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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 203 matches for " WE Sadoh "
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Natural history of ventricular septal defects in Nigerian children
WE Sadoh
South African Journal of Child Health , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction. Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a common congenital heart disease (CHD). Spontaneous closure of the VSD may occur, depending on the type and size of defects. This study was conducted to determine the natural history of VSD in a group of Nigerian children. Subjects and methods. Sixty-one children diagnosed with VSD were prospectively studied at a tertiary centre in Nigeria until they were 2 years old. They had regular two-dimensional (2D) and Doppler echocardiography evaluations for the VSD size and closure. Results. Most (35 – 57.4%) of the patients were female, their mean age at presentation was 11.2±5.2 months, and the most common type of VSD was the perimembranous (39 – 63.9%). Almost half (28 – 45.9%) of the patients had spontaneous closure. The spontaneous closure rate was highest in muscular VSD (82.4%) and in small defects (95.0%). Incidental presence of a murmur, absence of heart failure and bronchopneumonia were good clinical predictors of closure. Only 3 (4.9%) patients had surgery abroad. There were 2 (3.3%) deaths from bronchopneumonia and bacterial endocarditis. Conclusion. Spontaneous closure readily occurs in small-sized defects and muscular VSDs. However, most patients with moderate to large VSDs are confined to long-term medical management, highlighting the need for indigenous surgical capacity in Nigeria.
Experiences of HIV positive mothers who chose not to breastfeed their babies in Nigeria
WE Sadoh, AE Sadoh
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2009,
Abstract: HIV positive mothers, who choose not to breastfeed their babies in a predominantly breastfeeding community would face a number of barriers. This study looked at the experiences of HIV positive mothers who chose the no breastfeeding option. Consecutive HIV positive mothers who opted not to breastfeed their infants after infant feeding counselling and whose infants were attending the HIV programme at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria were recruited for the study. Disclosure of HIV serostatus and adherence to no breastfeeding options were evaluated using an interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Of the 62 mothers recruited for the study, 57 (91.94%) had disclosed their serostatus to at least their partners. Most partners 42 (93.33%) were supportive while three mothers were divorced following disclosure. Thirteen (20.97%) mothers could not comply with no breastfeeding. Non disclosure of serostatus, pressure from extended family and token breastfeeding mitigate against adhering to no breastfeeding by HIV positive mothers (Afr J Reprod Health 2009; 13[1]:27-35).
Diphtheria mortality in Nigeria: the need to stock diphtheria antitoxin
AE Sadoh, WE Sadoh
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2011,
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Diphtheria had been a major of cause of childhood mortality until the advent of an effective vaccine. Even in Nigeria with low to moderate coverage with the third dose of DPT the number of reported cases of diphtheria had been reducing. However, in a recent report we noted an increase in the incidence of diphtheria. The mainstay of management of diphtheria is the Diphtheria antitoxin. Diphtheria antitoxin is not available in Nigeria. We present the mortalities from diphtheria to highlight the need to stock the diphtheria antitoxin. METHODOLOGY: A review of the case notes of patients managed for diphtheria between August 2008 and 2010 was done and relevant data extracted. RESULTS: Nine cases of diphtheria were seen and three mortalities were recorded giving a mortality rate of 33.3%. One of the deaths was from myocardial involvement and acute renal failure while another was from possible septicaemia. The third mortality occurred at home after discharge from hospital DISCUSSION: Most of the symptoms of diphtheria are due to the effects of the diphtheria exotoxin. The non availability of the antitoxin for the management of these children contributed to their mortality. CONCLUSION: As long as diphtheria remains uneradicated the need for the antitoxin is imperative.
Need for a clinical decision rule for the management of pharyngitis in Nigeria
WE Sadoh, AE Sadoh
Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics , 2013,
Abstract: Pharyngitis is a common reason for presentation in the hospital by children. Although viral aetiology is the commonest, Group A Streptococcus is the most important cause of and reason for antibiotic treatment of pharyngitis. The fact that GAS causes the non suppurative sequalae of rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis perhaps drives the empirical antibiotic treatment of most cases of pharyngitis. The unnecessary antibiotic treatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, a major public health problem. While it is desirable to do throat culture to guide the physician’s management of each case, the required laboratory skill is unavailable in most clinical settings in Nigeria. A clinical decision rule (CDR) which is a clinical tool that helps guide physicians in the management of conditions such as pharyngitis, have been shown to be helpful in managing pharyngitis in other countries. It reduces the number of unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions and has a high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing GAS from non GAS pharyngitis. Currently there are no guidelines or CDR for the management of pharyngitis in Nigeria, there is an urgent need to derive, validate and implement a CDR to guide the treatment of pharyngits.
