Publish in OALib Journal
APC: Only $99
Gemcitabine and cisplatin combination
therapy (GC) is accepted as a standard treatment for advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC). However, little information
is available regarding such treatment in the clinical practice setting in
Japan. We retrospectively examined the clinical data of patients with
unresectable or recurrent BTC who received GC as first-line treatment. The
regimen consisted of cisplatin (25 mg/m2) and gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2)
administered intravenously on days 1 and 8 of repeated 3-week cycles. Twenty
patients were analyzed. A total of 148 cycles of GC was administered, with a
median of 8 and a range of 1 to 18 cycles. Treatment delay and dose reduction
were noted in 35 (24%) and 41 (28%) of the 148 cycles, respectively. The major
adverse events of grade 3 or 4 included neutropenia (50%), leukopenia (45%), anemia
(30%), and thrombocytopenia (15%). Nonhematologic toxicities included nausea
(10%), appetite loss (10%), and fatigue (10%). Median progression-free and
overall survival times were 6.9 and 12.3 months, respectively. Gallbladder
cancer showed a significantly higher response rate than did other types of BTC
(chi-squaretest, P = 0.002). GC was
thus effective and well tolerated as first-line chemotherapy for Japanese
patients with advanced BTC in the clinical practice setting.
Most existing theoretical studies on home
market effects depend crucially on assumptions of symmetric transportation
costs and increasing returns to scale technology. In our model, we remove the
home market effect assumptions from the main model used in the literature.
Instead, this paper employs a constant returns monopolistic competition model
with asymmetric transportation costs. We show that 1) when the home
country’s transportation cost is large enough for a given level of the foreign
country’s transportation cost, the HME appears in the home country, and 2) the
opposite of the HME is observed in the home country as long as the foreign
country’s transportation cost is large enough for a given level of the home
country’s transportation cost.
This paper describes two case studies: 1) a cogeneration system of a hospital and 2) a heat pump system installed in an aquarium that uses seawater for latent heat storage. The cogeneration system is an autonomous system that combines the generation of electrical, heating, and cooling energies in a hospital. Cogeneration systems can provide simultaneous heating and cooling. No technical obstacles were identified for implementing the cogeneration system. The average ratio between electric and thermal loads in the hospital was suitable for the cogeneration system operation. An analysis performed for a non-optimized cogeneration system predicted large potential for energy savings and CO2 reduction. The heat pump system using a low-temperature unutilized heat source is introduced on a heat source load responsive heat pump system, which combines a load variation responsive heat pump utilizing seawater with a latent heat-storage system (ice and water slurry), using nighttime electric power to level the electric power load. The experimental coefficient of performance (COP) of the proposed heat exchanger from the heat pump system, assisted by using seawater as latent heat storage for cooling, is discussed in detail.
A ceramic gas turbine can save energy because of its high thermal efficiency at high turbine inlet temperatures. This paper deals with the thermodynamic and economic aspects of a ceramic gas turbine cogeneration system. Here cogeneration means the simultaneous production of electrical en-ergy and useful thermal energy from the same facility. The thermodynamic performance of a ceramic gas turbine cycle is assessed using a computer model. This model is used in parametric studies of performance under partial loads and at various inlet air temperatures. The computed performance is compared to the measured performance of a conventional gas turbine cycle. Then, an economic evaluation of a ceramic gas turbine cogeneration system is investigated. Energy savings provided by this system are estimated on the basis of the distributions of heat/power ratios. The computed economic evaluation is compared to the actual economic performance of a conventional system in which boilers produce the required thermal energy and electricity is purchased from a utility.