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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1418 matches for " Wataru Okamoto "
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Practical Use of Gemcitabine and Cisplatin Combination Therapy as First-Line Treatment for Japanese Patients with Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer  [PDF]
Hisato Kawakami, Isamu Okamoto, Wataru Okamoto, Masayuki Takeda, Shinya Ueda, Toshihiro Kudo, Shin-ichi Nishina, Yasuhito Fujisaka, Masaki Miyazaki, Junji Tsurutani, Takayasu Kurata, Kazuhiko Nakagawa
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.46121

Gemcitabine and cisplatin combination therapy (GC) is accepted as a standard treatment for advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC). However, little information is available regarding such treatment in the clinical practice setting in Japan. We retrospectively examined the clinical data of patients with unresectable or recurrent BTC who received GC as first-line treatment. The regimen consisted of cisplatin (25 mg/m2) and gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2) administered intravenously on days 1 and 8 of repeated 3-week cycles. Twenty patients were analyzed. A total of 148 cycles of GC was administered, with a median of 8 and a range of 1 to 18 cycles. Treatment delay and dose reduction were noted in 35 (24%) and 41 (28%) of the 148 cycles, respectively. The major adverse events of grade 3 or 4 included neutropenia (50%), leukopenia (45%), anemia (30%), and thrombocytopenia (15%). Nonhematologic toxicities included nausea (10%), appetite loss (10%), and fatigue (10%). Median progression-free and overall survival times were 6.9 and 12.3 months, respectively. Gallbladder cancer showed a significantly higher response rate than did other types of BTC (chi-squaretest, P = 0.002). GC was thus effective and well tolerated as first-line chemotherapy for Japanese patients with advanced BTC in the clinical practice setting.

Hemopoietic Formulae Rearranged Leukocyte Subsets and Implication for Use against the Type of Constitution and Infectious Agent for Further Modification to Future  [PDF]
Nobuo Yamaguchi, Wataru Hiruma, Kohei Suruga, Nurmuhamamt Amat, Dilxat Yimit, Parida Hoxur, Daisuke Sakamoto, Kazuhiro Okamoto, Shan-Yu Su
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2015.53015
Abstract: A hemopoietic formula (HF) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) usually consists of more than six single herbs. We seek to look into changes of immune-competent cells by two commonly utilized HF, including Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang (SDT) and Bu-Zong-Ye-Qi-Tang (BYT). However, the effects of both formulae on levels of leukocyte subsets are not yet defied. After administration of immno-suppressant to animals, the effects by HFs on the augmentation for subsets of leukocytes, CD positive cell counts of lymphocytes, and the cytokine-producing cells are measured. Our results show that SDT augments the level of lymphocytes, while BYT increases the level of granulocytes. In our clinical study with 15 healthy volunteers, positive cells for CD2, CD11b, CD14, IL-4, IL-1β and IFN-γ in peripheral blood are increased significantly 15 days after the ingestion of HFs. In rodents, compromised host as well as normal animal is administered with cancer chemotherapeutic agent (Mytomycin-C). Our observations show that SDT regulates phagocyte activities of the immune system, introducing it against intracellular parasite, and that BYT augments intercellular pathogen through humoral immunity. We discuss the significance and mechanism of HFs on the level of leukocyte subsets in number and function that are considered to be potential indicators for the evaluation of TCM modalities. We also propose an idea that TCM exhibits tonic effects via enhancing the ability to fight against infection and bacteria, as well as turning the multi-drug resistant bacteria to the sensitive ones. Together with these evidences, we suggest an ideal remedy for the compromised to fight host against pathogens. Moreover, we try to modify these hemopoietic formulae to more digestive forms. This modification brings to the significant lifted up for antibody producing cells and anti-oxidative activity for phagocytic cells.
The Home Market Effect under Constant Returns and Monopolistic Competition  [PDF]
Wataru Johdo
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25082
Abstract: Most existing theoretical studies on home market effects depend crucially on the assumption of increasing returns to scale technology. This paper studies the consequences of the absence of increasing returns to scale on home market effects by employing a constant returns monopolistic competition model. This paper demonstrates that home market effects can emerge or disappear depending on the magnitude of the elasticity of substitution and transport costs even in the constant returns model with firm mobility. In particular, a reverse home market effect can result when the elasticity of substitution is low and transport costs are high.
Asymmetric Transportation Costs and the Home Market Effect  [PDF]
Wataru Johdo
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.32013