Cardiovascular responses to blood transfusion in children with anemic heart failure
WE Sadoh, AE Sadoh, M Okposio
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: This study evaluated the cardiovascular responses to blood transfusion in children with anemic heart failure using mostly clinical parameters. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with anemic heart failure presenting to a childrenfs emergency room and requiring blood transfusion were assessed for heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), liver size, and oxygen saturation (O2 sat) pre.transfusion, 1.2 h into transfusion (intra.transfusion), immediate post.transfusion, and at late post.transfusion (24 h later). Results: A total of 75 patients were recruited of which 46 (61.3%) were males. Their mean age was 43.8 } 40.3 months while their mean PCV at presentation was 15.0 } 4.5%. There was a significant mean net reduction of 10 beat per minute (bpm) between the pre (139.7 } 25.2 bpm) and intra.transfusion (129.6 } 22.0 bpm) HR, P = 0.0004. The mean net reduction of 4 cycles/ min between the pre and intra.transfusion RR was also significant, P = 0.0033. The two parameters declined in values subsequently. Conclusion: The HR and RR are two easily measurable indices with reduction in HR and RR by 10 bpm and 4 cycles/min, respectively, from pre.transfusion to intra.transfusion observations.
HIV co-infection with hepatitis B and C viruses among Nigerian children in an antiretroviral treatment programme
AE Sadoh, WE Sadoh, NJ Iduoriyekemwen
South African Journal of Child Health , 2011,
Abstract: Background. Nigeria has one of the world’s largest burdens of children living with HIV and is highly endemic for hepatitis B. This study set out to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C infections among HIV-infected children and to identify the factors associated with these co-infections. Method. We studied 155 HIV-infected children. Information on socio-demographics and history of exposure to risk factors such as scarification, blood transfusion, unsafe injections and circumcision were obtained. All the children were tested for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to hepatitis C. Result. The prevalence of HIV/HBV co-infection was 7.7%, while that of HIV/HCV co-infection was 5.2%. No child was co-infected with all three viruses. Children who were co-infected with HCV were more likely to be older than 5 years. There was no significant association between co-infection with either of the hepatitis viruses and socio-economic status, gender, number of persons living in the household, World Health Organization clinical stage, route of acquisition of HIV, scarification, blood transfusion, unsafe injection or circumcision. Conclusion. The rate of HIV co-infection with hepatitis B and C in children is significant. HIV-infected children should be screened for these viruses. Those found to be negative and not immunised for hepatitis B should be immunised. Since the natural history of these coinfections in children is not known, it is imperative that affected patients be followed up adequately.
Congenital heart diseases at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital
MO Ibadin, WE Sadoh, W Osarogiabon
Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics , 2005,
Abstract: No Abstract.
