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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 824 matches for " Waldrep JC "
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Alveolar fractal box dimension inversely correlates with mean linear intercept in mice with elastase-induced emphysema
Andersen MP, Parham AR, Waldrep JC, McKenzie WN, Dhand R
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S26493
Abstract: lveolar fractal box dimension inversely correlates with mean linear intercept in mice with elastase-induced emphysema Original Research (1638) Total Article Views Authors: Andersen MP, Parham AR, Waldrep JC, McKenzie WN, Dhand R Published Date March 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 235 - 243 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S26493 Received: 23 September 2011 Accepted: 01 November 2011 Published: 27 March 2012 Mary P Andersen1, A Read Parham1, J Clifford Waldrep1,2, Wayland N McKenzie1, Rajiv Dhand1,2 1Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Environmental Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri, 2Research Services, Harry S Truman Memorial VA Hospital, Columbia, MO, USA Rationale: A widely applicable model of emphysema that allows efficient and sensitive quantification of injury is needed to compare potential therapies. Objectives: To establish such a model, we studied the relationship between elastase dose and the severity of emphysema in female C57BL/6J mice. We compared alveolar fractal box dimension (DB), a new measure which is an assessment of the complexity of the tissue, with mean linear intercept (Lm), which is commonly used to estimate airspace size, for sensitivity and efficiency of measurement. Methods: Emphysema was induced in female C57BL/6J mice by administering increasing intratracheal doses of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). Changes in morphology and static lung compliance (CL) were examined 21 days later. Correlation of DB with Lm was determined in histological sections of lungs exposed to PPE. The inverse relationship between DB and Lm was supported by examining similar morphological sections from another experiment where the development of emphysema was studied 1 to 3 weeks after instillation of human neutrophil elastase (HNE). Results: Lm increased with PPE dose in a sigmoidal curve. CL increased after 80 or 120 U/kg body weight (P < 0.05), but not after 40 U/kg, compared with the control. DB progressively declined from 1.66 ± 0.002 (standard error of the mean) in controls, to 1.47 ± 0.006 after 120 U PPE/kg (P < 0.0001). After PPE or HNE instillation, DB was inversely related to Lm (R = –0.95, P < 0.0001 and R = –0.84, P = 0.01, respectively), with a more negative slope of the relationship using HNE (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Intratracheal instillation of increasing doses of PPE yields a scale of progression from mild to severe emphysema. DB correlates inversely with Lm after instillation of either PPE or HNE and yields a rapid, sensitive measure of emphysema after elastase instillation.
Alveolar fractal box dimension inversely correlates with mean linear intercept in mice with elastase-induced emphysema
Andersen MP,Parham AR,Waldrep JC,McKenzie WN
International Journal of COPD , 2012,
Abstract: Mary P Andersen1, A Read Parham1, J Clifford Waldrep1,2, Wayland N McKenzie1, Rajiv Dhand1,21Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Environmental Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri, 2Research Services, Harry S Truman Memorial VA Hospital, Columbia, MO, USARationale: A widely applicable model of emphysema that allows efficient and sensitive quantification of injury is needed to compare potential therapies.Objectives: To establish such a model, we studied the relationship between elastase dose and the severity of emphysema in female C57BL/6J mice. We compared alveolar fractal box dimension (DB), a new measure which is an assessment of the complexity of the tissue, with mean linear intercept (Lm), which is commonly used to estimate airspace size, for sensitivity and efficiency of measurement.Methods: Emphysema was induced in female C57BL/6J mice by administering increasing intratracheal doses of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). Changes in morphology and static lung compliance (CL) were examined 21 days later. Correlation of DB with Lm was determined in histological sections of lungs exposed to PPE. The inverse relationship between DB and Lm was supported by examining similar morphological sections from another experiment where the development of emphysema was studied 1 to 3 weeks after instillation of human neutrophil elastase (HNE).Results: Lm increased with PPE dose in a sigmoidal curve. CL increased after 80 or 120 U/kg body weight (P < 0.05), but not after 40 U/kg, compared with the control. DB progressively declined from 1.66 ± 0.002 (standard error of the mean) in controls, to 1.47 ± 0.006 after 120 U PPE/kg (P < 0.0001). After PPE or HNE instillation, DB was inversely related to Lm (R = –0.95, P < 0.0001 and R = –0.84, P = 0.01, respectively), with a more negative slope of the relationship using HNE (P < 0.0001).Conclusion: Intratracheal instillation of increasing doses of PPE yields a scale of progression from mild to severe emphysema. DB correlates inversely with Lm after instillation of either PPE or HNE and yields a rapid, sensitive measure of emphysema after elastase instillation.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary emphysema, lung morphometry, lung compliance
