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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 74590 matches for " Wan-Xi Yang "
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Mitochondria: transportation, distribution and function during spermiogenesis  [PDF]
Xiao Sun, Wan-Xi Yang
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2010.12014
Abstract: Spermiogenesis is a dynamic process which includes organelle reorganization and new structure formation. The morphology and distribution of the mitochondria in germ cells change to accommodate the cellular requirement. Multiple molecular motors and related proteins participate in carrying and anchoring mitochondria to the midpiece during spermiogenesis and this process is regulated precisely. Energetic metabolism provides energy for cellular activity and influences sperm survival and motility directly. Ubiquitination of mitochondria takes place during spermiogenesis, which has been implicated in sperm quality control and mitochondrial inheritance. In light of the essential roles of mitochondria in energy production, calcium homeostasis and apoptosis, mitochondria dysfunction cause severe human diseases, such as male infertility. The present study paves a way for a more detailed exploration of the biology of mitochondria during spermiogenesis.
Myosin Va Participates in Acrosomal Formation and Nuclear Morphogenesis during Spermatogenesis of Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis
Xiao Sun,Ying He,Lin Hou,Wan-Xi Yang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012738
Abstract: The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis belongs to the Class Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura. The spermatozoon of this species is of aflagellated type, it has a spherical acrosome surrounded by the cup-shaped nucleus, which are unique to brachyurans. For the past several decades, studies on the spermatogenesis of the mitten crab mainly focus on the morphology. Compared with the extensive study of molecular mechanism of spermatogenesis in mammals, relatively less information is available in crustacean species. Myosin Va, a member of Class V myosin, has been implicated in acrosome biogenesis and vesicle transport during spermatogenesis in mammals. In the present study we demonstrate the expression and cellular localization of myosin Va during spermatogenesis in E. sinensis.
Acroframosome-Dependent KIFC1 Facilitates Acrosome Formation during Spermatogenesis in the Caridean Shrimp Exopalaemon modestus
Cong-Cong Hou, Wan-Xi Yang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076065
Abstract: Background Acrosome formation and nuclear shaping are the main events in spermatogenesis. During spermiogenesis in Exopalaemon modestus, a unique microtubular structure called the acroframosome (AFS) forms in spermatids. The AFS links to a temporary organelle called the lamellar complex (LCx) leading to the formation of an everted umbrella-shaped acrosome and a dish-shaped nucleus in the mature sperm. These morphological changes require complex cell motility in which the C-terminal kinesin motor protein called KIFC1 is involved. In this study, we demonstrate that KIFC1 moves along the AFS and plays an important role in acrosome formation and nuclear shaping during spermatogenesis in E. modestus. Methodology/Principal Findings We cloned a 3125 bp complete cDNA of kifc1 from the testis of E. modestus by PCR. The predicted secondary and tertiary structures of E. modestus KIFC1 contain three domains: a) the C-terminus, b) the stalk region, and the c) N-terminusl. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR detected the expression of kifc1 mRNA in different tissues of E. modestus. In situ hybridization demonstrated the temporal and spatial expression profile of kifc1 during spermiogenesis. Western blot identified the expression of KIFC1 in different tissues of E. modestus, including the testis. Immunofluorescence localized KIFC1, tubulin, GM130, and mitochondria in order to elucidate their role during spermiogenesis in E. modestus. Conclusion/Significance Our results indicate that KIFC1 transports the Golgi complex, mitochondria, and other cellular components that results in acrosome formation and nuclear shaping in E. modestus. The KIFC1 transport function depends upon the microtubular structure called the acroframosome (AFS). This study describes some of the molecular mechanisms involved in the acrosome formation and nuclear shaping in E. modestus. In addition, this study may provide a model for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in spermatogenesis in other crustacean species and lead to a better understanding of the fertilization process in crustaceans.
Characteristics, functions, and applications of metallothionein in aquatic vertebrates
Dan-Dan Ma,Wan-Xi Yang
Frontiers in Marine Science , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2014.00034
Abstract: The documents on Metallothioneins (MTs) in aquatic creatures, especially focusing on their function as biomarkers in environmental monitoring programmes, are vast and increasing. There are, however, few papers to summary the physiological role of MTs in aquatic organisms especially on development. The multifaceted roles of MTs include involvement in homeostasis, protection against heavy metals and oxidant damages, and metabolic regulation, sequestration and/or redox control. In this paper, we have collected published information on MTs in aquatic organisms—pisces, amphibians, mammals, etc., and analyzed their function in these aquatic animals. MTs have four main functions in aquatic vertebrate. They are respectively bioaccumulation of toxic metals and detoxification, homeostatic regulation of metals, protection against oxidative stress and neuroprotective mechanism. MTs separate in different tissues and they have various distributions in different tissues of aquatic vertebrate, including liver, gills, kidney, testes, and brain. MTs can be induced by a variety of environmental and physiological factors, among which, heavy metals are the main kind of MTs inducers in aquatic vertebrate. Here we pay more attention on the essential metals copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) and the non-essential metals cadmium (Cd), silver (Ag), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg).
Spermatozoon Ultrastructure of Scapharca subcrenata and Barbatia virescens and Its Implications for Evolutionary Relationship in Arcidae