Most existing theoretical studies on home market effects depend crucially on assumptions of symmetric transportation costs and increasing returns to scale technology. In our model, we remove the home market effect assumptions from the main model used in the literature. Instead, this paper employs a constant returns monopolistic competition model with asymmetric transportation costs. We show that 1) when the home country’s transportation cost is large enough for a given level of the foreign country’s transportation cost, the HME appears in the home country, and 2) the opposite of the HME is observed in the home country as long as the foreign country’s transportation cost is large enough for a given level of the home country’s transportation cost.

Consumption Tax, Nontraded Goods and Welfare  [PDF]
Wataru Johdo
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.35044
Abstract: This paper studies the welfare effects of a consumption tax rise based on the two-sector small open economy model of Obstfeld and Rogoff (1995) and Lane (1997). The main findings of our analysis are that 1) in the case of free trade, the consumption tax rise has no effect on welfare, 2) when there is the nontraded goods sector, the consumption tax rise has a negative effect on welfare, and 3) the larger the share of nontraded goods in consumption is, the larger the negative welfare effect of consumption tax will be.
Case Studies of Energy Saving and CO2 Reduction by Cogeneration and Heat Pump Systems  [PDF]
Satoru Okamoto
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2013.22014

This paper describes two case studies: 1) a cogeneration system of a hospital and 2) a heat pump system installed in an aquarium that uses seawater for latent heat storage. The cogeneration system is an autonomous system that combines the generation of electrical, heating, and cooling energies in a hospital. Cogeneration systems can provide simultaneous heating and cooling. No technical obstacles were identified for implementing the cogeneration system. The average ratio between electric and thermal loads in the hospital was suitable for the cogeneration system operation. An analysis performed for a non-optimized cogeneration system predicted large potential for energy savings and CO2 reduction. The heat pump system using a low-temperature unutilized heat source is introduced on a heat source load responsive heat pump system, which combines a load variation responsive heat pump utilizing seawater with a latent heat-storage system (ice and water slurry), using nighttime electric power to level the electric power load. The experimental coefficient of performance (COP) of the proposed heat exchanger from the heat pump system, assisted by using seawater as latent heat storage for cooling, is discussed in detail.

Energy-Saving and Economical Evaluations of a Ceramic Gas Turbine Cogeneration Plant  [PDF]
Satoru Okamoto
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2013.22012

A ceramic gas turbine can save energy because of its high thermal efficiency at high turbine inlet temperatures. This paper deals with the thermodynamic and economic aspects of a ceramic gas turbine cogeneration system. Here cogeneration means the simultaneous production of electrical en-ergy and useful thermal energy from the same facility. The thermodynamic performance of a ceramic gas turbine cycle is assessed using a computer model. This model is used in parametric studies of performance under partial loads and at various inlet air temperatures. The computed performance is compared to the measured performance of a conventional gas turbine cycle. Then, an economic evaluation of a ceramic gas turbine cogeneration system is investigated. Energy savings provided by this system are estimated on the basis of the distributions of heat/power ratios. The computed economic evaluation is compared to the actual economic performance of a conventional system in which boilers produce the required thermal energy and electricity is purchased from a utility.

