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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 516241 matches for " W.A.;Rocco "
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Corticosteroids in acute respiratory distress syndrome
Fernandes, A.B.S.;Zin, W.A.;Rocco, P.R.M.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2005000200003
Abstract: improving the course and outcome of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome presents a challenge. by understanding the immune status of a patient, physicians can consider manipulating proinflammatory systems more rationally. in this context, corticosteroids could be a therapeutic tool in the armamentarium against acute respiratory distress syndrome. corticosteroid therapy has been studied in three situations: prevention in high-risk patients, early treatment with high-dose, short-course therapy, and prolonged therapy in unresolving cases. there are differences between the corticosteroid trials of the past and recent trials: today, treatment starts 2-10 days after disease onset in patients that failed to improve; in the past, the corticosteroid doses employed were 5-140 times higher than those used now. additionally, in the past treatment consisted of administering one to four doses every 6 h (methylprednisolone, 30 mg/kg) versus prolonging treatment as long as necessary in the new trials (2 mg kg-1 day-1 every 6 h). the variable response to corticosteroid treatment could be attributed to the heterogeneous biochemical and molecular mechanisms activated in response to different initial insults. numerous factors need to be taken into account when corticosteroids are used to treat acute respiratory distress syndrome: the specificity of inhibition, the duration and degree of inhibition, and the timing of inhibition. the major continuing problem is when to administer corticosteroids and how to monitor their use. the inflammatory mechanisms are continuous and cyclic, sometimes causing deterioration or improvement of lung function. this article reviews the mechanisms of action of corticosteroids and the results of experimental and clinical studies regarding the use of corticosteroids in acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Respiratory mechanics and morphometric changes during anesthesia with ketamine in normal rats
Alves-Neto, O.;Tavares, P.;Rocco, P.R.M.;Zin, W.A.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2001000900016
Abstract: ketamine is believed to reduce airway and pulmonary tissue resistance. the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of ketamine on the resistive, elastic and viscoelastic/inhomogeneous mechanical properties of the respiratory system, lungs and chest wall, and to relate the mechanical data to findings from histological lung analysis in normal animals. fifteen adult male wistar rats were assigned randomly to two groups: control (n = 7) and ketamine (n = 8). all animals were sedated (diazepam, 5 mg, ip) and anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (20 mg/kg, ip) or ketamine (30 mg/kg, ip). the rats were paralyzed and ventilated mechanically. ketamine increased lung viscoelastic/inhomogeneous pressure (26%) compared to the control group. dynamic and static elastances were similar in both groups, but the difference was greater in the ketamine than in the control group. lung morphometry demonstrated dilation of alveolar ducts and increased areas of alveolar collapse in the ketamine group. in conclusion, ketamine did not act at the airway level but acted at the lung periphery increasing mechanical inhomogeneities possibly resulting from dilation of distal airways and alveolar collapse.
Respiratory mechanics and morphometric changes during anesthesia with ketamine in normal rats
Alves-Neto O.,Tavares P.,Rocco P.R.M.,Zin W.A.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2001,
Abstract: Ketamine is believed to reduce airway and pulmonary tissue resistance. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of ketamine on the resistive, elastic and viscoelastic/inhomogeneous mechanical properties of the respiratory system, lungs and chest wall, and to relate the mechanical data to findings from histological lung analysis in normal animals. Fifteen adult male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to two groups: control (N = 7) and ketamine (N = 8). All animals were sedated (diazepam, 5 mg, ip) and anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (20 mg/kg, ip) or ketamine (30 mg/kg, ip). The rats were paralyzed and ventilated mechanically. Ketamine increased lung viscoelastic/inhomogeneous pressure (26%) compared to the control group. Dynamic and static elastances were similar in both groups, but the difference was greater in the ketamine than in the control group. Lung morphometry demonstrated dilation of alveolar ducts and increased areas of alveolar collapse in the ketamine group. In conclusion, ketamine did not act at the airway level but acted at the lung periphery increasing mechanical inhomogeneities possibly resulting from dilation of distal airways and alveolar collapse.
Involvement of calcium in pain and antinociception
Prado, W.A.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2001000400003
Abstract: calcium ions are widely recognized to play a fundamental role in the regulation of several biological processes. transient changes in cytoplasmic calcium ion concentration represent a key step for neurotransmitter release and the modulation of cell membrane excitability. evidence has accumulated for the involvement of calcium ions also in nociception and antinociception, including the analgesic effects produced by opioids. the combination of opioids with drugs able to interfere with calcium ion functions in neurons has been pointed out as a useful alternative for safer clinical pain management. alternatively, drugs that reduce the flux of calcium ions into neurons have been indicated as analgesic alternatives to opioids. this article reviews the manners by which calcium ions penetrate cell membranes and the changes in these mechanisms caused by opioids and calcium antagonists regarding nociceptive and antinociceptive events.
Speech Signal Compression Using 2D Ridgelet Transform
W.A. Jassim
Asian Journal of Information Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Speech Coding or Speech Compression is the field concerned with obtaining compact digital representations of voice signals for the purpose of efficient transmission or storage. This study presents new method for speech compression techniques using new mathematical transform, namely, the 2D Ridgelet Transform. Recently in last years, this new transform is widely used in applications of image signal processing like image enhancement, image compressions and other applications. The mathematical results of this paper give us good quality reconstructed speech signal after compressed with different compression ratios as shown in next pages.
