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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 515900 matches for " W.A.;Pontes "
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Presurgical ketoprofen, but not morphine, dipyrone, diclofenac or tenoxicam, preempts post-incisional mechanical allodynia in rats
Prado, W.A.;Pontes, R.M.C.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2002000100016
Abstract: the treatment of pain before it initiates may prevent the persistent pain-induced changes in the central nervous system that amplify pain long after the initial stimulus. the effects of pre- or postoperative intraperitoneal administration of morphine (2 to 8 mg/kg), dipyrone (40 and 80 mg/kg), diclofenac (2 to 8 mg/kg), ketoprofen (10 and 20 mg/kg), and tenoxicam (10 and 20 mg/kg) were studied in a rat model of post-incisional pain. groups of 5 to 8 male wistar rats (140-160 g) were used to test each drug dose. an incision was made on the plantar surface of a hind paw and the changes in the withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation were evaluated with von frey filaments at 1, 2, 6 and 24 h after the surgery. tenoxicam was given 12 or 6 h preoperatively, whereas the remaining drugs were given 2 h or 30 min preoperatively. postoperative drugs were all given 5 min after surgery. no drug abolished allodynia when injected before or after surgery, but thresholds were significantly higher than in control during up to 2 h following ketoprofen, 6 h following diclofenac, and 24 h following morphine, dipyrone or tenoxicam when drugs were injected postoperatively. significant differences between pre- and postoperative treatments were obtained only with ketoprofen administered 30 min before surgery. preoperative (2 h) intraplantar, but not intrathecal, ketoprofen reduced the post-incisional pain for up to 24 h after surgery. it is concluded that stimuli generated in the inflamed tissue, rather than changes in the central nervous system are relevant for the persistence of pain in the model of post-incisional pain.
Presurgical ketoprofen, but not morphine, dipyrone, diclofenac or tenoxicam, preempts post-incisional mechanical allodynia in rats
Prado W.A.,Pontes R.M.C.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2002,
Abstract: The treatment of pain before it initiates may prevent the persistent pain-induced changes in the central nervous system that amplify pain long after the initial stimulus. The effects of pre- or postoperative intraperitoneal administration of morphine (2 to 8 mg/kg), dipyrone (40 and 80 mg/kg), diclofenac (2 to 8 mg/kg), ketoprofen (10 and 20 mg/kg), and tenoxicam (10 and 20 mg/kg) were studied in a rat model of post-incisional pain. Groups of 5 to 8 male Wistar rats (140-160 g) were used to test each drug dose. An incision was made on the plantar surface of a hind paw and the changes in the withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation were evaluated with Von Frey filaments at 1, 2, 6 and 24 h after the surgery. Tenoxicam was given 12 or 6 h preoperatively, whereas the remaining drugs were given 2 h or 30 min preoperatively. Postoperative drugs were all given 5 min after surgery. No drug abolished allodynia when injected before or after surgery, but thresholds were significantly higher than in control during up to 2 h following ketoprofen, 6 h following diclofenac, and 24 h following morphine, dipyrone or tenoxicam when drugs were injected postoperatively. Significant differences between pre- and postoperative treatments were obtained only with ketoprofen administered 30 min before surgery. Preoperative (2 h) intraplantar, but not intrathecal, ketoprofen reduced the post-incisional pain for up to 24 h after surgery. It is concluded that stimuli generated in the inflamed tissue, rather than changes in the central nervous system are relevant for the persistence of pain in the model of post-incisional pain.
Involvement of calcium in pain and antinociception
Prado, W.A.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2001000400003
Abstract: calcium ions are widely recognized to play a fundamental role in the regulation of several biological processes. transient changes in cytoplasmic calcium ion concentration represent a key step for neurotransmitter release and the modulation of cell membrane excitability. evidence has accumulated for the involvement of calcium ions also in nociception and antinociception, including the analgesic effects produced by opioids. the combination of opioids with drugs able to interfere with calcium ion functions in neurons has been pointed out as a useful alternative for safer clinical pain management. alternatively, drugs that reduce the flux of calcium ions into neurons have been indicated as analgesic alternatives to opioids. this article reviews the manners by which calcium ions penetrate cell membranes and the changes in these mechanisms caused by opioids and calcium antagonists regarding nociceptive and antinociceptive events.
Speech Signal Compression Using 2D Ridgelet Transform
W.A. Jassim
Asian Journal of Information Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Speech Coding or Speech Compression is the field concerned with obtaining compact digital representations of voice signals for the purpose of efficient transmission or storage. This study presents new method for speech compression techniques using new mathematical transform, namely, the 2D Ridgelet Transform. Recently in last years, this new transform is widely used in applications of image signal processing like image enhancement, image compressions and other applications. The mathematical results of this paper give us good quality reconstructed speech signal after compressed with different compression ratios as shown in next pages.
