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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 242278 matches for " Wanda K. O'Neal "
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Azithromycin Treatment Alters Gene Expression in Inflammatory, Lipid Metabolism, and Cell Cycle Pathways in Well-Differentiated Human Airway Epithelia
Carla Maria P. Ribeiro, Harry Hurd, Yichao Wu, Mary E. B. Martino, Lisa Jones, Brian Brighton, Richard C. Boucher, Wanda K. O'Neal
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005806
Abstract: Prolonged macrolide antibiotic therapy at low doses improves clinical outcome in patients affected with diffuse panbronchiolitis and cystic fibrosis. Consensus is building that the therapeutic effects are due to anti-inflammatory, rather than anti-microbial activities, but the mode of action is likely complex. To gain insights into how the macrolide azithromycin (AZT) modulates inflammatory responses in airways, well-differentiated primary cultures of human airway epithelia were exposed to AZT alone, an inflammatory stimulus consisting of soluble factors from cystic fibrosis airways, or AZT followed by the inflammatory stimulus. RNA microarrays were conducted to identify global and specific gene expression changes. Analysis of gene expression changes revealed that the AZT treatment alone altered the gene profile of the cells, primarily by significantly increasing the expression of lipid/cholesterol genes and decreasing the expression of cell cycle/mitosis genes. The increase in cholesterol biosynthetic genes was confirmed by increased filipin staining, an index of free cholesterol, after AZT treatment. AZT also affected genes with inflammatory annotations, but the effect was variable (both up- and down-regulation) and gene specific. AZT pretreatment prevented the up-regulation of some genes, such as MUC5AC and MMP9, triggered by the inflammatory stimulus, but the up-regulation of other inflammatory genes, e.g., cytokines and chemokines, such as interleukin-8, was not affected. On the other hand, HLA genes were increased by AZT. Notably, secreted IL-8 protein levels did not reflect mRNA levels, and were, in fact, higher after AZT pretreatment in cultures exposed to the inflammatory stimulus, suggesting that AZT can affect inflammatory pathways other than by altering gene expression. These findings suggest that the specific effects of AZT on inflamed and non-inflamed airway epithelia are likely relevant to its clinical activity, and their apparent complexity may help explain the diverse immunomodulatory roles of macrolides.
Mucin Variable Number Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms and Severity of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease: Significant Association with MUC5AC
XueLiang Guo, Rhonda G. Pace, Jaclyn R. Stonebraker, Clayton W. Commander, Anthony T. Dang, Mitchell L. Drumm, Ann Harris, Fei Zou, Dallas M. Swallow, Fred A. Wright, Wanda K. O'Neal, Michael R. Knowles
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025452
Abstract: Variability in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is partially due to non-CFTR genetic modifiers. Mucin genes are very polymorphic, and mucins play a key role in the pathogenesis of CF lung disease; therefore, mucin genes are strong candidates as genetic modifiers. DNA from CF patients recruited for extremes of lung phenotype was analyzed by Southern blot or PCR to define variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) length polymorphisms for MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC7. VNTR length polymorphisms were tested for association with lung disease severity and for linkage disequilibrium (LD) with flanking single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). No strong associations were found for MUC1, MUC2, or MUC7. A significant association was found between the overall distribution of MUC5AC VNTR length and CF lung disease severity (p = 0.025; n = 468 patients); plus, there was robust association of the specific 6.4 kb HinfI VNTR fragment with severity of lung disease (p = 6.2×10?4 after Bonferroni correction). There was strong LD between MUC5AC VNTR length modes and flanking SNPs. The severity-associated 6.4 kb VNTR allele of MUC5AC was confirmed to be genetically distinct from the 6.3 kb allele, as it showed significantly stronger association with nearby SNPs. These data provide detailed respiratory mucin gene VNTR allele distributions in CF patients. Our data also show a novel link between the MUC5AC 6.4 kb VNTR allele and severity of CF lung disease. The LD pattern with surrounding SNPs suggests that the 6.4 kb allele contains, or is linked to, important functional genetic variation.
Children's Health Status: Examining the Associations among Income Poverty, Material Hardship, and Parental Factors
Godwin S. Ashiabi, Keri K. O'Neal
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000940
Abstract: Background We examined a model of multiple mediating pathways of income poverty, material hardship, parenting factors, and child health status to understand how material hardship and parental factors mediate the effects of poverty on child health. We hypothesized that: (a) poverty will be directly associated with material hardship, parental depression, and health status, and indirectly with parenting behaviors through its effects on parental depression and material hardship; (b) material hardship will be associated with parental depression, parenting behaviors, and health status; and (c) parental depression will be correlated with parenting behaviors, and that both parental depression and parenting behaviors will predict child health. Methods and Results We used data from the 2002 National Survey of American Families for a sample of 9,645 6-to-11 year-olds to examine a 4-step structural equation model. The baseline model included covariates and income poverty. In the hardship model, food insufficiency and medical need were added to the baseline model. The parental model included parental depression and parenting behavior and baseline model. In the full model, all the constructs were included. First, income poverty had a direct effect on health status, and an indirect effect through its association with material hardship, parental depressive affect, and parenting behaviors. Medical need and food insufficiency had negative effects on child health, and indirect effects on health through their association with parental depression and parenting behaviors. Finally, parental depression and parenting behaviors were associated with child health, and part of the effect of parental depression on health was explained by its association with parenting behaviors. Conclusions Poverty has an independent effect on health, however, its effects are partially explained by material hardship, parental depression and parental behaviors. To improve children's health would require a multi-pronged approach involving income transfers, health insurance coverage, food and nutrition assistance, and parenting interventions.
