Abstract:
Quasi-elastic scattering of the vector bosons W and Z is a sensitive probe of the details of electroweak symmetry breaking, and a key process at future lepton colliders. We discuss the limitations of a model-independent effective-theory approach and describe the extension to a class of Simplified Models that is applicable to all energies in a quantitative way, and enables realistic Monte-Carlo simulations. The framework has been implemented in the Monte-Carlo event generator WHIZARD.

Abstract:
In this contribution to the Snowmass process 2013 (which is a preliminary version of [1]) we give a brief review of how new physics could enter in the electroweak (EW) sector of the Standard Model (SM). This new physics, if it is directly accessible at low energies, can be parameterized by explicit resonances having certain quantum numbers. The extreme case is the decoupling limit where those resonances are very heavy and leave only traces in the form of deviations in the SM couplings. Translations are given into higher-dimensional operators leading to such deviations. As long as such resonances are introduced without a UV-complete theory behind it, these models suffer from unitarity violation of perturbative scattering amplitudes. We show explicitly how theoretically sane descriptions could be achieved by using a unitarization prescription that allows a correct description of such a resonance without specifying a UV-complete model.

Abstract:
For points in SUSY parameter space where the sneutrino is lighter than the lightest chargino and next-to-lightest neutralino, its direct mass determination from sneutrino pair production process at e+e- collider is impossible since it decays invisibly. In such a scenario the sneutrino can be discovered and its mass determined from measurements of two-body decays of charginos produced in pairs at the ILC. Using the event generator WHIZARD we study the prospects of measuring sneutrino properties in a realistic ILC environment. In our analysis we include beamstrahlung, initial state radiation, a complete account of reducible backgrounds from SM and SUSY processes, and a complete matrix-element calculation of the SUSY signal which encompasses all irreducible background and interference contributions. We also simulate photon induced background processes using exact matrix elements. Radiation effects and the cuts to reduce background strongly modify the edges of the lepton energy spectra from which the sneutrino and chargino mass are determined. We discuss possible approaches to measure the sneutrino mass with optimal precision.

Abstract:
Important concerns about the consequences of climate change for India are the potential impact on tropical cyclones and the monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch Basin) as an indicator of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the Late Oligocene warming period (~27–24 Ma). Direct proxies providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this time are important since it corresponds to a major climate reorganization in Asia that ends up with the establishment of the modern Asian monsoon system in the Early Miocene. The vast shell concentrations comprise a mixture of parautochthonous and allochthonous assemblages indicating storm-generated sediment transport from deep to shallow water during third-order sea level highstands. Three distinct skeletal assemblages were distinguished each recording a relative storm wave base depth. (1) A shallow storm wave base is shown by nearshore mollusks, corals and Clypeaster echinoids; (2) an intermediate storm wave base depth is indicated by lepidocyclind foraminifers, Eupatagus echinoids and corallinaceans; and (3) a deep storm wave base is represented by an Amussiopecten–Schizaster echinoid assemblage. Vertical changes in these skeletal associations give evidence of gradually increasing tropical cyclone intensity in line with third-order sea level rise. The intensity of cyclones over the Arabian Sea is primarily linked to the strength of the Indian monsoon. Therefore and since the topographic boundary conditions for the Indian monsoon already existed in the Late Oligocene, the longer-term cyclone trends were interpreted to reflect monsoon variability during the initiation of the Asian monsoon system. Our results imply an active monsoon over the Eastern Tethys at ~26 Ma followed by a period of monsoon weakening during the peak of the Late Oligocene global warming (~24 Ma).

Abstract:
We review the current status of the WHIZARD event generator. We discuss, in particular, recent improvements and features that are relevant for simulating the physics program at a future Linear Collider.

Abstract:
Weak vector-boson W,Z scattering at high energy probes the Higgs sector and is most sensitive to any new physics associated with electroweak symmetry breaking. We show that in the presence of the 125 GeV Higgs boson, a conventional effective-theory analysis fails for this class of processes. We propose to extrapolate the effective-theory ansatz by an extension of the parameter-free K-matrix unitarization prescription, which we denote as direct T-matrix unitarization. We generalize this prescription to arbitrary non-perturbative models and describe the implementation, as an asymptotically consistent reference model matched to the low-energy effective theory. We present exemplary numerical results for full six-fermion processes at the LHC.

Abstract:
We study in a bottom-up approach the theoretically consistent description of additional resonances in the electroweak sector beyond the discovered Higgs boson as simplified models. We focus on scalar and tensor resonances. Our formalism is suited for strongly coupled models, but can also be applied to weakly interacting theories. The spurious degrees of freedom of tensor resonances that would lead to bad high-energy behavior are treated using a generalization of the Stuckelberg formalism. We calculate scattering amplitudes for vector-boson and Higgs boson pairs. The high-energy region is regulated by the T-matrix unitarization procedure, leading to amplitudes that are well behaved on the whole phase space. We present numerical results for complete partonic processes that involve resonant vector-boson scattering, for the current and upcoming runs of LHC.

Abstract:
We present a new algorithm for an analytic parton shower. While the algorithm for the final-state shower has been known in the literature, the construction of an initial-state shower along these lines is new. The aim is to have a parton shower algorithm for which the full analytic form of the probability distribution for all branchings is known. For these parton shower algorithms it is therefore possible to calculate the probability for a given event to be generated, providing the potential to reweight the event after the simulation. We develop the algorithm for this shower including scale choices and angular ordering. Merging to matrix elements is used to describe high-energy tails of distributions correctly. Finally, we compare our results with those of other parton showers and with experimental data from LEP, Tevatron and LHC.

Abstract:
We investigate the potential of the ILC for measuring anomalous quartic gauge couplings, both in production of three electroweak gauge bosons as well as in vector boson scattering. Any new physics that could possibly couple to the electroweak gauge bosons is classified according to its spin and isospin quantum numbers and parameterized in terms of resonance parameters like masses, widths, magnetic moment form factors etc. By a maximum log-likelihood fit, the discovery reach of a 1 TeV ILC for scalar, vector and tensor resonances is examined.

Abstract:
We discuss the properties of light pseudoscalar particles, the so-called pseudoaxions, within Little Higgs models, focusing on their phenomenology at the ILC. We especially discuss a method of how to distinguish between the two basic classes of Little Higgs models, the product and simple group models, by a specific production channel and decay mode. These are strictly forbidden in the product group models.