Estimations of NPK in Zero-Tillage Soils Post Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) Croppings in Two Locations in Southwestern Nigeria
W.A. Molindo
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Field studies were carried out in 2 different soils (Alfisol and Ultisol) occupying Ajibode in Ibadan between latitude 07°01 and longitude 03°531E and Ikorodu in Lagos between latitude 6° and 71N and longitude 3 and 4°E, respectively in Southwestern Nigeria. To estimate NPK in zero-tillage soils after harvesting 2 croppings of soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr). With the aims of investigating this leguminous crop its potential to either increase or decrease these nutrients in different soils when cropped without inorganic fertilizer applications. The zero-tillage concept was introduced because it is assumed to encourage soil conservation in these soils suspected to be erosion prone. The NPK were used as test nutrients because of their significant to crop yields and to validate the zero-tillage practice, which was expected to reduce the depletion of NPK that are easily leached in these soils. The initial routine soil analysis before soybean croppings showed that both soils had low NPK content, when compared to critical levels for Southwestern Nigeria. The estimated NPK of both soils after harvesting the first and second soybean croppings, respectively showed increases of these nutrients when compared to initial values before the croppings. However, the Alfisol had higher values than the Ultisol. This might be related to a probable susceptibility of these nutrients to be leached in the Ultisol more than in the Alfisol due to variabilities of their ecological zones. The location (Ikorodu in Lagos) having Ultisol experiences more rainfall (annual rainfall of about 1029 mm, with a range of 1016-1270 mm) than the Ajibode in Ibadan with 1100, with a range of 980-1200 mm. Increased NPK in both soils might also have been encouraged by remains of soybean roots parts (debris) within the soil after harvest. These act as compost of plant origin, which upon decomposition by soil microbes probably increased organic matter and through mineralization helped to increase these nutrients. Similarly, it is expected that the soybean in association with the bacteria rhizobium japonicum fixes nitrogen. This study therefore, inferred that in these soils under zero-tillage after harvesting soybean croppings there were increased NPK in both soils with a reduction in erosion. Without which the soil NPK would had been reduced due to leaching.
Church and government in Reformed perspective
W.A. Dreyer
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/hts.v61i3.472
Abstract: The new political dispensation since 1994 requires the Reformed churches in South Africa to redefine their role in society and their relationship with the government. This short journey through history helps us to understand the complexity of the relationship between the Church and the government. This article focuses on the concepts formulated by the Reformers in the 16th century, presenting the view that the revolutionary and radical way in which the Reformed concepts changed society and the government is still relevant to South Africa and opens up meaningful dialogue.
From Noyon to Geneva
W.A. Dreyer
In die Skriflig , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ids.v44i4.176
Abstract: This article contains a brief biography of John Calvin. It serves as an introduction to the publication of the Conventus Reformatus on the occasion of celebrating Calvin’s birth 500 years ago. The article follows Calvin’s life, from his birth in Noyon until his death in Geneva. The focus is on persons and events which had a substantial influence on Calvin. Calvin’s theology is discussed in other contributions in this publication.
Calvin on church and government
W.A. Dreyer
In die Skriflig , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ids.v44i4.187
Abstract: This article examines Calvin’s understanding of civil govern- ment as well as the relationship between church and govern- ment against the background of radical political change during the sixteenth century. It becomes clear that Calvin had an organic understanding of church, government and people. These three entities are interwoven and interact on the basis of the covenant and civil contract. Calvin’s approach, however, is not limited to the covenant, but has a surprising richness and diversity. He integrated theological, juristic and philosophical concepts in his understanding of the state. It is further shown that Calvin’s high regard for civil government, entrenched the corpus christianum, even though he clearly distinguished between ecclesiastical and civil governance. It is also shown that Calvin had a fundamental influence on many of the political concepts which are generally accepted within modern democra- cies.
‘n Kort kroniek van die Suid-Afrikaanse Weermag (1912-1987)
W.A. Dorning
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/17-2-421
Abstract: MET die herdenking van sy 75ste bestaansjaar kan die Suid-Afrikaanse Weermag (SAW) met trots terugkyk op 'n merkwaardige verlede. Die jong verdedigingsmag, wat slegs twee jaar na Uniewording tot stand gekom het, is reeds binne die eerste twee jaar van sy bestaan in 'n mate beproef wat straks nog nie in die geskiedenis van moderne krygsmagte ge wenaar is me. Kwalik meer as 'n jaar na sy stigting, toe dit nog grotendeels op papier bestaan het, het die Unieverdedigingsmag (UVM) opdrag ontvang om 'n geweldadige industri le staking aan die Rand te onderdruk. Enkele maande nadat die UVM sy eerste vuurproef met welslae deurloop het, het dit voor die vee! groter krisisse van 'n interne rebellie en 'n wêreldoorlog te staan gekom. Maar weer eens het die jong weermag getoon dat dit teen hierdie uitdagings opgewasse was en teen die einde van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het die UVM reeds ontwikkel tot 'n gedugte, professionele mag wat allerwe respek afgedwing het deur sy vaardigheid, dapperheid en volharding op die slagveld.
A concise history of the South African Defence Force (1912-1987)
W.A. Dorning
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/17-2-420
Abstract: As the SA Defence Force celebrates its 75th anniversary, it can look back with pride at a truly remarkable history. Established just two years after Union, the fledging force was to be severely tested within the first two years of its existence to a degree perhaps unparalleled in the history of modern armies. Just over a year after its formation, when it still existed more on paper than in fact, the Union Defence Force (UDF) was called upon to suppress a violent industrial strike on the Reef. Having passed its first test with flying colours, the UDF was confronted a few months later by the far more serious crises of internal rebellion and World War. Once again, however, the young organization proved equal to the occasion, and by the end of the Great War the UDF had developed into a battle-hardened, professional force respected the world over for its prowess, courage and endurance in the field.
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