On the Predictive Ability of Geomagnetic Disturbances from Solar Wind Measurements at Separated Solar Longitude  [PDF]
Wataru Miyake, Tsutomu Nagatsuma
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2012.22009
Abstract: In-situ solar wind measurement at a solar longitude separated from the earth in interplanetary space is expected to provide a great progress in practical space weather forecast, which has been confirmed by some recent studies. We introduce geoeffective solar wind conditions in correlation analysis between STEREO and ACE measurements. We sort solar wind data of ACE by using geomagnetic condition, and evaluate actual ability for predicting geoeffective solar wind arrival at ACE from STEREO-A and B solar wind measurement, by assuming simple corotating structures in interplanetary space. The results show that geomagnetic disturbances are more difficult to be predicted than quiet intervals, suggesting that the simple correlation method of solar wind measurement at separated solar longitude is not enough for accurately predicting geomagnetic disturbances, even though the correlation seems generally high. Although in-situ solar wind monitoring at a vantage point trailing behind the earth would definitely improve the prediction capability of solar wind structure arriving at the terrestrial plasma environment, we emphasize that the predictive ability of geoeffective disturbances would still remain low. We suggest that more sophisticated prediction schemes should be developed.
Transcription of DWARF4 Plays a Crucial Role in Auxin-Regulated Root Elongation in Addition to Brassinosteroid Homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana
Yuya Yoshimitsu, Kiwamu Tanaka, Wataru Fukuda, Tadao Asami, Shigeo Yoshida, Ken-ichiro Hayashi, Yuji Kamiya, Yusuke Jikumaru, Tomoaki Shigeta, Yasushi Nakamura, Tomoaki Matsuo, Shigehisa Okamoto
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023851
Abstract: The expression of DWARF4 (DWF4), which encodes a C-22 hydroxylase, is crucial for brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and for the feedback control of endogenous BR levels. To advance our knowledge of BRs, we examined the effects of different plant hormones on DWF4 transcription in Arabidopsis thaliana. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR showed that the amount of the DWF4 mRNA precursor either decreased or increased, similarly with its mature form, in response to an exogenously applied bioactive BR, brassinolide (BL), and a BR biosynthesis inhibitor, brassinazole (Brz), respectively. The response to these chemicals in the levels of β-glucuronidase (GUS) mRNA and its enzymatic activity is similar to the response of native DWF4 mRNA in DWF4::GUS plants. Contrary to the effects of BL, exogenous auxin induced GUS activity, but this enhancement was suppressed by anti-auxins, such as α-(phenylethyl-2-one)-IAA and α-tert-butoxycarbonylaminohexyl-IAA, suggesting the involvement of SCFTIR1-mediated auxin signaling in auxin-induced DWF4 transcription. Auxin-enhanced GUS activity was observed exclusively in roots; it was the most prominent in the elongation zones of both primary and lateral roots. Furthermore, auxin-induced lateral root elongation was suppressed by both Brz application and the dwf4 mutation, and this suppression was rescued by BL, suggesting that BRs act positively on root elongation under the control of auxin. Altogether, our results indicate that DWF4 transcription plays a novel role in the BR-auxin crosstalk associated with root elongation, in addition to its role in BR homeostasis.
A multi-center study on low-frequency rTMS combined with intensive occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis in post-stroke patients
Wataru Kakuda, Masahiro Abo, Masato Shimizu, Jinichi Sasanuma, Takatsugu Okamoto, Aki Yokoi, Kensuke Taguchi, Sugao Mitani, Hiroaki Harashima, Naoki Urushidani, Mitsuyoshi Urashima, The NEURO Investigators
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1743-0003-9-4
Abstract: The study subjects were 204 post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis (mean age at admission 58.5 ± 13.4 years, mean time after stroke 5.0 ± 4.5 years, ± SD) from five institutions in Japan. During 15-day hospitalization, each patient received 22 treatment sessions of 20-min low-frequency rTMS and 120-min intensive OT daily. Low-frequency rTMS of 1 Hz was applied to the contralesional hemisphere over the primary motor area. The intensive OT, consisting of 60-min one-to-one training and 60-min self-exercise, was provided after the application of low-frequency rTMS. Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) were performed serially. The physiatrists and occupational therapists involved in this study received training prior to the study to standardize the therapeutic protocol.All patients completed the protocol without any adverse effects. The FMA score increased and WMFT log performance time decreased significantly at discharge, relative to the respective values at admission (change in FMA score: median at admission, 47 points; median at discharge, 51 points; p < 0.001. change in WMFT log performance time: median at admission, 3.23; median at discharge, 2.51; p < 0.001). These changes were persistently seen up to 4 weeks after discharge in 79 patients. Linear regression analysis found no significant relationship between baseline parameters and indexes of improvement in motor function.The 15-day inpatient rTMS plus OT protocol is a safe, feasible, and clinically useful neurorehabilitative intervention for post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. The response to the treatment was not influenced by age or time after stroke onset. The efficacy of the intervention should be confirmed in a randomized controlled study including a control group.Application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) influences neural excitability of selected brain areas. It has been reported that low-frequency rTMS of ≤ 1 Hz suppresses while hig
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