ZHU Jun-quan,YANG Wan-xi,

动物学研究 , 2004,
Abstract: The spermatozoa ultrastructure of Scapharca subcrenata and Barbatia virescens was comparatively investigated by transmission electron microscope.The acrosome of Scapharca subcrenata spermatozoon is conical in shape,about half the length of the nucleus;there is no front nuclear pocket,but a posterior nuclear pocket exists;five (occasionally four) mitochondria are seen surrounding the distal centriole of the mid-piece;the end-piece of the sperm consists of the axoneme and its surrounding cytoplasm,and the axoneme has a typical "9+2" structure.The longitudinal section of the acrosome of Barbatia virescens is umbrella-like in shape,and the acrosome covers the front of nucleus,and is about 1/3 the length of the nucleus.The nucleus has both front and posterior nuclear pockets;five (occasionally six) mitochondria are seen surrounding the distal centriole in the cross sections;the structure of the end-piece of Barbatia virescens is the same as that of Scapharca subcrenata.In Arcidae,the morphology of acrosome,the presence of the front and posterior nuclear pockets,and the number of mitochondria in the mid-piece are the clues for understanding of the interspecifically evolutionary relationship.
Functional Analysis of KIF3A and KIF3B during Spermiogenesis of Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis
Yang Lu, Qi Wang, Da-Hui Wang, Hong Zhou, Yan-Jun Hu, Wan-Xi Yang
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097645
Abstract: Background Spermatogenesis represents the transformation process at the level of cellular development. KIF3A and KIF3B are believed to play some roles in the assembly and maintenance of flagella, intracellular transport of materials including organelles and proteins, and other unknown functions during this process. During spermatogenesis in Eriocheir sinensis, if the sperm shaping machinery is dependent on KIF3A and KIF3B remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings The cDNA of KIF3A and KIF3B were obtained by designing degenerate primers, 3′RACE, and 5′RACE. We detected the genetic presence of kif3a and kif3b in the heart, muscle, liver, gill, and testis of E. sinensis through RT-PCR. By western blot analysis, the protein presence of KIF3A and KIF3B in heart, muscle, gill, and testis reflected the content in protein level. Using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence, we could track the dynamic location of KIF3A and KIF3B during different developmental phases of sperm. KIF3A and KIF3B were found surrounding the nucleus in early spermatids. In intermediate spermatids, these proteins expressed at high levels around the nucleus and extended to the final phase. During the nuclear shaping period, KIF3A and KIF3B reached their maximum in the late spermatids and were located around the nucleus and concentrated in the acrosome to some extent. Conclusions/Significance Our results revealed that KIF3A and KIF3B were involved in the nuclear and cellular morphogenesis at the levels of mRNA and protein. These proteins can potentially facilitate the intracellular transport of organelles, proteins, and other cargoes. The results represent the functions of KIF3A and KIF3B in the spermatogenesis of Crustacea and clarify phylogenetic relationships among the Decapoda.
KIFC1-Like Motor Protein Associates with the Cephalopod Manchette and Participates in Sperm Nuclear Morphogenesis in Octopus tankahkeei
Wei Wang,Jun-Quan Zhu,He-Ming Yu,Fu-Qing Tan,Wan-Xi Yang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015616
Abstract: Nuclear morphogenesis is one of the most fundamental cellular transformations taking place during spermatogenesis. In rodents, a microtubule-based perinuclear structure, the manchette, and a C-terminal kinesin motor KIFC1 are believed to play crucial roles in this process. Spermatogenesis in Octopus tankahkeei is a good model system to explore whether evolution has created a cephalopod prototype of mammalian manchette-based and KIFC1-dependent sperm nuclear shaping machinery.
Sperm Cryopreservation in Sparus macrocephalus and DNA Damage Detection with SCGE