Cytokines Elicited by HSP60 in Periodontitis with and without Coronary Heart Disease  [PDF]
Adam Hasan, Danesi Sadoh, Bret Jones
Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials (JIBTVA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jibtva.2014.31001
The human 60 kDa and microbial 65 kDa heat shock proteins (HSP) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis (CP) and coronary heart disease (CHD). We have studied 100 subjects: Group (a) consisted of patients with gingivitis (n = 25), group (b) were patients with CP (n = 25), group (c) patients with CHD and gingivitis (n = 25) and group (d) patients with CHD and CP (n = 25). PBMCs separated from peripheral blood were stimulated with medium, PMA/ionomycin, human HSP60, microbial HSP65, or no stimulus for 18 hours before intracellular IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-5, or IL-17 were detected by flow cytometry. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFLI) for intracellular TNF-α was significantly increased when PBMC were stimulated with human HSP60 amongst the four groups (p = 0.001, ANOVA); pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in MFLI between the gingivitis group and the CP (p = 0.017); between gingivitis and ging/CHD (p = 0.001) as well; but no significant difference between the CP and CP/CHD (p = 0.442). There was no significant difference in intracellular expression of IL-17, or any of the other cytokines tested; and the MFLI for HSP-stimulated were comparable to unstimulated cultures. When heat-labile human HSP60 was heated, intracellular cellular TNF-α expression was abrogated. In contrast, heat-stable LPS elicited TNF-α expression from monocytes in bulk cultures in all groups. These results suggest that the cytokine expression was dependent on human HSP60 and not LPS. Serum CRP was significantly associated with MFLI of intracellular TNF-α in CP patients (rs = 0.665, p = 0.026) and CP/CHD (rs = 0.699, p = 0.011). We conclude that human HSP60 elicits increased monocytic expression of TNF-α in patients with CP, CP/CHD or ging/CHD compared to patients with gingivitis. Since the marker of inflammation, namely CRP correlates with CP with or without CHD and not with mild chronic gingivitis or ging/CHD, this suggests that human HSP60-induced production of TNF-α is associated with CP and not CHD. There was no significant difference in intracellular expression of IL-17.
Immune Responses to HSP65/60 in Periodontal Disease  [PDF]
Adam Hasan, Magdalen Foo, Danesi Sadoh, Bret Jones
Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials (JIBTVA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jibtva.2012.12002
Abstract: Chronic periodontitis (CP) is a chronic inflammatory condition which destroys the supporting tissues of teeth and increases in prevalence with age. Immune responses against heat shock proteins (HSP) can be cross-reactive among bacterial and human antigens. There is evidence that microbial HSP65 and human HSP60 are involved in periodontal disease. The aim of this study is to investigate immune responses to the human HSP60 and microbial HSP65 in patients with CP and relate these to the level of inflammation and smoking status. We collected serum samples from 30 patients with chronic gingivitis (CG) and 30 patients with CP. In each group, eight subjects were current smokers. ELISA was used to determine the levels of serum anti-HSP and C-reactive protein (CRP) in each group. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were also isolated and stimulated with HSPs. Significant lymphoproliferation was seen in CP when stimulated with human HSP60. CRP and serum anti-human HSP60 IgG were elevated in CP compared to the CG, but not serum anti-microbial HSP 65 IgG. In view of the potential confounding effects of smoking in CP, a group of current smokers (n = 16) was also recruited to investigate whether smoking affects HSP immune responses. There was no significant difference in HSP-induced lymphoproliferation between smokers and non-smokers in either the CG or CP. There was a significant correlation between CRP and lymphoproliferative responses to Human HSP60 irrespective of smoking status. This study shows that serum anti-human HSP60 IgG and serum CRP are raised in untreated CP. In CP, serum CRP levels correlated significantly with human HSP60-induced lymphoproliferation, but not with anti-HSP antibody levels.
Attitude of health care workers to patients and colleagues infected with human immunodeficiency virus
A Sadoh, W Sadoh, AO Fawole, A Oladimeji, O Sotiloye
SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance) , 2009,
Abstract: Discrimination against persons living with HIV/AIDS in hospital settings has been documented. This study examined the attitude of health care workers (HCWs) to nurses, doctors and patients infected with HIV. A total of 345 respondents selected by multistage sampling techniques were surveyed, using a semi-structured questionnaire, which explored respondents’ attitude to HIV-infected patients and colleagues with HIV/AIDS. HCWs were unwilling to accept that medical procedures be carried out on them by HIV-infected doctors and nurses, with almost 80% refusing surgery or assistance at surgery on them by an HIV-infected doctor or nurse. They were also significantly more unwilling to accept that medical procedures be carried out on them by an infected colleague, compared with their carrying out the same procedure on an HIV-infected patient. Thus, HCWs seemed to believe that the risk of contracting HIV was higher if an infected HCW were to perform medical procedures on them, and fear of contracting HIV seemed to be the driving force for their negative attitudes. Education on occupational risks of HIV, provision of a safe working environment with enforcement of universal precautions, as well as provision of post-exposure prophylaxis are suggested as ways to enable HCWs to change their attitudes.
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