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Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the main species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Federal District of Brazil
Santos, GM;Kückelhaus, SA;Roselino, AM;Chaer, WK;Sampaio, RNR;
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992012000300012
Abstract: the first autochthonous case of american cutaneous leishmaniasis was reported in the federal district in 1980, and the species involved in this type of leishmaniasis was unknown. this study aimed to identify the species that causes the disease in the federal district and to investigate its clinical and epidemiological aspects. between 2000 and 2007, 71 autochthonous cases of leishmaniasis were reported in the federal district. leishmania species were identified by means of direct immunofluorescence reactions using monoclonal antibodies and restriction fragment length polymorphism. the species of 40 (56.33%) out of 71 samples were identified. thirty-six (90%) were identified as leishmania (viannia) braziliensis and four (10%) were identified as leishmania (leishmania) amazonensis. in this area, the disease had clinical and epidemiological characteristics similar to those found in other brazilian regions.
Situational Analysis of Leishmaniases Research in Kenya
WK Tinui
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Leishmaniases spp are protozoan parasites of the Trypanosomatidae family that cause disease in humans and animals. In general, infections with these parasites can be divided into three main forms namely, cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniases. The disease is prevalent in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world, where it is transmitted via the bite of an infected sand fly. Leishmaniasis has been known to be endemic in parts of Kenya from as far back as early in the 20th century. These endemic areas include Turkana, Baringo, Kitui, Machakos, Meru, West Pokot and Elgeyo Marakwet districts which have been reported to be endemic for kala-azar. Recent outbreaks of VL have been reported in the previously non-endemic districts of Wajir and Mandera in North Eastern Kenya between May 2000 and August 2001. The vector for VL in Kenya is Phlebotomus martini though other vectors including P. orientalis have been reported. Baringo district is the only foci reported where both VL and CL are known to occur in Kenya. The aetiological agents for CL which include L. major which has been reported in Baringo; L. tropica in Laikipia, Samburu, Isiolo, Nakuru and Nyandarua districts while L. aethiopica has been reported in the Mt Elgon area. In Kenya, P. duboscqi, P. guggisbergi have been shown to be the vectors of L. major and L. tropica, respectively, while P. pediffer, P. longipes and P. elgonensis have been implicated as vectors of L. aethiopica. Since 1980, the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) has spearheaded research on leishmaniases research in Kenya focusing on various aspects including characterization of Leishmania species, biology, and ecology of sand fly vectors, development of biological strategiesF for sand fly control, identification of animal reservoirs, diagnosis, new treatment strategies, new chemotherapeutic agents, and vaccine-related studies. KEMRI, a founding partner of the Drugs for Neglected Disease Initiative (DNDi), whose overall aim is to address lack of new or improved drugs for neglected diseases (which include leishmaniases, malaria, trypanosomiasis and chagas disease) has made major contributions in leishmaniases research and control in Kenya and the eastern Africa region. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 13 (1-2) 2008: pp. 7-21
Biomarkers for early detection of acute kidney injury
Han WK
Current Biomarker Findings , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CBF.S27898
Abstract: iomarkers for early detection of acute kidney injury Review (1286) Total Article Views Authors: Han WK Published Date October 2012 Volume 2012:2 Pages 77 - 85 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CBF.S27898 Received: 11 June 2012 Accepted: 15 August 2012 Published: 01 October 2012 Won K Han Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: It is very difficult to make an early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) using serum creatinine, which is the standard metric tool for the detection of renal injury. The absence of sensitive AKI biomarkers has impaired progress in the nephrology field and had a detrimental effect on the design and outcome of AKI clinical trials. Recently, several proteins have shown potential in the early detection of AKI, including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule-1, and interleukin-18. This review discusses the current status of three AKI biomarkers as a potential diagnostic tool for the early detection of AKI. The focus is limited to prospective human studies from January 2005 to December 2011. The review compares the clinical conditions for which the AKI biomarkers have the greatest potential utility for the early detection of AKI. It also demonstrates the barriers to the successful use of AKI biomarkers in clinical practice, as well as the future trials that will be needed to validate their use. Despite the early promise of biomarkers such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule-1, and interleukin-18 for the early detection of AKI, none of these biomarkers has demonstrated a clear benefit in detecting various types of AKI in daily clinical practice. Indeed, the majority of published clinical studies of known AKI biomarkers so far are small and insufficient to support clinical studies of AKI biomarkers as an effective early AKI diagnostic test in humans.