YE Ting,ZHU Jun-quan,YANG Wan-xi,WEI Pin,WU Xiong-fei,
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动物学研究 , 2009,
Abstract: In this paper, DMSO was used as cryoprotectant for cryopreservation of Sparus macrocephalus spermatozoa in 0.5 mL straws. Detection of DNA damage in response to a cryopreservation process in Sparus macrocephalus spermatozoa was also carried out. The results demonstrated that there were no significant differences between frozen-thawed sperm conserved by Cortland solution diluted with 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% DMSO and fresh sperm in motility. The best motility of frozen-thawed sperm were obtained when DMSO concentra...
Ultrastructural Studies on Spermatogenesis of Bullacta exarata (Philippi)

YING Xue-ping,JIANG Nai-cheng,YANG Wan-xi,

动物学研究 , 2002,
Abstract: The ultrastructure of spermatogenesis of Bullacta exarata was studied by using of transmission electron microscopy.The results show that there is a series of considerable changes in morphology and structure during the spermatogenesis.These changes include gradual nuclear elongation,chromatin condensation,formation of acrosome,development and fusion of mitochondria,cytoplasmic sloughing and flagellar formation.Acrosome is formed from proacrosomal vesicle fused with vesicles secreted by Golgi apparatus.Axoneme is formed from centriole.Spermatid differentiation can be divided into three stages.During the differentiation,the morphology and structure of nucleus and chromation are different from other Mollusks.The nucleus of early spermatid is oval-shaped and comprises heterogeneous aggregations of flocculent granular chromatin.In the middle stage,it is kidney shaped and its chromatin condenses to finely fibrils-shaped.As the spermatid matures,the nucleus elongates in the anterior-posterior axis,and the chromatin condenses to long fibrils and then condenses to high and even electron-density till the formation of spermatozoon nucleus.At the same time,the nucleus transforms from cylindric shape to long cylindric shape.Significance of nucleus and cell organelle as taxonomic character in the spermatogenesis of B.exarata is roughly discussed.
Advances in Predicate Abstraction

QU Wan-Xi,LI Tun,GUO Yang,YANG Xiao-Dong,
,李 暾,郭 阳,杨晓东

软件学报 , 2008,
Abstract: With the growing increase in software/hardware system scale and function, the further development and application of model checking has been greatly limited by state space explosion, which becomes the bottleneck of verifying large industrial designs. Predicate abstraction, as one of the most effective ways to address state explosion, has been fueled over the recent years. This paper presents a survey of the latest developments in predicate abstraction. A basic algorithm for predicate abstraction is introduced first, followed by comparison among several solvers. Emphases are put on counterexample-guided abstraction refinement and interpolation-based abstraction refinement, including the principles and improvements. The qualities of the new predicate generation methods are also analyzed. Finally, the major challenges in making this technology more pervasive in industrial design verification domain are noted.
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