Analysis of TACI mutations in CVID & RESPI patients who have inherited HLA B*44 or HLA*B8
Manda L Waldrep, Yingxin Zhuang, Harry W Schroeder
BMC Medical Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-10-100
Abstract: We identified 63 CVID patients irrespective of HLA status and 13 RESPI patients who had inherited HLA*B44. To evaluate for mutations in the gene for TACI, we PCR amplified and sequenced TACI exons 3 and 4 from these patients.Of the 76 patients, eleven proved heterozygous for a previously reported, silent T->G polymorphism [rs35062843] at proline 97 in exon 3. However, none of the 13 RESPI patients and only one of the 63 CVID patients inherited a TACI allele previously associated with CVID. This patient was heterozygous for the TACI A181E allele (exon 4). She did not carry *DQ2, *DR7, *DR3(17), *B8, or *B44.These findings suggest that TACI mutations are unlikely to play a critical role in creating susceptibility to CVID among patients with previously recognized MHC class I and class II susceptibility alleles.Supported by NIH/USIDNET N01-AI30070, NIH R21 AI079741 and NIH M01-RR00032In the United States, CVID is the most common primary immunodeficiency under the care of the clinical immunologist. CVID is a clinical diagnosis given to patients with unexplained pan-hypogammaglobulinemia in the presence of normal or near-normal B cell numbers. It has been called agammaglobulinemia with B cells to distinguish it from Bruton's agammaglobulinemia [1]. The most common clinical presentation is a history of recurrent pyogenic sinopulmonary infections [2,3]. Among Americans of European descent, it affects approximately 1 in 25,000 [4,5]. The frequency among Americans of African descent is twenty-fold lower [6]. These ethnic associations, coupled with the results of familial studies, have suggested that CVID has a strong genetic component [7,8]. However, identification of the causative genes has been difficult. It remains unclear whether the disease reflects a single Mendelian trait with incomplete penetrance, or whether it is the result of a combination of genetic lesions and environmental influences.In our clinic in the Southeastern United States, the majority of patients with
Genotype × environment interactions
JC Bowman
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1972, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-4-1-117
Abstract:
Amino acid size, charge, hydropathy indices and matrices for protein structure analysis
JC Biro
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4682-3-15
Abstract: We indexed the 200 possible amino acid pairs for their compatibility regarding the three major physicochemical properties – size, charge and hydrophobicity – and constructed Size, Charge and Hydropathy Compatibility Indices and Matrices (SCI & SCM, CCI & CCM, and HCI & HCM). Each index characterized the expected strength of interaction (compatibility) of two amino acids by numbers from 1 (not compatible) to 20 (highly compatible). We found statistically significant positive correlations between these indices and the propensity for amino acid co-locations in real protein structures (a sample containing total 34630 co-locations in 80 different protein structures): for HCI: p < 0.01, n = 400 in 10 subgroups; for SCI p < 1.3E-08, n = 400 in 10 subgroups; for CCI: p < 0.01, n = 175). Size compatibility between residues (well known to exist in nucleic acids) is a novel observation for proteins. Regression analyzes indicated at least 7 well distinguished clusters regarding size compatibility and 5 clusters of charge compatibility.We tried to predict or reconstruct simple 2D representations of 3D structures from the sequence using these matrices by applying a dot plot-like method. The location and pattern of the most compatible subsequences was very similar or identical when the three fundamentally different matrices were used, which indicates the consistency of physicochemical compatibility. However, it was not sufficient to choose one preferred configuration between the many possible predicted options.Indexing of amino acids for major physico-chemical properties is a powerful approach to understanding and assisting protein design. However, it is probably insufficient itself for complete ab initio structure prediction.The protein folding problem has been one of the grand challenges in computational molecular biology. The problem is to predict the native three-dimensional structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence. Existing approaches are commonly classified as: (1
Management of bedwetting in children
JC Cronjé
Continuing Medical Education , 2004,
Abstract:
Protein nutritional quality of cowpea and navy bean residue fractions
JC Jackson