Effect of lateral perturbations on psychophysical acceleration detection thresholds
Samantha J Richerson, Scott M Morstatt, Kristopher K O'Neal, Gloria Patrick, Charles J Robinson
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1743-0003-3-2
Abstract: Acceleration detection thresholds to whole-body lateral perturbations of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mm were measured for HYAs, HOAs, and DOAs using psychophysical procedures including a two-alternative forced choice protocol. Based on the subject's detection of the previous trial, the acceleration magnitude of the subsequent trial was increased or decreased according to the parameter estimation by sequential testing methodology. This stair-stepping procedure allowed acceleration thresholds to be measured for each displacement.Results indicate that for lateral displacements of 1 and 2 mm, HOAs and DOAs have significantly higher acceleration detection thresholds than young adults. At displacements of 8 and 16 mm, no differences in threshold were found among groups or between the two perturbation distances. The relationship between the acceleration threshold and perturbation displacement is of particular interest. Peak acceleration thresholds of approximately 10 mm/s2 were found at displacements of 2, 4, 8, and 16 mm for HYAs; at displacements of 4, 8, and 16 mm for HOAs; and at displacements of 8 and 16 mm for DOAs. Thus, 2, 4, and 8 mm appear to be critical breakpoints for HYAs, HOAs, and DOAs respectively, where the psychometric curve deviated from a negative power law relationship. These critical breakpoints likely indicate a change in the physiology of the system as it responds to the stimuli.As a function of age, the displacement at which the group deviates from a negative power law relationship increases from 2 mm to 4 mm. Additionally, the displacement at which subjects with peripheral sensory deficits deviate from the negative power law relations increases to 8 mm. These increases as a function of age and peripheral sensory loss may help explain the mechanism of falls in the elderly and diabetic populations.Standing balance is a task that relies on the integration of sensory systems including somatosensory tactile and joint receptors as well as visual and vestibular s
Global untargeted metabolic profiling of human sweat from exercising men and women
Lee Douglas P,Kennedy Adam D,ONeal Eric K,Bishop Phillip A
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-8-s1-p9
Abstract:
Post-prandial carbohydrate ingestion during 1-h of moderate-intensity, intermittent cycling does not improve mood, perceived exertion, or subsequent power output in recreationally-active exercisers
ONeal Eric K,Poulos Sylvia P,Wingo Jonathan E,Richardson Mark T
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-10-4
Abstract: Background This study compared the effects of ingesting water (W), a flavored carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE) or a flavored non-caloric electrolyte (NCE) beverage on mood, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and sprint power during cycling in recreational exercisers. Methods Men (n = 23) and women (n = 13) consumed a 24–h standardized diet and reported 2–4 h post-prandial for all test sessions. After a familiarization session, participants completed 50 min of stationary cycling in a warm environment (wet bulb globe temperature = 25.0°C) at ~ 60-65% of heart rate reserve (146 ± 4 bpm) interspersed with 5 rest periods of 2 min each. During exercise, participants consumed W, CE, or NCE, served in a counterbalanced cross-over design. Beverage volume was served in 3 aliquots equaling each individual’s sweat losses (mean 847 ± 368 mL) during the familiarization session. Profiles of Mood States questionnaires (POMS) were administered and blood glucose levels were determined pre- and post- sub-maximal cycling. Following sub-maximal exercise, participants completed 3 30–s Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnT) with 2.5 min rest between tests to assess performance. Results Blood glucose was higher (p < 0.05) after 50 min of submaximal cycling just prior to the WAnT for CE (6.1 ± 1.7 mmol/L) compared to W (4.9 ± 1.5 mmol/L) and NCE (4.6 ± 1.2 mmol/L). Nonetheless, there were no differences among treatments in peak (642 ± 153, 635 ± 143, 650 ± 141 watts for W, NCE, and CE, respectively; p = 0.44) or mean (455 ± 100, 458 ± 95, 454 ± 95 watts for W, NCE, and CE, respectively; p = 0.62) power for the first WAnT or mean (414 ± 92, 425 ± 85, 423 ± 82 watts, respectively; p = 0.13) power output averaged across all 3 WAnT. Likewise, RPE during submaximal exercise, session RPE, and fatigue and vigor assessed by POMS did not differ among beverage treatments (p > 0.05). Conclusions Carbohydrate ingestion consumed by recreational exercisers during a 1–h, moderate-intensity aerobic workout did not alter mood or perceived exertion, nor did it affect subsequent anaerobic performance under the conditions of this study. Drinking caloric sport beverages does not benefit recreational exercisers in a non-fasted state.