Acne vulgaris. Grades of severity and treatment options
WK Jacky
South African Family Practice , 2003,
Abstract:
Common skin conditions affecting the scalp: Tinea Capitis, Pediculosis Captis, Seborrhoeic Dermatitis, Dandruff, Psoriasis
WK Jacky
South African Family Practice , 2003,
Abstract:
Phylogeny of central CO2/pH chemoreception in vertebrates
Milsom WK
Respiratory Research , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/rr92
Abstract:
Biomarkers for early detection of acute kidney injury
Han WK
Current Biomarker Findings , 2012,
Abstract: Won K HanDepartment of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: It is very difficult to make an early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) using serum creatinine, which is the standard metric tool for the detection of renal injury. The absence of sensitive AKI biomarkers has impaired progress in the nephrology field and had a detrimental effect on the design and outcome of AKI clinical trials. Recently, several proteins have shown potential in the early detection of AKI, including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule-1, and interleukin-18. This review discusses the current status of three AKI biomarkers as a potential diagnostic tool for the early detection of AKI. The focus is limited to prospective human studies from January 2005 to December 2011. The review compares the clinical conditions for which the AKI biomarkers have the greatest potential utility for the early detection of AKI. It also demonstrates the barriers to the successful use of AKI biomarkers in clinical practice, as well as the future trials that will be needed to validate their use. Despite the early promise of biomarkers such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule-1, and interleukin-18 for the early detection of AKI, none of these biomarkers has demonstrated a clear benefit in detecting various types of AKI in daily clinical practice. Indeed, the majority of published clinical studies of known AKI biomarkers so far are small and insufficient to support clinical studies of AKI biomarkers as an effective early AKI diagnostic test in humans.Keywords: acute kidney injury, biomarker, early detection
The Impacts of Personality Traits and Goal Commitment on Employees’ Job Satisfaction
WK Lau
Business and Economics Journal , 2012,
Abstract: The present research investigates the effects of personality traits, such as self-efficacy and locus of control, on job satisfaction. It also examines the mediating impact of goal commitment on relationships between personality and job satisfaction. The results indicate that both self-efficacy and locus of control are positively associated with goal commitment. In addition, locus of control is found positively related to job satisfaction. However, self-efficacy does not have the same positive relationship with job satisfaction. The study further confirms the mediating effect of goal commitment on relationships between personality traits and job satisfaction.
Carcass characteristics of tropical beef cattle breeds (West African shorthorn, sanga and zebu) in Ghana.
GA Teye, WK Sunkwa
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2010,
Abstract: In Ghana, butchering is one of the most common and lucrative jobs in villages, towns, and cities as a major source of employment and wealth creation for mostly traditional butchers. Though there is an ever changing meat processing standard internationally, butchers in Ghana on the other hand are still holding tight to their old practices and customs. Live animals are bought based on visual assessment and not by weight. Some of the butchers sell their products without weighing. There are no suitable weighing scales to determine live and carcass weights. This preliminary study was conducted using 35 animals to provide a means of a more accurate estimation of live and carcass weights of three tropical cattle beef cattle; the Zebu (Plate1), the humpless West African shorthorn (WASH) (Plate2) and the Sanga (Ghana Sanga), a crossbreed between WASH and Zebu (Plate3). Their live and carcasses weights and the weights of their major carcass components and offal were used to provide information on their carcass characteristics. The carcass components used were: empty carcass, fore-and hind-quarters and filet, internal offal (heart, liver, lungs, spleen, kidney and the rumen) and external offal (head, tail, legs and skin). In terms of live weight, the Zebu was significantly (P< 0.001) heavier (309 Kg), than the Sanga (202 Kg) and the WASH (162Kg). Consequently, the zebu had a heavier (P< 0.001) carcass weight (156kg) than the Sanga (93kg) whilst the WASH had the least carcass weight (73kg) (P< 0.001). All the major carcass components of the Zebu were significantly (P< 0.001) heavier than that in the Sanga and the WASH. Correlations on all the three breeds demonstrate high positive relationships between carcass components and the live and carcass weights. In all the three breeds, the fore-quarters constituted higher percentages (average 53.7%) of the carcass weights than the hind-quarters (average 46.3%). Those carcass components (fore- and hind-quarters, head and legs), which were positively correlated to live weight could be used to predict the live weights of these animals. The offal (heart, liver and spleen), which are positively correlated to the carcass weight could also be used to estimate or predict the carcass weights. Due to their small size, the beef performance of the WASH is generally low, although the dressing percentages are similar to those of the Sanga and the Zebu.
Short Communication- A two-pronged approach in leishmaniasis drug development in Kenya Medical Research Institute
RM Karaja, WK Tonui
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: No African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 13 (1-2) 2008: pp. 135-138
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