Estimations of NPK in Zero-Tillage Soils Post Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) Croppings in Two Locations in Southwestern Nigeria
W.A. Molindo
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Field studies were carried out in 2 different soils (Alfisol and Ultisol) occupying Ajibode in Ibadan between latitude 07°01 and longitude 03°531E and Ikorodu in Lagos between latitude 6° and 71N and longitude 3 and 4°E, respectively in Southwestern Nigeria. To estimate NPK in zero-tillage soils after harvesting 2 croppings of soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr). With the aims of investigating this leguminous crop its potential to either increase or decrease these nutrients in different soils when cropped without inorganic fertilizer applications. The zero-tillage concept was introduced because it is assumed to encourage soil conservation in these soils suspected to be erosion prone. The NPK were used as test nutrients because of their significant to crop yields and to validate the zero-tillage practice, which was expected to reduce the depletion of NPK that are easily leached in these soils. The initial routine soil analysis before soybean croppings showed that both soils had low NPK content, when compared to critical levels for Southwestern Nigeria. The estimated NPK of both soils after harvesting the first and second soybean croppings, respectively showed increases of these nutrients when compared to initial values before the croppings. However, the Alfisol had higher values than the Ultisol. This might be related to a probable susceptibility of these nutrients to be leached in the Ultisol more than in the Alfisol due to variabilities of their ecological zones. The location (Ikorodu in Lagos) having Ultisol experiences more rainfall (annual rainfall of about 1029 mm, with a range of 1016-1270 mm) than the Ajibode in Ibadan with 1100, with a range of 980-1200 mm. Increased NPK in both soils might also have been encouraged by remains of soybean roots parts (debris) within the soil after harvest. These act as compost of plant origin, which upon decomposition by soil microbes probably increased organic matter and through mineralization helped to increase these nutrients. Similarly, it is expected that the soybean in association with the bacteria rhizobium japonicum fixes nitrogen. This study therefore, inferred that in these soils under zero-tillage after harvesting soybean croppings there were increased NPK in both soils with a reduction in erosion. Without which the soil NPK would had been reduced due to leaching.
Church and government in Reformed perspective
W.A. Dreyer
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/hts.v61i3.472
Abstract: The new political dispensation since 1994 requires the Reformed churches in South Africa to redefine their role in society and their relationship with the government. This short journey through history helps us to understand the complexity of the relationship between the Church and the government. This article focuses on the concepts formulated by the Reformers in the 16th century, presenting the view that the revolutionary and radical way in which the Reformed concepts changed society and the government is still relevant to South Africa and opens up meaningful dialogue.
From Noyon to Geneva
W.A. Dreyer
In die Skriflig , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ids.v44i4.176
Abstract: This article contains a brief biography of John Calvin. It serves as an introduction to the publication of the Conventus Reformatus on the occasion of celebrating Calvin’s birth 500 years ago. The article follows Calvin’s life, from his birth in Noyon until his death in Geneva. The focus is on persons and events which had a substantial influence on Calvin. Calvin’s theology is discussed in other contributions in this publication.
Calvin on church and government
W.A. Dreyer
In die Skriflig , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ids.v44i4.187
Abstract: This article examines Calvin’s understanding of civil govern- ment as well as the relationship between church and govern- ment against the background of radical political change during the sixteenth century. It becomes clear that Calvin had an organic understanding of church, government and people. These three entities are interwoven and interact on the basis of the covenant and civil contract. Calvin’s approach, however, is not limited to the covenant, but has a surprising richness and diversity. He integrated theological, juristic and philosophical concepts in his understanding of the state. It is further shown that Calvin’s high regard for civil government, entrenched the corpus christianum, even though he clearly distinguished between ecclesiastical and civil governance. It is also shown that Calvin had a fundamental influence on many of the political concepts which are generally accepted within modern democra- cies.
‘n Kort kroniek van die Suid-Afrikaanse Weermag (1912-1987)
W.A. Dorning
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/17-2-421
Abstract: MET die herdenking van sy 75ste bestaansjaar kan die Suid-Afrikaanse Weermag (SAW) met trots terugkyk op 'n merkwaardige verlede. Die jong verdedigingsmag, wat slegs twee jaar na Uniewording tot stand gekom het, is reeds binne die eerste twee jaar van sy bestaan in 'n mate beproef wat straks nog nie in die geskiedenis van moderne krygsmagte ge wenaar is me. Kwalik meer as 'n jaar na sy stigting, toe dit nog grotendeels op papier bestaan het, het die Unieverdedigingsmag (UVM) opdrag ontvang om 'n geweldadige industri le staking aan die Rand te onderdruk. Enkele maande nadat die UVM sy eerste vuurproef met welslae deurloop het, het dit voor die vee! groter krisisse van 'n interne rebellie en 'n wêreldoorlog te staan gekom. Maar weer eens het die jong weermag getoon dat dit teen hierdie uitdagings opgewasse was en teen die einde van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het die UVM reeds ontwikkel tot 'n gedugte, professionele mag wat allerwe respek afgedwing het deur sy vaardigheid, dapperheid en volharding op die slagveld.
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