatment of pairing correlations. To probe the isovector sector we calibrate a few relativistic density functionals using the same isoscalar constraints but with one differing isovector assumption. It is found that under certain conditions, the isotopic chain in oxygen can be made to terminate at the experimentally observed ${}^{24}$O isotope and in the case of the calcium isotopes at ${}^{60}$Ca. To produce such behavior, the resulting symmetry energy must be soft, with predicted values for the symmetry energy and its slope at saturation density being $J\!=\!(30.92\pm0.47)$ MeV and $L\!=\!(51.0\pm1.5)$ MeV, respectively. As a consequence, the neutron-skin thickness of ${}^{208}$Pb is rather small: $R_{\rm skin}^{208}\!=\!(0.161\pm0.011)$ fm. This same model - labelled "FSUGarnet" - predicts $R_{1.4}\!=\!(13.1\pm0.1)$ km for the radius of a "canonical" 1.4$M_{\odot}$ neutron star, yet is also able to support a two-solar-mass neutron star.
Building relativistic mean field models for finite nuclei and neutron stars
Wei-Chia Chen,J. Piekarewicz
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.90.044305
Abstract: Background: Theoretical approaches based on density functional theory provide the only tractable method to incorporate the wide range of densities and isospin asymmetries required to describe finite nuclei, infinite nuclear matter, and neutron stars. Purpose: A relativistic energy density functional (EDF) is developed to address the complexity of such diverse nuclear systems. Moreover, a statistical perspective is adopted to describe the information content of various physical observables. Methods: We implement the model optimization by minimizing a suitably constructed chi-square objective function using various properties of finite nuclei and neutron stars. The minimization is then supplemented by a covariance analysis that includes both uncertainty estimates and correlation coefficients. Results: A new model, FSUGold2, is created that can well reproduce the ground-state properties of finite nuclei, their monopole response, and that accounts for the maximum neutron star mass observed up to date. In particular, the model predicts both a stiff symmetry energy and a soft equation of state for symmetric nuclear matter--suggesting a fairly large neutron-skin thickness in Pb208 and a moderate value of the nuclear incompressibility. Conclusions: We conclude that without any meaningful constraint on the isovector sector, relativistic EDFs will continue to predict significantly large neutron skins. However, the calibration scheme adopted here is flexible enough to create models with different assumptions on various observables. Such a scheme--properly supplemented by a covariance analysis--provides a powerful tool to identify the critical measurements required to place meaningful constraints on theoretical models.
On the compactness of neutron stars
Wei-Chia Chen,J. Piekarewicz
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.161101
Abstract: Recent progress in the determination of both masses and radii of neutron stars are starting to place stringent constraints on the dense matter equation of state. In particular, new theoretical developments together with improved statistical tools seem to favor stellar radii that are significantly smaller than those predicted by models using purely nucleonic equations of state. Given that the underlying equation of state must also account for the observation of $2M_{\odot}$ neutron stars, theoretical approaches to the study of the dense matter equation of state are facing serious challenges. In response to this challenge, we compute in a model-independent way the underlying equation of state associated with an assumed mass-radius template similar to the "common radius" assumption used in recent studies. Once such a mass-radius template is adopted, the equation of state follows directly from the implementation of Lindblom's algorithm; assumptions on the nature or composition of the dense stellar core are not required. By analyzing mass-radius profiles with a maximum mass consistent with observation and common radii in the 8 to 11 km range, a lower limit on the stellar radius of a $1.4M_{\odot}$ neutron star of $R_{\rm NS}\!\gtrsim\!10.7$ km is obtained in order to prevent the equation of state from violating causality.
Review of Random Phase Encoding in Volume Holographic Storage
Wei-Chia Su,Ching-Cherng Sun
Materials , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ma5091635
Abstract: Random phase encoding is a unique technique for volume hologram which can be applied to various applications such as holographic multiplexing storage, image encryption, and optical sensing. In this review article, we first review and discuss diffraction selectivity of random phase encoding in volume holograms, which is the most important parameter related to multiplexing capacity of volume holographic storage. We then review an image encryption system based on random phase encoding. The alignment of phase key for decryption of the encoded image stored in holographic memory is analyzed and discussed. In the latter part of the review, an all-optical sensing system implemented by random phase encoding and holographic interconnection is presented.
Information and statistics: a new paradigm in theoretical nuclear physics
J. Piekarewicz,Wei-Chia Chen,F. J. Fattoyev
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/42/3/034018
Abstract: Theoretical predictions of physical observables often involve extrapolations to regions that are poorly constrained by laboratory experiments and astrophysical observations. Without properly quantified theoretical errors, such model predictions are of very limited utility. In this contribution we use maximum-likelihood estimation to compute theoretical errors and assess correlations between physical observables. We illustrate the power and elegance of these methods using examples of both pedagogical and realistic interest. In particular, we implement a gaussian approximation to the likelihood function to develop a new relativistic effective interaction constrained by ground-state properties of finite nuclei, their monopole response, and masses of neutron stars.
Relativistic mean field plus exact pairing approach to open shell nuclei
Wei-Chia Chen,J. Piekarewicz,A. Volya
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.89.014321
Abstract: Background: Pairing correlations play a critical role in determining numerous properties of open-shell nuclei. Traditionally, they are included in a mean-field description of atomic nuclei through the approximate Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer or Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov formalism. Purpose: We propose a new hybrid ''relativistic-mean-field-plus-pairing'' approach in which pairing is treated exactly so the number of particles is conserved. To verify the reliability of the formalism, we apply it to the study of both ground-state properties and isoscalar monopole excitations of the Tin isotopes. Methods: Accurately-calibrated relativistic mean-field models supplemented by an exact treatment of pairing correlations are used to compute ground-state observables along the isotopic chain in Tin. In turn, ground-state densities are used as input to the calculation of giant monopole resonances through a constrained-relativistic approach. Results: We compute a variety of ground-state observables sensitive to pairing correlations as well as the evolution of giant monopole energies along the isotopic chain in Tin. Whereas ground-state properties are consistent with experiment, we find that pairing correlations have a minor effect on the giant monopole energies. Conclusions: A new mean-field-plus-pairing approach is introduced to compute properties of open-shell nuclei. The formalism provides an efficient and powerful alternative to the computation of both ground-state properties and monopole energies of open-shell nuclei. We find ground-state properties to be well reproduced in this approach. However, as many have concluded before us, we find that pairing correlations are unlikely to provide an answer to the question of ''why is Tin so soft?''
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