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: Cereal-legume protein complementation has long been recommended as a suitable strategy for augmenting the protein quality of cereal and legume based foods. However, the use of the insoluble legume residue, following protein extraction for cereal-legume protein complementation has not been widely studied. In fact, legume residue is considered a waste by-product. The protein quality of cowpea residuewheat and navy bean residue-wheat diets was determined using in-vivo and in-vitro protein digestibility assays with an AIN-93G diet as control. The diets were fed to laboratory rats over 4 weeks. The in-vitro digestibility of the diets was assessed using the pH drop and pH stat enzymatic methods. The proximate composition, limiting amino acid profile and phytohemagglutinin activity were also determined. All six diets had lower levels of the sulphur amino acid requirements for rats as expected but had higher than the FAO/WHO recommended levels for pre-school children. The cowpea residue diets had higher levels of limiting amino acids than the navy bean residue diets. Phytohemagglutinin activity was only detectable in the raw cowpea and navy bean samples. All cowpea residue diets, the 30% and 70% navy bean residue diets and the control diet supported growth while the 100% navy bean residue diet resulted in weight loss. The in-vitro digestibility ranged from 77.82% - 84.54% and 66.51% - 79.59% for the cowpea residue and the navy bean residue diets, respectively. These ranges were lower than the control (98.1%) but correlated highly to those obtained using the in-vivo true protein digestibility method; 73.7% - 87.5% and 62.6% - 78.2%, respectively. These findings suggest that the cowpea residue diets had higher protein quality overall than the navy bean residue diets. In addition, it suggests that the 30:70 ratio of cowpea residue to wheat diet had the highest protein quality of all the 6 experimental diets. Legume residues after protein extraction could be recommended for human food if complemented with a cereal, particularly as it meets the amino acid pattern for preschool children. Finally, in-vitro assays can also be reliably used to assess the protein quality of foods.
Analyzing Counsel/Witness Discourse in Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria
JC Anyadiegwu
African Research Review , 2011,
Abstract: This paper analyzed counsel/witness discourse using the High Court in Nnewi Municipal Council. Specifically, it described the structure and organization of counsel/witness discourse in the courtroom context highlighting some discourse features inherent in them, and observed the communication strategies and motivation of participants towards each other and towards the subject matter. The methodology used in collecting data for this research was non-participant observation. The data were used to illustrate certain discourse/pragmatic features in the exchange; including the structures- -transaction, exchange, moves and act – and the strategies used by participants in negotiating meaning. The findings of this study reveal that (1) Initiation – Response (IR) structure was the predominant exchange structure (2) that the counsel initiates exchanges and controls discourse while the witness does not; (3) that the witness replies cooperatively when questions help to further his cause .The conclusion of the paper summarized the discourse structure and organization observed in the study.
Die Afrikaans van die bybelvertaling van 19331
JC Steyn
Acta Theologica , 2009,
Abstract: The first translators of the Bible had to start their work before the standardisation of Afrikaans. This article firstly explores the difficulties encountered by the Bible translators in breaking with the language of the Statenbijbel. Secondly, it is indicated how translators were able to utilise the insights of linguists and language practitioners who were in the process of standardising the Afrikaans language. The article explores difficulties encountered by the 1933 translators regarding vocabulary, pronouns, verbs and adjectives. From the translations it is clear that by 1922 the Afrikaans is/was/wees already fell into disuse regarding verbs referring to movement and the changing of state. Not one of the translators considered the imperfect seriously; only in the 1933 translation was the historical present tense used in a stylistically satisfactory manner. The plurals of adjectives in a substantive function, and the negative imperative, were not used consistently in the 1933 translation. Article text in Afrikaans.
Democracy and development in the age of globalisation
JC Mubangizi
Law, Democracy & Development , 2010,
Abstract: Globalisation is one of the leading characteristics of the world today – a world that is striving for development, democracy and the protection of human rights. There is no doubt that the relationship between globalisation and democracy is quite complex. So too is the relationship between globalisation and development. The impact of globalisation is perhaps more prominent on the African continent than elsewhere in the world. This is due to the unique circumstances and challenges that African countries have faced in the recent past and continue to face. Such challenges include poverty, hunger, armed conflicts, poor governance, crime, corruption, unemployment, low levels of education, lack of skills and resources, and the prevalence of diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Besides reflecting on the impact of globalisation on development and democracy, this article explores the tensions and contradictions that arise out of the relationship between these concepts. It also highlights the peculiar challenges that underlie and further complicate this relationship in African countries.
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