Using the XMM Optical Monitor to Study Cluster Galaxy Evolution
Neal A. Miller,Richard O'Steen,Steffi Yen,K. D. Kuntz,Derek Hammer
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1086/664187
Abstract: We explore the application of XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (XMM-OM) ultraviolet (UV) data to study galaxy evolution. Our sample is constructed as the intersection of all Abell clusters with z < 0.05 and having archival XMM-OM data in either the UVM2 or UVW1 filters, plus optical and UV photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and GALEX, respectively. The eleven resulting clusters include 726 galaxies with measured redshifts, 520 of which have redshifts placing them within their parent Abell clusters. We develop procedures for manipulating the XMM-OM images and measuring galaxy photometry from them, and confirm our results via comparison with published catalogs. Color magnitude diagrams (CMDs) constructed using the XMM-OM data along with SDSS optical data show promise for evolutionary studies, with good separation between red and blue sequences and real variation in the width of the red sequence that is likely indicative of differences in star formation history. This is particularly true for UVW1 data, as the relative abundance of data collected using this filter and its depth make it an attractive choice. Available tools that use stellar synthesis libraries to fit the UV and optical photometric data may also be used, thereby better describing star formation history within the past Gyr and providing estimates of total stellar mass that include contributions from young stars. Finally, color-color diagrams that include XMM-OM UV data appear useful to the photometric identification of both extragalactic and stellar sources.
24-h Fluid Kinetics and Perception of Sweat Losses Following a 1-h Run in a Temperate Environment
Eric K. O'Neal,Christina R. Caufield,Jordan B. Lowe,Mary C. Stevenson,Brett A. Davis,Lauren K. Thigpen
Nutrients , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/nu6010037
Abstract: This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men = 12, women = 8) after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature = 19.9 ± 3.0 °C). Sweat losses (1353 ± 422 mL; 1.9% ± 0.5% of body mass) were significantly greater ( p < 0.001) than perceived losses (686 ± 586 mL). Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876 ± 1133 mL (218 ± 178 mL during) with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450 ± 678 mL). Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554 ± 669 mL at 12 h and +1186 ± 735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG) = 1.018 ± 0.008) with no changes ( p = 0.33) at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher ( p = 0.004) at 12 h post-run for men (1.025 ± 0.0070 vs. 1.014 ± 0.007), who consumed 171% ± 40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs . 268% ± 88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses.
Performance of a genetic algorithm for mass spectrometry proteomics
Neal O Jeffries
BMC Bioinformatics , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-5-180
Abstract: In reproducing the method, some modifications of the algorithm as it is described are necessary to get good performance. After modification, a cross-validation approach to model selection is used. The overall classification accuracy is comparable though not superior to other approaches considered. Also, some aspects of the process rely upon random sampling and thus for a fixed dataset the algorithm can produce many different models. This raises questions about how to choose among competing models. How this choice is made is important for interpreting sensitivity and specificity results as merely choosing the model with lowest test set error rate leads to overestimates of model performance.The algorithm needs to be modified to reduce variability and care must be taken in how to choose among competing models. Results derived from this algorithm must be accompanied by a full description of model selection procedures to give confidence that the reported accuracy is not overstated.When Petricoin et al. [1] published their analysis using serum to distinguish individuals with ovarian cancer from individuals with benign conditions, it suggested great promise in using high throughput mass spectrometry to improve upon existing biomarkers for patient groups that could greatly benefit from accurate and early diagnosis. Results from the analyses using this algorithm have, along with early findings from other groups (e.g. [2,3]), fueled an explosion of interest in using mass spectrometry techniques for quick and accurate diagnosis. Many other investigators have since used classification techniques to achieve impressive results in correctly categorizing unlabeled mass spectrometry samples as either diseased or healthy. Among the more common classification methods used are classification trees [2], boosting [4], stepwise discrimination methods [5], and wavelet discrimination [6], though few have used a genetic algorithm. Baggerly et al. [7] do use a genetic algorithm though its pro
The Utility of Intravenous Acetaminophen in the Perioperative Period
Jason B. ONeal
Frontiers in Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2013.00025
Abstract: Intravenous acetaminophen (IVA) has rapid and effective analgesic properties. Recent studies have shown several benefits of using IVA perioperatively. However, due to its relatively high cost and limited clinical data concerning its efficacy compared with other agents, physicians are hesitant to use IVA in the perioperative period. This brief review examines the utility of this medication in the perioperative period and highlights future areas of clinical and epidemiological research regarding its use.
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